Uriankhai

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Uriankhai
Mongol Empire c.1207.png
Mongol Empire c 1207, Uriankhai and their neighbours
Regions with significant populations
 Mongolia 26,654 (2010 census)[1]
Languages
Oirat, Mongolian
Religion
Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism , Atheism
Related ethnic groups
Oirads, Mongols
Map of the Jütgelt Gün's hoshuu (banner) of the Altai Uriankhai in western Mongolia.
Tuvans or Tagnu Uriankhai

Uriankhai[2] (Chinese: 乌梁海; pinyin: Wūliánghǎi) or Wuliangha (Chinese: 兀良哈; pinyin: Wùliánghā) is a term applied to several neighboring ethnic groups such as Altai Uriankhai, Tuvans and Yakuts. The name is mentioned several times in the Secret History of the Mongols.

History[edit]

The name "Uriankhai' means "uria" (motto, war motto) and khan (lord) in Mongolian language. The Mongols applied Mongolian Uriankhai name to all tribes of Forest People. This name has been applied to Tuvans later. They were belonged to the Darligin Mongols.

In the beginning of the Mongol Empire (1206-1368), the Uriankhai were located in central Mongolia.

In the 13th century (Yuan Dynasty) Rashid-al-Din Hamadani described the Forest Uriyangkhai as extremely isolated Siberian forest people living in birchbark tents and hunting on skis. Despite the similarity in name to the famous Uriyankhan clan of the Mongols, Rashid states that they had no connection.[3] During the Ming Dynasty, the Jurchens were known among the Chinese as "forest people" (using the Jurchen word, Woji), and this connotation later transferred to the Chinese rendering of Uriankhai, Wulianghai.[4]

In the mid 14th century, they lived in Liaoyang province of modern China. In 1375, Nahacu, Uriankhai leader of the Northern Yuan in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong with aims of restoring the Mongols to power. Although he continued to hold southern Manchuria, Nahacu finally surrendered to Ming China in 1387–88 after a successful diplomacy of the latter.[5] After the rebellion of the northern Uriankhai people, they were conquered by Dayan Khan in 1538 and mostly annexed by the northern Khalkha. Batmunkh Dayan Khan dissolved Uriankhai tumen.

Second group of Uriankhai (Uriankhai of the Khentii Mountains) lived in central Mongolia and they started moving to the Altai Mountains in beginning 16th century.[6] Some groups migrated from the Khentii Mountains to Khövsgöl Province during the course of the Northern Yuan Dynasty (1368-1691).[4]

By the early 17th century the term Uriankhai was a general Mongolian term for all the dispersed bands to the north-west, whether Samoyed, Turkic, or Mongolian in origin.[7] In 1757 the Qing Dynasty organized its far northern frontier into a series of Uriankhai banners: the Khövsgöl Nuur Uriyangkhai, Tagna Uriankhai, Kemchik, Salchak, and Tozhu (all Tuvans) and Altan-nuur Uriyangkhai. Tuvans in Mongolia are called Monchoogo Uriankhai (cf. Tuvan Monchak < Kazakh monshak "necklace") by Mongolians. Another group of Uriankhai in Mongolia (in Bayan-Ölgii and Khovd aimags) are called Altai Uriankhai. These were apparently attached to the Oirats. A third group of Mongolian Uriankhai were one of the 6 tumens of Dayan Khan in Eastern Mongolia. These last two Uriankhai groups are said to be descendants of the Uriankhan tribe from which came Jelme and his more famous cousin Subutai. Clan name of the Altai Uriankhai, Khövsgöl Uriankhai and Tuvans are different. There are no Turkic and Samoyedic clan among Altai Uriankhais and Khövsgöl Uriankhais.

A variation of the name, Uraŋxai, was an old name for the Sakha.,[8] but they are not Uriankhais and it was only alternative name of the Yakuts. Russian Pavel Nebolsin documented the Urankhu clan of Volga Kalmyks in the 1850s.[9] The existence of the Uriankhai was documented by the Koreans, who called them Orangkae (오랑캐, "savages"), especially in context of their attacks against the Sinitic realm in the 14th and 15th centuries.[4]

Some of Uriankhais still living in the Khentii Mountains.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ National Census 2010
  2. ^ Mongolian term; also rendered "Uriyangkhai", "Urianhai", or "Uryangkhai"
  3. ^ C.P.Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p.9
  4. ^ a b c Crossley, Pamela Kyle (December 1985). "An Introduction to the Qing Foundation Myth". Late Imperial China 6 (2): 13–24. doi:10.1353/late.1985.0016. 
  5. ^ Willard J. Peterson, John King Fairbank, Denis Twitchett- The Cambridge History of China, vol7, p.158
  6. ^ A.Ochir, Ts.Baasandorj "Custom of the Oirat wedding". 2005
  7. ^ C.P.Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia, p.9
  8. ^ POPPE, Nicholas (1969). "Review of Menges "The Turkic Languages and Peoples"". Central Asiatic Journal 12 (4): 330. 
  9. ^ Mänchen-Helfen, Otto (1992) [1931]. Journey to Tuva. Los Angeles: Ethnographic Press University of Southern California. p. 180. ISBN 1-878986-04-X.