|This is not a Wikipedia article: This is a workpage, a collection of material and work in progress that may or may not be incorporated into an article. It should not necessarily be considered factual or authoritative.|
I will appreciate everyone's ideas and suggestions about the Systematic language and how to promote its international use; Do you think it can become a wiki book?
|Created by||ケナニデーᄉ イオーアンネーᄉ|
|Setting and usage||a constructed language still very new, with minimal vocabulary but broad possibilities of expression in order to be used as an all-purpose international auxiliary language.|
|Users||since the vocabulary and basic grammar are minimal, familiar to European culture, easy to learn and practical for expression, there is hope of gaining popularity.(ref)|
|Sources||Worldwide words on a journey back in time up to the original language of all humanity.|
|ISO 639-3||osm (proposed)|
Systematic is a constructed language meant to be an international auxiliary language, first published online in June 2013, further matured until October 2013 and “fine tuned” during November 2013. While the grammar remains essentially the same as in June 2013, a few improvements to the vocabulary were implemented during 2014. Systematic was designed by ケナニデーᄉ イオーアンネーᄉ, who, having created the Free Greek Language since 2008, believes that the Free Greek Language is only for the Greeks or those who want or need to learn Greek, but another language is needed for all nations so as to be able to overcome all language barriers by studying only for a few hours; to construct that international language, after experimenting with material from English, Latino Sine Flexione and Japanese, he soon came to the conclusions that:
- the material for an international language must come from one source only, and the origin of words and grammatical elements must be as transparent as possible;
- the quest for vocabulary and grammar must start from Greek, for a number of reasons: Greek has shown to be the most popular, and practical too, for coining international terms. In fact, all speakers of European languages (and many non-European languages too) already know Greek words in numbers multiples of the 222 words that make up the Systematic vocabulary. As of grammar, it would be hard to find so simple and practical a system as of the 5 main suffixes explained below. That 5 suffix system is very sharply contrasted to the complexity of Greek grammar, but it is close to the artificial "Free Greek" system (since 2007) and to the usage of vowels in the “Language of Homo Sapiens” (where "o" showed nouns, "e" showed action, and "a" showed way).
Although much of the “Language of Homo Sapiens” is already known to the author, it was only to a limited degree chosen as a source of a minimal language for the present era, because the “Language of Homo Sapiens”, although using an elemental vocalism, it has a rich inventory of consonants, which is not easy for modern users to distinguish. Words for the Systematic language were chosen to be as easily distinguishable from each other as possible. Although there are about 27000 international words of Greek origin used especially in scientific terminology today, Greek is at the same time ideal as a source for a minimal language, because during some historical periods Greek has been indeed used minimally or as a pidgin, resulting in using words in very broad meanings today; e.g., one modern Greek word ("aftó") can be used for all demonstrative and personal pronouns for the 3rd person; one word ("çéri") can be used for all parts of the hand; the word for nose is also used for "peak" or any pointed thing; the noun for "middle" is adverbially used for "inside", and so on.
- although the vocabulary and grammar should be kept elemental and as easy to learn as possible, still the language must have the means to produce words and compounds in order to express everything of human life.
- for reasons explained at great length in the description of the language, the author believes that in the ideal syntax every modifier or complement must precede its “head” or main term, therefore the ideal word order is verb-final and AN (Adjective-Noun, or Modifier-Modified), as for example in Japanese, Korean, or Turkic languages; yet for practical reasons the object (treated as comment rather than topic) may follow the verb and so, while minimizing the grammar, the word order and the succinctness of style must be rather close to classical Chinese for example. These, however, do not make SostiMatiko rigid: there are many different ways to implement the head-final or topic-prominent word order.
- The Systematic language is (not rigidly) a Dependent-marking_language.
- The minimality character of the Systematic language requires not to delete, alter or add any vocabulary or grammatical elements.
