|Nickname(s): Cradle of Water, Paris of Iran|
|• Mayor||Hazratpoor (حضرت پور) |
|Elevation||1,332 m (4,370 ft)|
|• Population Rank in Iran||7th|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+3:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||IRDT (UTC+4:30)|
|Welcome to Bakeri City|
Urmia[nb 1][nb 2] (pronounced [oɾumiˈje] ( )) (Azerbaijani:اورمیّه ,ﺍﻭﺭﻣﻮ ,Urmiyə ,Urmu ; Persian:ارومیه. Kurdish: Ûrmiye, Wirmê, or Urmê; Aramaic: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; Armenian: Ուրմիա) is a city in and the capital of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Urmia is situated at an altitude of 1,330 m above sea level, and is located along the Shahar Chay river (City River) on the Urmia Plain. Lake Urmia lies to the east of the city, with the mountainous Turkish border to the west.
Urmia is the 10th most populated city in Iran. At the 2012 census, its population was 1,265,721 with 700,000 households. The city's inhabitants are predominantly Azeris, who live alongside minorities of Kurds, Assyrians, Jews and Armenians.
The city is the trade center for a fertile agricultural region where fruit (especially apple and grape) and tobacco are grown. An important town by the 9th century, Urmia was seized by the Seljuk Turks (1184), and later occupied a number of times by the Ottoman Turks. Urmia was the seat of the first U.S. Christian mission in Iran (1835). Around AD 1900, Christians made up more than 40% of the city's population, however, most of the Christians fled in 1918 as a result of the Persian Campaign during World War I and the Armenian and Assyrian Genocides.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Parks and touristic centers
- 6 Sport
- 7 Ethnography
- 8 Culture
- 9 Consulates
- 10 Education
- 11 Media
- 12 Infrastructure
- 13 Notable people
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
The name Urmia derives from the Kingdom of Urartu. This is due to Urartian accredited fortresses and countless artifacts found spanning across Azerbaijan and into of what is today the Azerbaijan province of Iran denoting an Urartian etymology. The city's Armenian population also complements the idea of an Urartian origin. According to Vladimir Minorsky, there have been villages in the Urmia plain some 2000 years B.C., with their civilization under the influence of the Kingdom of Van. The excavations of the ancient ruins near Urmia led to the discovery of utensils that date back to 2000 years B.C.. In the ancient times, the west bank of Urmia lake was called Gilzan, and in the ninth century B.C. an independent government ruled there which later joined the Urartu or Mana empire; in the eighth century B.C., the area was a vassal of the Asuzh government until it joined the Median Empire after its formation. Richard Nelson Frye also suggested a Urartian origin for the name.
T. Burrow connected the origin of the name Urmia to Indo-Iranian urmi- "wave" and urmya- "undulating, wavy", which is due to the local Assyrian folk etymology for the name which related "Mia" to Aramaic Syriac meaning "water." Hence Urmia simply means 'Watertown" — a befitting name for a city situated by a lake and surrounded by rivers, would be the cradle of water. This also suggests, that the Assyrians referred to the Urartian influence in Urmia as ancestors of the inhabitants of the Sumerian city state Ur, referenced Biblically as "Ur of the Chaldees". Further association of the Urmia/Urartian/Ur etymology from the Assyrian folk legend is the fact that the Urartian language is also referenced as the Chaldean language, a standardized simplification of Neo-Assyrian cuneiform, which originated from the accreditation to Urartian chief god Ḫaldi or Khaldi. Thus the root of Urmia is an Assyrian reference to the etymology of the Urartu/Ur Kingdoms and the Aramaic word "Mia" meaning water, which as T. Burrow noted, referenced the city that is situated by a lake and surrounded by rivers.
As of 1921, Urmia was also called, Urumia and Urmi. During the Pahlavi Dynasty (1925–1979), the city was called Rezaiyeh[nb 3] (Persian: رضائیه) after Rezā Shāh, the dynasty's founder, whose name ultimately derives from the Islamic concept of rida via the Eighth Imam in Twelver Shia Islam, Ali al-Ridha.
