User:009o9/Computer-related occupations

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Computer-related occupations ...

COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS was a Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) definition of five occupational specialties. Conversely, Computer-related occupations (note case) is still in use by labor economists; however, Computer-related occupations does not exist in the Standard Occupational (SOC) Classification, which replaced the DOT in 1999. There are also exists various media terms, such as Tech and IT, with SOC 15-1xxx Computer Occupations at their core, that may be contributing to the perception that a labor shortage exists in Computer-related occupations.

Occupational group titles[edit]

Current use of the term, "computer-related occupations," may reference ten, eleven, or twelve occupations as a group. Complexity has been compounded with the creation of terms such as "IT employment" and "Tech employment". In many cases these definitions have unpublished and in some cases the definitions are proprietary, the occupations included within such definitions are often unknown, or fluid, making statistical pronouncements difficult to validate. Prior to 1999, COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS was defined in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) as:

03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS
This division includes occupations concerned with the application of computers and computer languages and the utilization of the computer in the design and solution of business, scientific, engineering and other technical problems. This division does not include workers, such as accountants, stock brokers, and secretaries, who use computers to aid them in performing their work. Occupations concerned with the mathematical statement of problems for solution by computers are included in Group 020. Occupations concerned with the application of electronics and the principles of engineering to design and develop computing equipment are included in Group 003. Occupations concerned with writing user instructions for computer application programs are included in Group

Source: Information Technology Associates, Dictionary Of Occupational Titles, "03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS".[1]

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) [2]
03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS
030 OCCUPATIONS IN SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND PROGRAMMING
031 OCCUPATIONS IN DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS
032 OCCUPATIONS IN COMPUTER SYSTEM USER SUPPORT
033 OCCUPATIONS IN COMPUTER SYSTEM TECHNICAL SUPPORT
039 OTHER COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has replaced the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) with the Standard Occupational (SOC) Classification system in 1999.[3] Under the SOC classification, Computer Occupations is a subset of the major group, "15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations".[4] The term "Computer-related occupations" does not appear in the "2010 SOC User Guide".[5]

Standard Occupational (SOC) Classification (2010)[6]
15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations
Computer Occupations (15-1xxx)
15-1111 Computer and Information Research Scientists
15-1121 Computer Systems Analysts
15-1131 Computer Programmers
15-1132 Software Developers, Applications
15-1133 Software Developers, Systems Software
15-1141 Database Administrators
15-1142 Network and Computer Systems Administrators*
15-1150 Computer Support Specialists
15-1179 Information Security Analysts, Web Developers, and Computer Network Architects
15-1799 Computer Occupations, All Other*
Mathematical Occupations (15-2xxx)
15-2011 Actuaries
15-2021 Mathematicians
15-2031 Operations Research Analysts
15-2041 Statisticians
15-2091 Mathematical Technicians
15-2099 Mathematical Science Occupations, All Other

A traditional definition of, "Computer-related occupations", might intuitively include only the occupations with a minor group prefix of 15-1xxx from the major group "15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations". Variations of "Computer-related occupations" may include the major group Mathematical Occupations (15-2xxx) and might include one the management or engineering occupations listed below, however these occupations were not included 03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS group in the 1990 Census.

  • 11-3021 Computer and Information Systems Managers (1990 Census Occupations): 022 Managers and Administrators, N.E.C)[7]
  • 17-2061 Computer Hardware Engineers (1990 Census Occupations): 055 Electrical and Electronic Engineers [8]

The SOC namesake for, Mathematical Occupations (15-2xxx), 020 OCCUPATIONS IN MATHEMATICS, was also notably outside the 03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS group.[9]

Employment levels[edit]

Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), a division of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, publishes employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. Self-employed persons are not included in the estimates.[10]

2010 Standard Occupational Classification[edit]

The Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), from 2010 going forward is not directly comparable with earlier versions.[11]

Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Employment Statistics [12]
Computer-related occupations: Employment levels
SOC Code Occupational Title (SOC 2010) 2010 2011
15-1111 Computer and Information Research Scientists 24,900 25,160
15-1121 Computer Systems Analysts 495,800 487,740
15-1131 Computer Programmers 333,620 320,100
15-1132 Software Developers, Applications 499,280 539,880
15-1133 Software Developers, Systems Software 378,920 387,050
15-1141 Database Administrators 104,080 108,500
15-1142 Network and Computer Systems Administrators* 333,210 341,800
15-1150 Computer Support Specialists 579,270 632,490
15-1179 Information Security Analysts, Web Developers, and Computer Network Architects 243,330 272,670
15-1799 Computer Occupations, All Other* 183,110 177,630
Subtotal: Computer-related occupations (traditional) 3,175,520 3,293,020
11-3021 Computer and Information Systems Managers 288,660 300,830
17-2061 Computer Hardware Engineers 66,960 71,990
Total: Computer-related occupations (extended) 3,531,140 3,665,840
2010 SOC occupational definitions were regrouped and may not directly comparable to previous SOC definitions [11]

Employment levels, 2000s[edit]

Computer-related occupations: Employment levels, May 1999 - May 2009
SOC Code Occupational Title 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Average Employment
15-1011 Computer and Information Scientists, Research 26,280 25,800 25,620 24,410 23,210 24,720 25,890 27,650 28,720 26,610 26,130 25,913
15-1021 Computer Programmers 528,600 530,730 501,550 457,320 431,640 412,090 389,090 396,020 394,710 394,230 367,880 436,715
15-1031 Computer Software Engineers, Applications 287,600 374,640 361,690 356,760 392,140 425,890 455,980 472,520 495,810 494,160 495,500 419,335
15-1032 Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software 209,030 264,610 261,520 255,040 285,760 318,020 320,720 329,060 349,140 381,830 385,200 305,448
15-1041 Computer Support Specialists 462,840 522,570 493,240 478,560 482,990 488,540 499,860 514,460 525,570 545,520 540,560 504,974
15-1051 Computer Systems Analysts 428,210 463,300 448,270 467,750 474,780 489,130 492,120 446,460 464,440 489,890 512,720 470,643
15-1061 Database Administrators 101,460 108,000 104,250 102,090 100,890 96,960 99,380 109,840 116,340 115,770 108,080 105,733
15-1071 Network and Computer Systems Administrators 204,680 234,040 227,840 232,560 237,980 259,320 270,330 289,520 309,660 327,850 338,890 266,606
15-1081 Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts 98,330 119,220 126,060 133,460 148,030 169,200 185,190 203,710 216,050 230,410 226,080 168,704
15-1099 Computer Specialists, All Other 130,420 116,760 180,270 182,690 191,780 195,890 166,302
Subtotal: Computer-related occupations (traditional) 2,347,030 2,642,910 2,550,040 2,507,950 2,577,420 2,814,290 2,855,320 2,969,510 3,083,130 3,198,050 3,196,930 3,019,538
11-3021 Computer and Information Systems Managers 280,820 283,480 267,310 264,790 266,020 267,390 259,330 251,210 264,990 276,820 287,210 269,943
17-2061 Computer Hardware Engineers 60,420 63,680 67,590 67,180 72,550 74,760 78,580 74,480 79,330 73,370 65,410 70,668
Total: Computer-related occupations (extended) 2,688,270 2,990,070 2,884,940 2,839,920 2,915,990 3,156,440 3,193,230 3,295,200 3,427,450 3,548,240 3,549,550 3,135,391
15-1099 Computer Specialists, All Other was introduced in 2004, the impact of employment levels on similar occupational titles is unknown.