- 1 Self designation and emblem
- 2 History of creation
- 3 Intelligibility
- 4 Usage with no affixes
- 5 Usage with the 5 main suffixes
- 6 The “shortcuts”
- 7 Grammatical words
- 8 Numbers
- 9 Syntax
- 10 Writing system and pronunciation
- 11 Literature and Divination
- 12 Sample texts
- 13 External links
Self designation and emblem
Usually artificial languages are named using their own means (vocabulary and word formation). For the Systematic language, an external word has been preferred as a name, which is internationally understood and derived from Greek. Nevertheless, it also has a name of its own means: that was originally "SostEmatiko", meaning “to correct / set right (=‘sost’) all that has to do with blood (=‘emat/ik/o’)”; this could be interpreted in many ways which are important for humanity such as: brotherhood, the physical health, the insticts, emotional health, eating of flesh, killing animals or endangering people, and the human tendency to show off and exaggerate or pretend, which is thought to constitute the primal sin of humanity symbolized in the sin of Eve and Adam. However, when the vocabulary for the Systematic was subsequently "fine tuned" in the quest to make the words as close to their original forms as possible, and at the same time as short and as distinguishable from each other as possible, this "fine tuning" affected the word "emat/" (blood) too, which became "sax-", therefore the "native name" of the language changed into another name of still very profound import: SostiMatiko (sost/i mat/ik/o) meaning "correcting all that has to do with the eye or with the way of looking / seeing".
The Systematic language uses a very simple emblem: it is the old Chinese (seal script) character for mouth, but also resembling a vessel: a vessel seemingly small, but perfectly constructed, and capable to contain anything; (the usefulness of a container is in its empty space, according to a chapter of the Tao Te Ching); thus symbolising that the Systematic language can contain, and therefore express, all that a human mouth can say, and can provide for necessities such as drink and food: because it may also be seen as a vessel for drink or food; of course communication is not eatable, but if all people could reasonably communicate, even the necessities of life would be available to all humanity. There is also a Confucian hint: in the Han Feizi (book) Confucius says that a ruler is a vessel, while the subordinate people are water contained in it: the people are morally shaped according to their ruler.
Of course, this emblem resembles a pocket ("panno stomo doxo", a calque for the Chinese 口袋); indeed, SostiMatiko is a pocket tool for every purpose: small enough to carry in one's pocket, but as versatile as it takes to do every kind of job.
With some imagination, the emblem can be interpreted in other ways too: a glass vessel full of melted wax to be used as a candle; or the same vessel filled with melted butter (thus slightly higher along the walls of the vessel; even the front view of an animal's (cow's or bull's) face, as a symbol of strength or goodness.
History of creation
As soon as ケナニデーᄉ イオーアンネーᄉ created the Free Greek Language in 2007, he prescribed a “FreeGreek level” of 222 words as the most basic and elementary level of FreeGreek, by using which a student could improvise means to express practically everything, and thereby would easily learn an intermediate level of 444 words and then a “comfortable communication” level of 888 words.
- The number 222 was not only chosen for its symmetry; the author, familiar with the Chinese system of the 214 radicals since 1993, found that it comprises in itself an almost complete vocabulary for expressing (by combining terms) practically everything; the same could be said of a list of about 210 words known as Swadesh_list; a number of 210 or 214 terms with a few additions could form a minimal but all purpose vocabulary: this observation led to define (already in 2007) a basic vocabulary as comprising of 222 words.
- Experimenting with a vocabulary of about 120 terms as the names of things thought to be depicted by the letters of ProtoLinear script, the author found that it is like putting “two feet in one shoe”: such a system can still work, but as incoveniently as a person can walk with one leg.
To start defining the 222 words vocabulary with precision, the impetus was given by the disappointment felt by the author after acquainting with Toki Pona. Trying to limit a FreeGreek vocabulary to be as close to Toki Pona as possible, ケナニデーᄉ イオーアンネーᄉ defined the “FreeGreek of 137 entries”, but still feeling that it was also just a “single shoe for two feet”, he started removing, modifying, and adding terms as arising from practical necessity until forming an “indispensable” vocabulary of 222 words which, after much thought, experimentation, and many stages of improvement, came to be the Systematic language vocabulary.
- Although SostiMatiko has only 222 basic words, each of them can be marked as a noun (-o) and as adverb (-a), as an active verb (-i), and as a passive verb (-eti); if the different forms of each word are seen as different words, the 222 basic words are already 888 when marked just by the part-of-speech suffixes. And yet there are countless more ways to mark each of the SostiMatiko basic 222 words.