According to historical documents, the western part of the Urmia Lake has been a center of attention of the prehistoric nations, the evidence of which are the numerous ancient hills in the area, such as Gouy Tapeh, 6 km (3.7 mi) southeast of the lake which competes with the oldest hills of Mesopotamia, Asia the Minor, and the Iranian Plateau.
The claim that the area was the birthplace of Zoroaster (also called Zarahustra) is disputed because most experts agree Zoroaster was most likely born in the eastern part of Greater Iran, or even the burial site of one or two of the Zoroastrian priests who allegedly traveled to Bethlehem for Christ’s birth indicate that the city has been one of the largest religious and scientific centers of the ancient times.
The Columbia Encyclopedia mentions that Urmia was an important town in the region during the 9th century.
The Ottoman Turks made several incursions into the city, but the Safavids were soon able to regain control over the area. The first monarch of Iran's Qajar dynasty, Agha Muhammad Khan, was crowned in Urmia in 1795.
Due to the presence of substantial Christian minority at the end of the 19th century, Urmia was also chosen as a site of the first American Christian mission in Iran in 1835. Another mission soon became operational in nearby Tabriz as well. During World War I the population was estimated as 30,000 by Dr. Caujole, a quarter were Assyrians and 1,000 were Jews.
During the 19th century, the region became the center of a short lived Assyrian renaissance with many books and newspapers being published in Syriac. Urmia was also the seat of a Chaldean diocese.
At the beginning of the First World War tens of thousands of Assyrians and Armenians from Anatolia found refuge in Urmia. The city changed hands several times between Russians and Kurds the following two years. The influx of Christian refugees and their alliance with the Russians angered the Muslims who attacked the Christian quarter in February 1918, The better armed Assyrians managed however to capture the whole city following a brief battle. The region descended into chaos again after the assassination of the Assyrian patriarch Shimun XXI Benyamin at the hands of Simko Shikak one month later. Turkish armies and Samko managed to finally take and plunder the city in June/July 1918. Thousands of Assyrians were massacred, others found refuge under British protection in Iraq.
Urmia's climate is cold semi-arid (Köppen: BSk) with cold winters, mild springs, hot dry summers and warm autumns. Precipitation is heavily concentrated in late autumn, winter, and especially spring, while summer precipitation is very scarce.
|Climate data for Urmia (Orumiyeh)|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.4
|Average high °C (°F)||2.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−22.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||30.2
|Avg. precipitation days||9.6||9.4||11.4||12.7||12||5||2.2||1.7||2.1||7.1||8.3||8.5||90|
|Avg. snowy days||8.5||7.5||3.7||0.8||0||0||0||0||0||0.3||1.5||5.5||27.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||114||132.9||169.6||197.9||268.6||344.3||364||341.2||293.1||222.3||166.4||118.7||2,733|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation|
|Source #2: NOAA (extremes, mean, snow, sun, humidity, 1961–1990) |
According to official census of 2006, the population of Urmia city is about 577,307 (with 153,570 households).
Language and people
The population is mostly made of Azerbaijanis and alongside Kurds, Assyrians and Armenian minorities. The majority of the population also can speak Persian, the official language of Iran, in addition to their own native tongue.
The majority of people are followers of Shia Islam. There are also Catholic, Protestant, Nestorian, and Orthodox Christians. The city is also home to followers of Sunni Islam, followers of the Bahá'í Faith, followers of Judaism and followers of different kinds of Sufism.
Parks and touristic centers
Urmia has many parks and touristic costal villages in the shore of Urmia Lake. The oldest park in Urmia, called Park-e Saat, was established in the first Pahlavi's era. Urmia's largest park is Ellar Bagi Park (Azerbaijani "People`s Garden") along the Shahar Chayi, or the "City River".
