|Artigas • Cayetano Alberto Silva • José Batlle y Ordóñez • Modesto Ocampo • Isabelino Gradín • China Zorrilla •Carlos Páez Vilaró • José Mujica • Lucía Topolansky • Alfredo Zitarrosa • Ruben Rada • Jaime Roos • Bárbara Mori • Jorge Drexler • Diego Forlán • Natalia Oreiro|
|3,500,000 + est.
0.049% of World population
|Regions with significant populations|
|Uruguay 3,494,382 (2009)|
|Related ethnic groups|
Uruguayan people or Uruguayans (Uruguayos in Spanish) are the citizens of the Uruguay. The country is home to people of different national origins. As a result, Uruguayans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship. Uruguay is, along with other settler societies like its neighbors Argentina and Brazil or other countries such Canada, Australia or the United States a melting pot of different peoples, with the difference that it has traditionally maintained a model that promotes cultural assimilation, hence the different cultures have been absorbed by the mainstream. Uruguay has one of the most homogeneous populations in South America with the most common ethnic backgrounds are Italian and Spanish, especially Galicians, Castilians and Basques.
Immigration waves 
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Uruguayans share a Spanish linguistic and cultural background with its neighbour country Argentina. Also, like Argentina, most Uruguayans are descended from colonial-era settlers and immigrants from Europe with almost 88% of the population being of European descent.
The majority of these are Spaniards and Italians, followed by the French, Portuguese, Germans, British (English or Scots), Armenians, Romanians, Africans, Irish, Swiss, Russians, Poles, Croats, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Estonians, Latvians, Scandinavians, Dutch, Austrians, Greeks, Turkish, Arab mainly Lebanese and Syrians, and smaller number of Georgians. There are also smaller numbers of Han Chinese and Japanese, as well as Indigenous peoples of Uruguay, mainly Charrúa, Minuán, Chaná, Güenoa and Guaraní. The majority of Poles, Russians, Germans and Austrians were and are Ashkenazi Jews so they can be seen as a single ethnic group. Montevideo, like Buenos Aires of nearby Argentina and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, was a major seaport to dock ships coming from Europe and elsewhere, and European settlement greatly affected Uruguay to have a more western oriented culture.
Many colonies such as Nueva Helvecia-Colonia Suiza a Swiss colony and Colonia Valdense a Piedmontese waldensian colony, are located in the department of Colonia. Also, there are towns founded by early British settlers, like Conchillas and Barker. A Russian colony called San Javier, is found in the department of Río Negro. Also there are Mennonite colonies in the department of Río Negro like Gartental and El Ombú, in Canelones Department called Colonia Nicolich, and in San José Department called Colonia Delta. El Ombú, is famous for its well-known Dulce de Leche "Claldy", and is located near the city of Young.
Many of the European immigrants arrived in Uruguay in the late 19th century and have heavily influenced the architecture and culture of Montevideo and other major cities. For this reason, Montevideo and life within the city are very reminiscent of Western Europe.
People of European ancestry comprise 88% to 90% of Uruguay's population. Early Uruguayans are descendants of colonists from Spain and also from Portugal during the colonial period prior to 1810. Similar to the demographics of Argentina, more recent immigrants from Europe, largely from Spain and Italy, arrived in the great migratory wave during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The most numerous immigrant European communities are: Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese along with many other European nationalities. Today, Uruguay's culture is influenced heavily by its European roots which is evident in its language, food, and other aspects of everyday life.
Mestizo & Amerindian 
There are up to 8% of the population being of a Mestizo (European-Amerindian) ancestry. People with amerindian ancestry can be found in the north of Uruguay, primarily in Tacuarembó Department, where the amerindian ancestry reaches 20% of the population.
A 1996 census identified that 12,600 people in Uruguay were Amerindian descendents. In 2006 a census confirmed that there were 115,118 Uruguayans of one Indigenous ethnic group descents, the Charrúas, reaching 4% of the country's population. In 2005 Sinthia Pagano, M.D conducted a genetic study, detecting that 38% of Uruguayans expressed some or at least, partial genetic influence from the Indigenous descents.
Afro Uruguayan 
Blacks and mulattos in Uruguay are more or less 209,662 and they are mostly found in Montevideo, Rivera Department, Artigas Department, Salto Department and Cerro Largo Department. A 2011 census marked that there are more than 300,000 African descendents, and that 80% of Afro-Uruguayans are under the working class line.
African Uruguayans were soldiers who helped create an independent nation-state from a Spanish colony, and defended that independence from foreign invaders, first Great Britain and then Brazil, during the first decades of the 19th century.
One of major Afro-Uruguayan expressions is the Candombe.
Although Spanish is dominant, being the national language spoken by virtually all Uruguayans, Italian and French are also relevant. A mix of Portuguese-Spanish is spoken in the Uruguayan-Brazilian frontier called Portuñol/Portunhol, Fronterizo/Fronteiriço is the specific name for Uruguayan Portuñol. The audiovisual standard language is the Uruguayan Spanish, the own variety of Rioplatense, Lunfardo is spoken in Uruguay.
Uruguay has no official religion and church and state are separate. Religious freedom is guaranteed. Most Uruguayans baptize their children and marry in catholic churches although it has been estimated that only about 4 percent of the population regularly attends to it. A 2006 survey had Catholicism as the main religion, with 47.1% of the population, 11.1% claim to be Non-Catholic Christian and 0.3% Jewish. Approximately 40.4% of the population professes no religion.
