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File:Emei Leaf Warbler.png
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Phylloscopidae
Genus: Phylloscopus
Species: P. emeiensis
Binomial name
Phylloscopus emeiensis
Alström & Olsson, 1995

The Emei Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus emeiensis) is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in China and Myanmar. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The relationships are uncertain, but a study based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S and nuclear myoglobin intron 2 revealed no evidence for a close relationship to the morphologically similar Blyth’s Leaf Warbler P. reguloides complex [2]


Description[edit]

The Emei Leaf Warbler is 11–12 cm long. Its crown is greyish-green, slightly darker at rear than in front, with a pale median crown-stripe that is poorly marked in front, and slightly but noticeably broader, paler and more distinct at rear. It has a prominent pale yellowish-tinged supercilium. The Warbler has a distinct dark eye-stripe; rest of ear-coverts paler, with faint dark mottling. The upper parts are dull green, clearly paler than sides of crown ands eye-stripe. The wings and tail appear mostly greenish, with distinct pale yellowish tips to median coverts and broad pale yellowish tips to greater coverts, forming two prominent wing-bars. It has an outermost tail-feather with <0.5 mm whitish edge on inner web and indistinctly paler tip; second outermost tail-feather with even less distinct pale inner edge/tip. The underside is whitish, indistinctly streaked with pale yellowish, and with slightly more yellowish undertail-coverts. The iris is dark brown. The upper mandible is blackish and the lower mandible is pale orange. The tarsus, toes and claws are pinkish-grey, but tarsus slightly paler than toes and claws. The Emei Leaf Warbler is very similar to sympatric Claudia’s Leaf Warbler P. claudiae (formerly P. reguloides claudiae)[3] , but differs mainly in less contrasting crown pattern, with less-dark lateral crown-stripes and less-pale median crown-stripe. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] The Emei Leaf Warbler’s estimated generation length is 3.6 years.[9]

Distribution[edit]

Breeds locally in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangdong provinces, China [10] [11] Bairlein et al. 2006</ref>, and has recently been found to breed also in Shaanxi province, China [12]. Appears on the breeding grounds in the latter part of April. One non-breeding record from E S Myanmar [13]. Number of mature individuals: No available data [14], but not known to be numerous anywhere [15] [16].

Habitat[edit]

The Emei Leaf Warbler breeds in temperate deciduous broadleaved forest, sometimes with some spruce Picea/Abies [17]. It has been found to favour a mix of old secondary and replanted broadleaved forest, with lower densities in primary broadleaved forest [18]. It has been recorded at 1000–2200 m in the breeding season [19] [20] [21] BirdLife International 2013[22].

Behavior[edit]

Diet[edit]

Though the Emei Leaf Warbler is known to eat insects, there are currently no studies to support that claim. [23]

Breeding[edit]

Based on male singing activity, the breeding period presumably begins in the mid of to the late of April. However, there is no data to support that hypothesis [24]

Vocalization[edit]

The song is a clear, slightly quivering, straight trill between c. 4 and 6 kHz, usually lasting 3–4 seconds [25], [26][27] . Every male displays several verse types; up to eight have been recorded from one individual [28]. The song is very different from the songs of the sympatric Claudia’s Leaf Warbler and Kloss’s Leaf Warbler P. ogilviegranti (previously White-tailed Leaf Warbler P. davisoni) [29] [30][31]. The call is a soft “tu-du-du”; “tu-du”; or “tu-du-du-du”, somewhat resembling one of the calls of European Greenfinch Chloris chloris, but clearly different from the calls of Claudia’s and Kloss’s Leaf Warblers [32] [33].


Etymology[edit]

The genus name Phylloscopus means “leaf gleaning” and the species name emeiensis refers to the mountain Emei Shan, where the species was first discovered [34].


Conservation Status[edit]

According to current estimations, the Emei Leaf Warbler is not close to fulfilling the IUCN’s criteria for Vulnerable, as the population seems stable. It is therefore classified as Least Concerned.


References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phylloscopus emeiensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  2. ^ Olsson, Urban; Per Alström; P.G.P. Ericson; P. Sundberg (2005). "Non-monophyletic taxa and cryptic species – evidence from a molecular phylogeny of leaf-warblers (Phylloscopus, Aves)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 261–276. 
  3. ^ Olsson, Urban; Per Alström; P.G.P. Ericson; P. Sundberg (2005). "Non-monophyletic taxa and cryptic species – evidence from a molecular phylogeny of leaf-warblers (Phylloscopus, Aves)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 261–276. 
  4. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  5. ^ Oriental Bird Club 2003
  6. ^ Alström, Per (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. 
  7. ^ Alström, Per. http://www.slu.se/Global/externwebben/centrumbildningar-projekt/artdatabanken/Dokument/Personal/Per%20Alström/Phylloscopidae-Beijing-Birdwatching-Society-nov-2012%20English.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ "Internet Bird Collection 2013". 
  9. ^ http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=9780&m=1
  10. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  11. ^ Bairlein, F. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 11. pp. 492–709. 
  12. ^ Martens, J. (2010). "A preliminary review of the leaf warbler genera Phylloscopus and Seicercus". pp. 41–116. 
  13. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  14. ^ BirdLife International 2013. 
  15. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  16. ^ Martens, J. (2010). "A preliminary review of the leaf warbler genera Phylloscopus and Seicercus". pp. 41–116. 
  17. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  18. ^ Martens, J. (2010). "A preliminary review of the leaf warbler genera Phylloscopus and Seicercus". pp. 41–116. 
  19. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  20. ^ Alström, Per (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. 
  21. ^ Martens, J. (2010). "A preliminary review of the leaf warbler genera Phylloscopus and Seicercus". pp. 41–116. 
  22. ^ BirdLife International 2013. 2013. 
  23. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  24. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  25. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  26. ^ Alström, Per (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. 
  27. ^ . Xeno-canto Foundation 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. ^ Martens, J. (2010). "A preliminary review of the leaf warbler genera Phylloscopus and Seicercus". p. 201. 
  29. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  30. ^ Alström, Per (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. 
  31. ^ Martens, J. (2010). "A preliminary review of the leaf warbler genera Phylloscopus and Seicercus". pp. 41–116. 
  32. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 
  33. ^ Alström, Per (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. 
  34. ^ Alström, Per; Urban Olsson, (1995). "A new species of Phylloscopus warbler from Sichuan Province, China". Ibis 137: 459–468. 

Category:Phylloscopus