Lakes and Ponds:
- Urmia Lake Natural Park
- Hasanloo Lake
- Marmisho Lake
- Shahrchay ِDam
- Urmia Lake Islands
- Haft Abad
- Soole Dokel
- Dana Boğan
- Ali Pancesi
- Isti Sou
- Park-e Saat (Clock Park)
- Park-e Jangali (Jungle Park)
- Ellar Bagi (People`s Garden)
- Park-e Shahr (City Park)
- Park-e Saheli (Riverside Park)
- Park-e Shaghayegh
- Alghadir Park
- Tokhmemorghi (Oval) Park
- Ghaem Park
Touristic Costal Villages:
- Ghasemloo Valley
- Kazem Dashi Islet in Lake Urmia
- Kashtiban Village
- Imamzada Village
- Silvana Region
- Rashekan to Dash Aghol
- Kaboodan Island
Sport is an important part of Urmia's culture. The most popular sport in Urmia is volleyball. Urmia is Iran's volleyball capital,its because of ranks that Heyat Volleyball Urmia VC got in Iranian Volleyball Super League and for the great volleyball players that are in Iran men's national volleyball team and first class coaches in Iran.
The city has been home to various ethnic groups during its long history. For this reason, the demographics of the city have undergone numerous changes. Some historical documents show that at the beginning of the 20th century, the city's population had a significant Christian minority (Assyrians and Armenians). According to Macuch, and Ishaya, the city was the spiritual capital of the Assyrians from 1830 to the end of World War I by the influence of four Christian missions. Large number of the Assyrians and Armenians were killed in 1914 as result of the conflict with Ottoman forces. This led to a shift in the city's demographics. During the era of Reza Shah Pahlavi, Iranian Assyrians were invited to return to the region and several thousand did return.
Today, scholars note that there are only around 5,000 Assyrians left in the city.
- Natural History Museum – Displays the animals native to the vicinity of Urmia.
- Urmia Museum – Archaeological museum affiliated with the faculty of Shahid Beheshti University.
- Urmia Museum of Crafts and Classical Arts.
- Urmia Museum of َAntrophology.
Consulate of Turkey in Beheshti Ave., Urmia, Iran.
The first modern style school established in urmia in 1834.
Urmia was an important center for higher education approximately a century ago, indeed, medical faculty of Urmia which was built by Joseph Cochran and a team of American medical associates in 1878, is the first University of Iran. Unfortunately the faculty became shut down even before establishment of first official university of Iran, University of Tehran.
Nowadays Urmia has become a considerable educational city. The city owns state and private universities and institutes listed below.
Universities in Urmia:
|Malek Ashtar University of Technology Urmia Branch|||
|Urmia University of Medical Sciences|||
|Urmia University of Technology|||
|Islamic Azad University of Urmia|||
|Payame Noor University of Urmia|||
|Elmi Karbordi University of Urmia|||
|University College of Saba|||
|University College of Azarabadegan|||
|University College of Elm O fan|||
|University College of Kamal|||
|Shahid Beheshti Technical School|||
|Ghazi Tabatabaee Technical School|||
|The Girls Technical School of Urmia|||
|Najand Institute of Higher Education|||
|University College Afagh|||
- Central Library of Urmia
- Shahid Bahonar Library
- Library of I.R.Iran Education Ministry
- Library of Urmia Cultural and Artistical Center
- Allame Tabatabayee Library
- Library of Khane-ye-Javan
- Library of Shahid Motahhari
- Library of kanoon parvaresh fekri
- Library of Ghaem
- Library of Imam Ali
- Sedaye Urmia
Beside other minor Press that are being published regularly.
The government of Iran operates the public hospitals in the Urmia metropolitan region, some of which are aligned with medical faculties. There are also a number of private hospitals and medical centers in the city.
- Imam Khomeiny Hospital
- Motahari Hospital
- Imam Riza Hospital
- Beheshti Hospital
- Taleghani Hospital
- Fatimiye Pro-Medical Clinic
- Kosar Women's Pro-Medical Clinic
- Shafa Hospital
- Solati Hospital
- Seyedoshohada Heart Pr0-Hospital
- Gholipour Children's Pro-Hospital
- Razi Psychiatry Pro-Hospital
- 504 Artesh Hospital
- Arefian Hospital
- Azerbaijan Hospital
- Milad international medical center
- Omid Cancer Pro-Clinic
Most Urmia residents travel by car through the system of roads and highways. Urmia is also served by taxi and bus.
Urmia has taxi and public bus network. There are also some private groups, which provide services called Phone-taxi. and urmia metro lines is under the research.