The Jewish community is concentrated in Montevideo (about 1% of the city's population), as well as the Muslim and Orthodox communities. There are several Protestant and Pentecostal denominations, together they represent the 11.1% of the population, these denominations are, the Methodist Church in Uruguay, the New Apostolic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Evangelical Baptist Convention of Uruguay, the Evangelical Church of the Río de la Plata, the Waldensian Evangelical Church, the United Evangelical Lutheran Church and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The Pentecostal denominations are, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, Dios es Amor, Pentecostal Naciente and Assemblies of God.
Also exist the Bahá'í Faith and Afro-Brazilian religions such as Quimbanda, Candomblé and Umbanda (collectively known—colloquially since the original term for the religion can be deemed as offensive in Rioplatense Spanish as does in Brazilian Portuguese, because of the taboo surrounding what people believed as black magic or witchcraft—as Macumba, and neutrally called simply by the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents of African diasporic religions). Among the sizeable Armenian community in Montevideo, the dominant religion is Christianity, specifically, Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Evangelical Church. Political observers consider Uruguay to be the most secular country in the Americas.
Contemporary Uruguayan culture is diverse in its nature since the nation's population is one of multicultural origins. The country has an impressive legacy of artistic and literary traditions, especially for its small size. The contribution of its alternating conquerors, Spain and Portugal, and diverse immigrants – Italians, Germans, Swiss, Russians, Jews and Armenians, among others- has resulted in traditions that integrate this diversity with Native American elements. Uruguay has centuries-old remains and fortresses of the colonial era. Its cities have a rich architectural heritage and an impressive number of writers, artists, and musicians. Carnival and candombe are the most important examples of African influence by slaves, as well as Umbanda religious beliefs and practices. Guarani traditions can be seen in mate, the national drink. The folk and popular music of Uruguay shares with Argentina not only its gaucho roots but also the tango.
Music and dance 
Music of Uruguay includes a number of local musical forms. The most distinctive ones are tango, murga, a form of musical theatre, and candombe, an afro-Uruguayan type of music which occur yearly during the Carnival period. There is also milonga, a folk guitar and song form deriving from Spanish traditions and related to similar forms found in many Hispanic-American countries. One of the disputed birthplaces of the famed tango singer Carlos Gardel is the city of Tacuarembó.
The popular music of Uruguay, which focuses on rock, jazz and many other forms, frequently makes reference to the distinctly Uruguayan sounds mentioned above. The group 1960s imitators of The Beatles, deserve a special mention as the band that kickstarted the Argentine rock scene. Also, cumbia, a music style popular throughout most of Central and South America is widely enjoyed by the Uruguayan people, around the whole country.
The rate of Uruguayan emigration to Europe is especially to Spain and Italy, in America to United States and Argentina, and in Oceania to Australia.
See also 
- "Argentina 2001 Census." (PDF). Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "pewhispanic.org" (PDF). Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "2006 Australian Census.". Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- Área de Historia de la Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. "Constituciones Hispanoamericanas – Constituciones – Uruguay". Cervantesvirtual.com. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Pijao Fabre, Alain (2005): Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica de los pueblos indígenas sudamericanos.".
- Da Silva Villarrubia, Santiago Katriel (14 July 2011). "Dra. Sinthia Pagano. Un Estudio Detectó 38% de Sangre Aborigen en la Población Uruguaya - En Uruguay hay 115.118 descendientes de indígenas". Mario Delgado Gérez (in Spanish). LaRed21 Comunidad. Retrieved on 6 February 2013.
- Da Silva Villarrubia, Santiago Katriel (27 August 2011). "Censo 2011. Organizaciones Sociales Llaman a Decir "Sí" Para Reconocer sus Etnias - Censo: afrodescendientes e indígenas hacen campaña". Matías Rotulo (in Spanish). LaRed21 Comunidad. Retrieved on 6 February 2013.
- "www.afrolatinos.tv Uruguay". Afrolatinos.tv. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- Da Silva Villarrubia, Santiago Katriel. "Afros e indígenas procuran que el censo "haga visibles" sus realidades" (in Spanish). Retrieved on 6 February 2013.
- [www.ine.gub.uy Uruguay statisitics]
- "Arquidiócesis Ortodoxa Griega de Buenos Aires y Sudamérica". Ortodoxia.com. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Iglesia Metodista en el Uruguay". Imu.org.uy. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Iglesia Nueva Apostólica – Sud América". Inasud.org. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Iglesia Anglicana del Uruguay". Anglicanuruguay.blogspot.com. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Iglesia Evangélica del Río de la Plata". Iglesiaevangelica.org. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Iglesia Evangélica Valdense – Inicio". Iglesiavaldense.org. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Luterana Unida – Inicio". Ielu.org. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Unión Adventista Uruguaya". Iglesiaadventista.org.uy. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Hoguera Santa – Monte Sinai". Paredesufrir.com.uy. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- La Voz de la Liberación. ":::: Iglesia Dios es Amor – Uruguay::::". Ipda.org.uy. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Bienvenidos". Lasasambleasdedios.org. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "La Sociedad Civil en línea". Lasociedadcivil.org. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- 1/0 Technology Corp. – Paul R. Williams, John BUDDAY Running. "Armenian General Benevolent Union – Publications". Agbu.org. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- Natalia Barrios Guida – T.: (5982) 509 1277 / 099 247423. "Bienvenidos al Portal de los Armenios en Sudamérica". Armenia.com.uy. Retrieved 10 November 2011.