Occupational dynamics[edit]

The following table denotes the change in employment levels since 1999. Earlier available OES data-sets (1997 and 1998), have dissimilar occupational groupings.[13]

Note: In 2004, the occupational group, 15-1099 Computer Specialists, All Other, was added to the 15-1xxx Computer Occupations, it is unclear how many personnel from within 15-1xxx Computer Occupations were reclassified and if other occupations from outside 15-1xxx Computer Occupations were moved into 15-1099 Computer Specialists, All Other. [14]

[14]

Computer-related occupations: Employment level: Change since May 1999
SOC Code Occupational Title 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Change (per annum)
15-1011 Computer and Information Scientists, Research -480 -660 -1,870 -3,070 -1,560 -390 1,370 2,440 330 -150 -15
15-1021 Computer Programmers 2,130 -27,050 -71,280 -96,960 -116,510 -139,510 -132,580 -133,890 -134,370 -160,720 -16,072
15-1031 Computer Software Engineers, Applications 87,040 74,090 69,160 104,540 138,290 168,380 184,920 208,210 206,560 207,900 20,790
15-1032 Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software 55,580 52,490 46,010 76,730 108,990 111,690 120,030 140,110 172,800 176,170 17,617
15-1041 Computer Support Specialists 59,730 30,400 15,720 20,150 25,700 37,020 51,620 62,730 82,680 77,720 7,772
15-1051 Computer Systems Analysts 35,090 20,060 39,540 46,570 60,920 63,910 18,250 36,230 61,680 84,510 8,451
15-1061 Database Administrators 6,540 2,790 630 -570 -4,500 -2,080 8,380 14,880 14,310 6,620 662
15-1071 Network and Computer Systems Administrators 29,360 23,160 27,880 33,300 54,640 65,650 84,840 104,980 123,170 134,210 13,421
15-1081 Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts 20,890 27,730 35,130 49,700 70,870 86,860 105,380 117,720 132,080 127,750 12,775
15-1099 Computer Specialists, All Other 130,420 116,760 180,270 182,690 191,780 195,890 19,589
Change: Computer-related occupations (traditional) 295,880 203,010 160,920 230,390 467,260 508,290 622,480 736,100 851,020 849,900 84,990
11-3021 Computer and Information Systems Managers 2,660 -13,510 -16,030 -14,800 -13,430 -21,490 -29,610 -15,830 -4,000 6,390 639
17-2061 Computer Hardware Engineers 3,260 7,170 6,760 12,130 14,340 18,160 14,060 18,910 12,950 4,990 499
Change: Computer-related occupations (extended) 301,800 196,670 151,650 227,720 468,170 504,960 606,930 739,180 859,970 861,280 86,128
Employment level change using May 1999 as baseline

Staffing sources[edit]

Personnel in Computer-related occupations come from various sources:

  • A targeted degree from an accredited U.S. university
  • A non-targeted degree, but having unique cross-industry specific experience or talents
  • Manufacturer Certification or certificate accreditation
  • 0-1, TN, H-1B, L-1 or OPT non-immigrant work authorization programs
  • Employment Based permanent residency programs

According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, the number of Bachelors degree holders in Computer and Math occupations was 2,167,000 in 2009, of those, 835,000 had degrees that were not related to Science, Technology, Engineering, or Math (STEM). [15]

U. S. Education[edit]

The California Postsecondary Education Commission publishes recommended School To Employment Pathways System (STEPS) recommendations for students aspiring to work in Computer-related occupations.[16]

Computer-related occupations educational guidelines
SOC Code Occupational Title Educational Requirement
15-1011 Computer and information scientists, research Doctorate
15-1021 Computer programmers Bachelors
15-1031 Computer Software Engineers, Applications Bachelors
15-1032 Computer software engineers, systems software Bachelors
15-1041 Computer Support Specialists Associate
15-1051 Computer systems analysts Bachelors
15-1061 Database Administrators Bachelors
15-1071 Network and Computer Systems Administrators Bachelors
15-1081 Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts Bachelors
15-1099 Computer specialists, all other Associate
School To Employment Pathways System (STEPS)[16]

The following table is a crosswalk of 15-1xxx Computer Occupations (SOC) to Classification of Instructional Programs {CIP) definitions.