The city is going to link to Iran National Railways (IRIR, Persian: رجا ).
- Safi al-Din al-Urmawi (صفی الدین اورموی): Iranian Azerbaijani 13th-century poet and musical theorist
- Heidar Amou Oghly (حیدرخان عمواوغلی): Founder of the Communist Party of Iran and the first Secretary of the Communist Party of Iran and effective activist movement constitutional
- Saeid Marouf (میر سعید معروف لكرانی): Volleyball player
- Reza Moridi (رضا مریدی): First Iranian Azerbaijani and second Iranian to be Canadian politician and legislative assembly of Canada
- Habib Mohebian (حبیب محبیان): Known as Habib, a pop musician
- Masoud Pezeshkian (مسعود پزشکیان): Minister of Health and Medical Education in the government of Mohammad Khatami
- Gholamreza Hassani (غلامرضا حسنی): Friday prayer and supreme leader's representative in West Azerbaijan Province
- Parviz Fattah (سید پرویز فتاح): Energy minister in the government of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
- Sadeg Mahsouli (صادق محصولی): State minister in the government of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
- Mehdi Bakeri and Hamid Bakeri (مهدی و حمید باکری):Iranian Azerbaijani Key figures and generals of Iran-Iraq war. Mehdi Bakeri was mayor of Urmia
- Davood Azad (داود آزاد): Musician
- Joseph Cochran: Founder of first modern medical school in Iran
- شهردار ارومیه. Urmia.ir. Retrieved on 2012-08-26.
- "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11.
- "Country Study Giude-Azerbaijanis". STRATEGIC INFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENTS-USA. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Iran-Azerbaijanis". Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1987. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Orumiyeh". Looklex Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2013-08-13.
- "Orumiye". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2013-08-13.
- Orūmīyeh – Britannica Online Encyclopædia. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-26.
- "Urmia." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 14 May. 2009
- E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, M. Th Houtsma, page 1035, 1987
- "AZERBAIJAN xii. MONUMENTS". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. AMI N.F. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Richard Nelson Frye, The history of ancient Iran, München (1984), 48-49
- The Proto-Indoaryans, by T. Burrow, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (1973), pp. 123-140, Published by: Cambridge University Press, see 139
- Ishaya, Arianne (2002). "History of Assyrins in Urmia". JAAS XVI (1).
- Sykes, Percy (1921). A History of Persia. London: Macmillan and Company. p. 67.
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Urmiah. Newadvent.org (1912-10-01). Retrieved on 2012-08-26.
- Naby, Eden (September 2007). "Theater, Language and Inter-Ethnic Exchange: Assyrian Performance before World War I Eden Naby1". Iranian Studies, 40:4. 4 40: 501–510. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Tejirian, Eleanor H.; Simon, Reeva S. (1 September 2012). Conflict, conquest, and conversion. Columbia University Press. pp. 350–351. ISBN 978-0-231-51109-4. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Atabaki, Touraj (4 September 2006). Iran and the First World War: Battleground of the Great Powers. I.B.Tauris. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-86064-964-6. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Gaunt, David; Beṯ-Şawoce, Jan (2006), Massacres, resistance, protectors: Muslim-Christian relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. 106–107, ISBN 978-1-59333-301-0
- "Oroomieh Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- 2006 census
- Iran – Azarbaijanis. Countrystudies.us. Retrieved on 2012-08-26.
- دكتر م پناهايان، مجموعه اي در چهار جلد به نام " فرهنگ جغرافياي ملي تركان ايران زمين " سال 1351
- سيري در تاريخ زبان ولهجه هاي تركي , دكتر جواد هئيت- چاپ سوم , سال1380,ص 307
- R. Macuch, A. Ishaya (1987-12-15) Assyrians in Iran. Encyclopaedia Iranica
- .Evidence in Stone and Wood: The Assyrian/Syriac History and Heritage of the Urmia Region in Iran
- صداوسيماي مركزآذربايجان غربي – صفحه اصلی. Urmia.irib.ir. Retrieved on 2012-08-26.
- صفحه اصلی
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Urmia.|
- Official website
- The Governor of West Azarbaijan Province
- Urmia Branch of Ministry of Internal Affairs