According to 2006 census on the Uruguayan diaspora in Australia, there are about 6,485 people of that origin. The majority of Uruguayans that migrated to Australia arrived in the 1960s and 1970s. It calculates that between 1963 and 1975 (when the country's economy suffered a huge drop), 180,000 Uruguayans left the country; more recently, in the years of oppressive military control (1975–1985), 150,000 Uruguayans left Uruguay. By 1989, only 16,000 of these citizens had returned to their native country. These figures combined indicate an emigration figure of approximately one-tenth the population of Uruguay.
Although in the 1990s Uruguayans constituted one of the largest groups in the total pool of immigrants to Australia originating from Latin America, they only made up a small part of Australia's Hispanic population. Most Uruguayan immigrants are based in Sydney and Melbourne.