From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term useful Jew was used in various historical contexts, typically describing a Jewish person useful in implementing an official authority's policy, sometimes by oppressing other Jews. Nowadays, the use of this term is considered inappropriate.
- In 1744, Frederick II of Prussia introduced the practice of limiting Jewish population to a small number of the most wealthy families, known as protected Jews. The first-born son in such families inherited this privilege; other children were considered useless by the authorities and had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave."
- Following the establishment of the Pale of Settlement by Imperial Russia, only useful Jews (Russian: полезные евреи) were allowed to live outside the Pale; these included Jews such as wealthy first-guild merchants (Russian: купцы первой гильдии), persons who received higher education, cantonists, after serving their full term in the army, and some other categories.
- During the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Europe, the Jews who helped implement the Final Solution, such as members of Judenrat or the Jewish Police, were considered "valuable Jews" (German: Wertvolle Juden). They, and sometimes members of their families as well, were immune from deportation for extermination so long as they served the Nazis' purposes. Also, Jews who had helped plan the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin were considered "useful" and were spared deportation.
- In the Soviet Union, Jewish members of the Anti-Zionist Committee of the Soviet Public were colloquially known as useful Jews or pocket Jews (Russian: карманные евреи), implying their corruption by high positions in the state hierarchy.
- Certificate Confirming Payment of Protection Money (Schutzgeld) for a Jewish Resident (1833)
- Simon Dubnow: The newest history of the Jewish people, 1789–1914
- How Russia Shaped the Modern World: From Art to Anti-Semitism, Ballet to Bolshevism by Steven G. Marks, p.142 ISBN 0-691-11845-0
- Russia at Institute for Jewish Policy Research
- (Russian) The infamous AZCSP (in Russian) Prepared by Moscow Bureau for human rights. Contains excerpts from June 6, 1983 AZSCP press-conference from the press-center of Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (sem40.ru)