Degrees conferred: Citizens and permanent residents[edit]

Degrees Conferred: Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services
Citizenship (standardized): U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents
Year Doctorate Degrees Master's Degrees Bachelor's Degrees Associate's Degrees Total
1999 471 7,438 28,165 18,768 54,842
2000 402 8,362 34,619 23,085 66,468
2001 395 9,091 40,192 29,396 79,074
2002 410 9,252 45,797 34,553 90,012
2003 413 10,423 53,072 45,392 109,300
2004 455 11,312 54,908 41,281 107,956
2005 500 10,975 50,597 35,766 97,838
2006 551 10,489 44,901 30,981 86,922
2007 680 10,027 40,163 27,543 78,413
2008 518 9,746 37,118 28,159 75,541
2009 456 9,641 36,677 29,751 76,525
2010 NA 10,066 38,240 32,229 80,535
2011 NA 10,786 41,558 37,356 89,700
Total 5,251 127,608 546,007 414,260 1,093,126
Average yr. 477 9,816 42,001 31,866 84,160
Academic Discipline, 2-digit Classification of Instructional Program (CIP):
11 Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services
IPEDS Completions Survey, downloaded on March 3, 2013 [17]

Degrees conferred: Temporary residents[edit]

Temporary Residents: Degrees/Awards Conferred (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Year Doctorate Degrees Master's Degrees Bachelor's Degrees Associate's Degrees Total
1999 334 5,378 2,260 404 8,376
2000 375 6,624 2,900 491 10,390
2001 373 7,761 3,405 717 12,256
2002 340 7,713 3,909 1,025 12,987
2003 403 9,167 4,854 1,178 15,602
2004 455 8,896 5,060 1,042 15,453
2005 621 7,514 3,991 785 12,911
2006 865 6,649 3,099 550 11,163
2007 917 6,287 2,433 428 10,065
2008 820 7,405 1,804 404 10,433
2009 507 8,347 1,819 489 11,162
2010 NA 7,955 1,867 503 10,325
2011 NA 8,733 2,028 555 11,316
Total 6,010 98,429 39,429 8,571 152,439
Average yr. 546 7,571 3,033 659 11,810
Academic Discipline, 2-digit Classification of Instructional Program (CIP):
11 Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services
IPEDS Completions Survey, downloaded on March 3, 2013 [17]

Computer-related H-1B and other foreign worker visas[edit]

Averages from the "USCIS Characteristics of Specialty Occupation Workers (H-1B)" denote that 46% of all initial employment authorizations and 50% of continuing employment approvals are within 03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS. The remaining visas granted are distributed throughout 17 other DOT occupational categories including "Occupation Unknown". The H-1B Characteristic reports are the only public reports known to contain data regarding the number of employment approvals. [18]

[18]

H-1B Initial Employment Approvals (3 year visa)
Fiscal Year Total Initial Employment 03 COMPUTER RELATED OCCUPATIONS Percent
2000 135,362 74,551 55.1%
2001 200,116 110,713 55.3%
2002 102,667 25,637 25.0%
2003 104,458 28,879 27.6%
2004 129,703 56,559 43.6%
2005 115,662 52,352 45.3%
2006 109,408 56,393 51.5%
2007 119,813 62,268 52.0%
2008 109,228 58,074 53.2%
2009 86,062 29,793 34.6%
2010 75,825 31,661 41.8%
Totals 1,288,304 586,880 46%
Average yr. 117,119 53,353
Source: USCIS Characteristics of Specialty Occupation Workers (H-1B): Fiscal Year 20xx
(H-1B work authorizations commence on on October first, the first day of the Fiscal Year, year 2000 H-1B work authorization began on October 1, 1999.) [18]


Originally a six year visa, the American Competitiveness in the Twenty-First Century Act of 2000 act extends the 0-1, H-1B, L-1 into perpetuity when a U. S. or Foreign employer sponsors the employee for an Employment Based visa on a yearly basis. TN status (NAFTA} visas are renewed annually with no limitation in number of renewals.

