Ligovo

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Ligovo (Russian: Лигово) is a historical area of the federal city of Saint Petersburg (Russia). It is located in the southern part of the city on the road leading to Petergof.

A settlement of east Slavs existed on the site of modern Ligovo from the 8th-9th centuries CE.[citation needed] Since then, Ligovo has been a court manor, an exemplary farm, a town, and a battleground during World War II. Currently, it is a suburb of Saint Petersburg, mostly composed of 1960s buildings. It is part of Uritsk Municipal Okrug, Krasnoselsky District.

History[edit]

Liiha is the name of the Izhorian village which is mentioned for the first time in annals named Vodskaja pjatina in 1500.

The name is derived from a small river previously called Liiha (from Finnish: Liiha: dirt, slush). Nowadays this is called the Dudergofka river. The settlement is shown on Swedish maps of 15th century as "Liihala" or "Liihankulla".[1]

Move of the Swedish armies on territory of Ligovo in 17th century

For over 1,000 years the East Slavs have lived peacefully along the Neva River and areas on the southern coast of gulf of Finland alongside the less numerous local Finno-Ugrian tribes. From the 12th century these territories were part of the large feudal state of the Northwest of Russia — Lord of Great Novgorod (Russian: Господин Великий Новгород). By the 15th century, Novgorod territory became part of Russian centralised state.

At the beginning of a 17th-century, the expanding Swedish Empire spread to the southern coast of gulf of Finland. However following the Great Northern War, Russian victory in 1721, ensured the return of these territories to the Russian crown.[2]

Grotte in garden (architect - M. A. Makarov) in pfoto of 1900th years 59°50′04″N 30°11′15″E / 59.83444°N 30.18750°E / 59.83444; 30.18750. From construction there was only a hill

Grande and Manor of count Orlov, Buxhoeveden, Kushelev[edit]

In 1703 Peter I made Saint Petersburg his capital and Ligovo became a suburb. During the 1710s the emperor became involved in the development of the area: first, in 1712, he created an imperial farm in order to provide the imperial household with food - this included a dairy farm and kitchen gardens. Then in 1715 he dammed the river, creating a pond and mill which survived until war damage in 1941.[2]

See also: Ligovsky pond

Simultaneously the Ligovsky channel was dug which drained of water from the Dudergofka and the artificial lake, and so providing water for Ligovo.[2]

Many prominent people visited Logovo during this period:

Map of Ligovo with dam, lake, village and railway station in 1900s
Stone booking office building in begin of 20th century

By the middle of 18th century the farm was extended to include an orchard. The mill dam was near to the Peterhofskoye shosse and the small river has spread, having formed a pond stretched to a modern line of the railway (approximately 1,7 kilometres).[1]

In 1765, Russian empress Catherine II also built Gatchina Grange and House Kurakinikh, and presented the village to Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov (along with Kipen, Shchungurovo, Ropsha); she often visited him here.

After Grigory Orlov's death in 1783, Ligovo was inherited by its pupil Natalya Alexeyeva. She was the wife of Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden, Orlov's aide-de-camp. The manor was called Buxhoeveden during this period.[1]

In the 1840s, the manor of Buxhoeveden has passed to count G. G. Kushelev (junior); it has continued useful agricultural activity of count Orlov, and Ligovo became an exemplary agricultural manor.

After Kushelev's death the manor gradually falls into decay. Has strengthened this process of dissociation the country earths as a result of the reforms of 1861.

In 1877 in buildings near a mill there was an attempt to arrange sanatorium.

In 1879 the most part of a manor has passed to Kurikov's merchant.

The country-industrial stage of history of settlement has begun, and soon to Ligovo the Baltic railway has been spent.[1]

Suburb of Petersburg[edit]

The settlement became one of known country suburbs of capital.

Local residents sold to summer residents dairy products, berries, fruit, greens. Ligovo abounded with the big variety of summer residences — from own, expensive, enough intricate to the usual cheap country houses which are handed over by owners for summer.

For the account of affinity of Ligovo to Saint Petersburg and convenience of the message with it became more active building of constant summer residences.

