The history of Uruguayan emigration to Australia is very recent. Before 1960, the Uruguayan living conditions were favourable, as had job opportunities, good education and good healthcare system. The few Uruguayans left the country, migrated other Hispanic countries such as Argentina. For this reason the Uruguayan emigration to Australia was very low during that period. However, after 1960, welfare in the life of Uruguay fell: This was due to the emergence of serious economic and political problems after World War II, particularly money crises and employment during the 1960s and 1970s decades. Moreover, Uruguay was ruled by an oppressive military regime. All this led to a major Uruguayan emigration, which corresponded for a large number of people who had a well-educated Professionals and the young. This migration, too, began the social security crisis. As the ageing population and young people migrating to other countries, grew the burden on the country's financial resources. In fact, is calculates that of the Uruguayan immigrants from 1963 to 1975, 17.7 percent of them were aged 14 years or younge. While 68 percent of them were between the 15 and 39 years,. Only 14.3 percent were over 40 years old. The continued employment problems of the late 1980s developed yet another impetus for the youth of Uruguay to seek employment and new lives in others country. Some of them went to Australia, but the most of Uruguayan emigrants continued to migrating in Argentina.
According to 2006 census on the Uruguayan diaspora in Australia, there are about 6,485 people of that origin. The majority of Uruguayans that migrated to Australia arrived in the 1960s and 1970s. It calculates that between 1963 and 1975 (when the country's economy suffered a huge drop), 180,000 Uruguayans left the country; more recently, in the years of oppressive military control (1975–1985), 150,000 Uruguayans left Uruguay. By 1989, only 16,000 of these citizens had returned to their native country. These figures combined indicate an emigration figure of approximately one-tenth the population of Uruguay.
Although in the 1990s Uruguayans constituted one of the largest groups in the total pool of immigrants to Australia originating from Latin America, they only made up a small part of Australia's Hispanic population. Most Uruguayan immigrants are based in Sydney and Melbourne.