H-1B Continuing Employment Approvals
(3 year visa or 1 year AC21 extension)
Fiscal Year Total Continuing Employment 03 COMPUTER RELATED OCCUPATIONS Percent
2000 120,194 73,875 61.5%
2001 129,750 80,684 62.2%
2002 93,493 49,477 52.9%
2003 111,497 54,235 48.6%
2004 156,075 70,720 45.3%
2005 149,230 61,515 41.2%
2006 160,490 74,163 46.2%
2007 160,684 77,360 48.1%
2008 166,852 78,936 47.3%
2009 127,619 59,168 46.4%
2010 115,340 59,141 51.3%
Totals 1,491,224 739,274 50%
Average yr. 135,566 67,207
Source: USCIS Characteristics of Specialty Occupation Workers (H-1B): Fiscal Year 20xx.
(H-1B work authorizations commence on on October first, the first day of the Fiscal Year, year 2000 H-1B work authorization began on October 1, 1999.)[18]

High-skill non-immigrant visas issued 2008-2012[edit]

The U.S. Department of State publishes data on visas issued annually. The following table is provided to display averages of selected High-skill non-immigrant visas issued. These are gross figures and do not include breakdown by occupational group.[19]

[19]

Nonimmigrant Visas Issued by Classification
(Including Crewlist Visas and Border Crossing Cards) Fiscal Years 2008-2012
Visa type Description 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Average
H-1B Temporary worker of distinguished merit and ability performing services other than as a registered nurse 129,464 110,367 117,409 129,134 135,530 124,381
L1 Intracompany transferee with international firm or corporation 84,078 64,696 74,719 70,728 62,430 71,330
O1 Person with extraordinary ability in the sciences, art, education,business, or athletics 9,014 9,368 8,589 8,828 10,590 9,278
TN NAFTA professional 4,761 4,124 3,392 4,971 7,638 4,977
Totals 227,317 188,555 204,109 213,661 216,188 209,966


Is the L-1 "The Computer Visa"?
Though the L-1 visa program is not specifically tailored for the computer or information technology (IT) industries, the positions L-1 applicants are filling are most often related to computers and IT. From 1999 to 2004, nine of the ten firms that petitioned for the most L-1 workers were computer and IT related outsourcing service firms that specialize in labor from India.16 And although the L-1 visa program was not intended to benefit any one country, almost 50 percent of the L-1B (specialized knowledge) petitions submitted in FY 2005 named beneficiaries who were born in India.
Source
U.S. Office of Inspector General, "Review of Vulnerabilities and Potential Abuses of the L-1 Visa Program", January 2006 [20]

Occupational Statistics[edit]

The Current Population Survey (CPS) is the source of the "headline" unemployment rate published in the monthly "Employment Situation Summary".[21] CPS monthly unemployment rates are published in groups of SOC occupational groups defined as the "Industry-occupation matrix code and title". In the case of Computer-related occupations, the parent group is called "Professional and related occupations". [22] [23]

Professional and related occupations (SOC 2010 titles) [23]
15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations
17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations
19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations
21-0000 Community and Social Service Occupations
23-0000 Legal Occupations
25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations
27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations
29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations
"Monthly Labor Review", November 2007, Footnote 2, Table 1, "Professional and related occupations", include, "Major occupational groups 15–0000 through 29–0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)" [22]

CPS monthly unemployment rates are published by "Industry-occupation matrix code and title" rather than occupational titles. [24] Industries are specific to the goods or services they produce and employ a wide array of occupations. [25] The Bureau of Labor Statistics website states that the BLS does collect employment information by occupation, it is not apparent how to retrieve occupation-specific data on a monthly or quarterly basis. [26]

The following table displays four NAICS Industries with high participation levels of persons within the, "15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations" major group.