As soon as the Saint Petersburg streets will be cleared of snow ..., from different directions Saint Petersburg — in spite of neither on a cold, nor on absence of the correct summer message with summer residences — chains of carts with furniture and different House stuff will be pulled in a direction for a city.[1]

Ligovo grew has built up with country quarters territory from the Baltic railway to the Peterhofskoye shosse.

Electric illumination and the water drain have been spent. Summer residences were under construction were various styles — there were towers turrets, verandahs, colour glasses. Process engineer K. M. Polezhaev and his son, the valid councillor of state B. K. Polezhayev became new heroes of Ligovo. Till now the park, and a pond local hit fur-trees name Polezhaevses.[1]

In the beginning of the 20th century in area was the Lutheranism centre — to ligovsky arrival colonies of Buksgevden and Panovo concerned.[3] Ligovo gradually developed and by 1917 was a satellite town.

After the October Revolution, in 1918 the city has been renamed in Uritsk in honour of revolutionary and politician Moisei Uritsky.

In 1925, town status was officially granted to it.

The decree of Presidium of the Supreme body of RSFSR from November, 27th, 1938 forms working settlement Ligovo.

Housing estates of Knyazhevo, Krasnenkoye, III Internatsionala, settlements are included Dachnoye, Ulyanka, Novoznamenka, Kirovsky working small town, 3rd zhilgorodok Eksportlesa, Stachek street from border of Kirov District of Leningrad, village Ligovo, factory «PishMash» territory.

Move of the German armies on territory of Ligovo on December, 5th, 1941

Ligovo after 1945[edit]

In 1941-1945 of the Soviet Union and Germany participated in Second World War.

Ligovo has entered into territory on which took place fights for Leningrad (Siege of Leningrad operation).

Since December 1941 till January, 1944 on settlement territory there passed a front line. The essential part of the population has been taken out by German armies to a concentration camp «Dulag 154»,[4] the part of inhabitants has been evacuated by the Soviet armies to Leningrad.

All buildings and constructions have been destroyed. At deviation the German armies have put out of commission bridges, automobile and railways road. Besides, the set of objects has been mined. So, for example from station Dachnoye to station Ligovo sappers have taken and have neutralised minefields in density of 1500 pieces on road kilometre.[5]

After war the city territory has been completely built up. On January, 16th, 1963 Uritsk was a part of a city of Leningrad. It was included into Kirovsky District, and in April 1973 it was transferred to Krasnoselsky District. In the 1960s-1970s, all territory of Ligovo has been anew planned and built up by modern many-storeyed houses. Now the territory of Ligovo is a part of Uritsk Municipal Okrug

Notable natives[edit]

Mathilde Kschessinska was the first Russian prima ballerina assoluta in the world. Was born in Ligovo on 31 August [O.S. 19 August] 1872. Russian ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th century Anna Pavlova was born in Ligovo.

Monuments[edit]

Obelisk in memory of defenders of a city near to Ligovsky overpass.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g N. A., Perevezentseva (2004). По Балтийской железной дороге от Петербурга до Гатчины [On the Baltic railway from Petersburg to Gatchina] (in Russian). Russian: Перевезенцева Н. А.. Ostrov Russian: Остров. ISBN 5-94500-007-8. Retrieved 2009-06-30. 
  2. ^ a b c Russian: Аминов Д., D. Aminov (1990). "Лигово - Урицк" [Ligovo-Uritsk]. Dialog Russian: Диалог (in Russian) (Leningrad obkom CPSU Russian: Ленинградский обком КПСС). Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  3. ^ "Российские немцы" [Russian Germans]. books of reference Russian: энциклопедии (in Russian). www.rdinfo.ru. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-06-30. 
  4. ^ "Дулаг-154" [Dulag 154]. Hall of fighting glory (Russian: Зал боевой славы) (in Russian). Vysokokljuchevaja school (Russian: Высокоключевая школа). Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  5. ^ Konarev, N. S. Russian: Н. С. Конарев. Железнодорожники в Великой Отечественной войне 1941–1945 [Railwaymen in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945] (in Russian). Retrieved 2009-06-30.