Industries with the highest concentration of employment in
Computer and Mathematical Occupations [4]
Industry Comp. and Math
Employment
Percent of
Industry employment
Computer Systems Design and Related Services 844,670 56.35%
Software Publishers 134,370 50.70%
Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services 92,560 38.73%
Computer and Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing 52,740 33.22%
Other Information Services 36,570 24.54%


The Occupational Employment Statistics produces annual reports on wages and employment levels in May of each year. This is a reduction from bi-annual reporting, with the last November report published in 2004. [27]

Various derivative occupational indexes[edit]

There are numerous indexes with Computer-related occupations at the core. These indexes are often proprietary in nature and generally produced by Non Governmental Agencies or Trade Associations. Computer-related indexes generally contain "IT" or sometimes "Tech" acronyms in the title.

Information Technology-Related Occupations[edit]

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has a definition for "Information Technology-Related Occupations" consisting of 27 occupations. [28] The "Information Technology-Related Occupations" definition is beyond the scope of this article, but mentioned here for comparison to media and trade association definitions of "IT employment". http://www.esa.doc.gov/Reports/digital-economy-2003

Box 2.1. IT-Related Occupations
  • Skill Level: High
  • Computer and information systems managers
  • Engineering managers
  • Computer and information scientists, research
  • Computer programmers
  • Computer software engineers, applications
  • Computer software engineers, systems software
  • Computer support specialists
  • Computer systems analysts
  • Database administrators
  • Network and computer systems administrators
  • Network systems and data communications analysts
  • Computer hardware engineers
  • Electrical engineers
  • Electronics engineers, except computer
  • Electrical and electronic engineering technicians
  • Skill Level: Moderate
  • Data entry keyers
  • Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers
  • Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, exc. line installers
  • Electrical and electronics repairers, commercial and industrial equipment
  • Electrical power-line installers and repairers
  • Telecommunications line installers and repairers
  • Electrical and electronic equiptment assemblers
  • Electromechanical equipment assemblers
  • Semiconductor processors
  • Skill Level: Low
  • Communications equipment operators
  • Billing and posting clerks and machine operators
  • Computer operators
  • Other office machine operators, exc. computer


Since 2000, the number of workers in IT-producing industries has declined by 11.2 percent (to 4.8 million workers) compared with a decline of less than 2 percent in all private industries. Workers in IT occupations (employed by all industries) totaled 5.9 million in 2002, 8 percent less than in 2000.

[29]

Information Technology workers[edit]

In the Fall 2002 issue of, Occupational Outlook Quarterly, economist, Roger Moncarz uses the term, "Computer-related occupations" and quickly defines the term Information Technology workers for reference within his publication. This definition includes the ten computer occupations in the SOC major group "Computer and Mathematical Occupations" with the two outlying occupations, "Computer and information systems managers" and "Computer hardware engineers". Moncarz' article, "Training for Techies: Career preparation in information technology", notes that 68% of information technology workers had a bachelor's degree or higher in 2001 and 33% of Information Technology workers had a degree in Computer and information sciences in 1999. [30]

  • Information Technology workers numbered 3.2 million in 2000, as defined by Moncarz


The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) defines an information technology worker by using the eight career clusters developed by the National Workforce Center for Emerging Technologies. Those career clusters include programming and software engineering, technical support, enterprise systems, database development and administration, Web development and administration, network design and administration, digital media, and technical writing. According to its latest study, “Bouncing Back: Jobs, Skills, and the Continuing Demand for IT Workers,” the Association notes that 92 percent of all information technology workers are in non-informationtechnology companies—80 percent of them in small companies outside the information technology industry. [30]

IT employment[edit]

TechServe Alliance publishes a monthly "IT employment" report with undisclosed occupations.

"This unique measurement of total IT employment is created monthly by studying the ongoing staffing patterns of a dozen IT and computer related occupations in 22 industries and industry sectors employing significant numbers of IT workers including the manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, financial, information services, business and professional services, and education and health industries." [31]
  • The Techserve Alliance estimate for IT employment was 4,168,700 for April, 2012.

IT employment index[edit]

CIO Insight published their definition of IT employment in 2008, occupations included the SOC minor group definitions:

  • Computer scientists and systems analysts
  • Computer programmers
  • Computer software engineers
  • Computer support specialists
  • Database administrators
  • Network and computer systems administrators
  • Network systems and data communications specialists
  • Computer and information systems managers.

The CIO Insight index contains "Computer and information systems managers", but does not contain the minor group "15-1099 Computer Specialists, All Other". It is presumed that "Computer software engineers" includes both "15-1031 Computer Software Engineers, Applications" and "15-1032 Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software".

The methodology for CIO insight IT employment index is disclosed:

CIO Insight analyzes these eight occupation categories to determine current IT employment conditions. Because these IT professions comprises less than 3 percent of the overall workforce, and each occupation category’s size on its own would be statistically unreliable, CIO Insight aggregates the last four quarters to determine each quarter’s workforce, employment and unemployment levels. [32]
  • CIO Insight published IT employment levels of 3,956,000 for the second quarter of 2008.

Political debate[edit]

This section will probably be deleted, brings up one side of the debate without covering the other.

Congress and Chief Executive Officers are concerned with a perceived shortage of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) professionals, which is not based upon clear definitions and historical occupational data. Instead the STEM debate is driven by Trade association press releases and dubious ten year labor projections. National policy, student visas and dual-intent immigration levels are under debate without a clear understanding of the impact at the occupational level. [33]

Computer-related occupations is the epicenter of the H-1B temporary immigration debate.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dictionary Of Occupational Titles 03 COMPUTER-RELATED OCCUPATIONS". Information Technology Associates. 2003-03-31. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  2. ^ a b Department of Homeland Security (2009-04-05). "Form M746 I-129 Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) Codes" (PDF). U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  3. ^ Matthew Mariani (1999). "Replace with a database: O*NET replaces the Dictionary of Occupational Titles". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  4. ^ a b "15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations (Major Group)". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  5. ^ "2010 SOC User Guide" (PDF). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. February 2010. Retrieved 2012-05-19. 
  6. ^ BLS Occupational Employment Statistics. "List of SOC Occupations". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  7. ^ "Computer and Information Systems Managers". CODE: 13017C. Information Technology Associates. Retrieved March 03, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Computer Engineers". CODE: 22127. Information Technology Associates. Retrieved March 03, 2013. 
  9. ^ "02 OCCUPATIONS IN MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES". Information Technology Associates. Retrieved March 03, 2013. 
  10. ^ BLS Occupational Employment Statistics (2012-03-27). "Occupational Employment Statistics". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  11. ^ a b "2010 SOC Definitions". On behalf of the Standard Occupational Classification Policy Committee (SOCPC). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. February 2010 (Updated January 2013). Retrieved March 01, 2013. 
  12. ^ BLS Occupational Employment Statistics (2012-03-27). "May 2011 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-05-18]]. 
  13. ^ "Occupational Employment Statistics". OES Data. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2009". 15-1099 Computer Specialists, All Other. BLS Office of Employment Statistics. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  15. ^ "STEM: Good Jobs Now and for the Future" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, Office of the Chief Economist. July 2011.  Unknown parameter |dateaccessed= ignored (help); |coauthors= requires |author= (help)
  16. ^ a b c "School To Employment Pathways System (STEPS)". CA.Gov Postsecondary Education Commission. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  17. ^ a b "WebCASPAR". Integrated Science and Engineering Resource Data System. National Science Foundation. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c d "Reports and Studies" (PDF). United States Citizenship and Immigration Services:.  Unknown parameter |dateaccessed= ignored (help)
  19. ^ a b "Nonimmigrant Visas Issued by Classification (Including Crewlist Visas and Border Crossing Cards) Fiscal Years 2008-2012". Table XVI(B). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  20. ^ "Review of Vulnerabilities and Potential Abuses of the L-1 Visa Program". U.S. Office of Inspector General. January 2006. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
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