The Systematic language can by no means be called “Greek”, because in order to learn it a Greek must study it the same as any other person. Although the vocabulary and grammar start from Greek, a large part of the vocabulary derives from, or is influenced by, old forms of the Greek language, in many cases going back even to ProtoIndoEuropean; for some words and "shortcut affixes" (see below), the author, convinced that all languages have a common origin, goes even to the “Homo Sapiens” language: instead of using “hē” or /i/ for feminine suffix, which could cause confusion, he uses “-nes/o” reconstructed from Arabic nisa (women), Basque neska (girl), Sumerian Emesal “mu-nus” (woman), Latin nurus "daughter (in law)"; Chinese Nǚ "woman"; instead of Greek “ho” or /o/ for masculine suffix, he uses -wis/o to be close to the “Homo Sapiens” root *weis (manly strength), as reconstructed from Proto-Indo-European *wis (the mainstream belief today is for *wih based on Sanskrit virá and Latin vir, but note Greek ις, ισχύς (*wis-), and Sanskrit Viṣṇu "the powerfull One"), Turkic urı (from *wıs-ı “boy”), Japanese (雄 or 牡) osu (from *wıs-ı “male”), Sumerian “uš” (*wıs “erection; penis”). The ancient Greek daseia (i.e. h-, still kept in European languages for Greek words, e.g. halogen, hexahedron, hour, hippo, hypnotic etc.) is usually not kept in the Systematic language, but ancient Greek Ϝ (digamma) is usually kept as “w” for the sake of disambiguation or closeness to IndoEuropean forms, e.g. woxo is to remind English wagon, Latin vehiculum, Sanskrit vahana, etc. The word for “one” was chosen to be “edno”, not just to be similar to the word for “one” in Slavic and other European languages (Italian uno, German ein, Greek ÉNA, etc.), but also because similar has been the form in the Language of Homo Sapiens, as shown by comparison to old Chinese ·i̯ĕt (one). Because the vocabulary is so limited, such words were selected which to have as broad meaning as possible; Some less broad words were also employed because they are very common in international culture. In general, words are modified to be closer to their original forms, to be recognisable internationally, and to be easily distinguished from each other. As a result, words are usually difficult for a Greek to recognize, but once explained, they can easily be kept in a Greek’s memory. Non-Greek speakers will easily remember the vocabulary, if they realize the connection to Greek words used internationally, for example English micro- and macro- should be connected to Systematic mikro (small) and makro (long) respectively; some times it is useful to connect to cognate IndoEuropean words, e.g. mus/o to English mouse, Latin mus, Russian мышь etc., and some times one may even connect to fortuitous similarities just to help the memory, e.g. pax/o (fatness) has probably no etymological connection to German Bauch (belly), but it may be useful to connect it for remembering the meaning; sosto (“right” etc.) is doubtful whether related to Sanskrit (सुष्टु), but the similarity can be helpful to remember the meaning.
- Words that go very near to ProtoHuman forms, like "engo" (I, me), "saxo" (blood), "tewo" (you), "airo" (metal), "jadero" (other), "sneo" (fibers, rope) etc. are too far from Greek and other modern languages, so they call for good etymological skills or clever mnemonic connections in order to be memorized.
Usage with no affixes
The Systematic language can be used without any affix at all: with -o added optionally and only to facilitate pronunciation, all words being considered as nouns with a strict word order A-N (Adjective-Noun, complementary-main) of the Chinese type, there is no affix at all, and yet the language can work satisfactorily up to some level of communication; for example, you can start a story like this: “ten gnos antrop edno e exo texno gnos panto kruf kas uko wora...” ("there was a prophet, he could know all hidden and invisible things"...); for a poem in no-affix Systematic language, see “sample texts” below.
Usage with the 5 main suffixes
Still the main way of using the Systematic language is with the 5 main suffixes: every word in the Systematic is considered basically a noun, having the suffix –o; substituting –a, an adverb is formed from that noun; suffix –i makes an active verb from that noun, and –eti makes a passive verb from that noun; dropping the final –i presents the verb action as required and not as actual. So, the 5 main suffixes are: -o makes a noun (it is a quasi definite article) -a makes an adverb (“the ‘way’ of the noun”); -i makes an active verb (“cause that noun to be, or use [as] that noun”). -eti makes a passive verb (“become [with] that noun or be used as that noun”). (absence of the –i) turns the verb into “required” mood (mostly imperative, but also subjunctive). For example, the noun karpo =fruit (or, metaphorically, a result); karpa =regarding the fruit, or “as a result”, e.g. “to futo karpa uka xreso, zesto amera skotia ewo” = “that tree, in terms of fruit, is not useful, (but) it is good for giving shade under the hot sun”. The active verb produced is karpi =to make fruit, e.g. “to futo taxa karpi” = “that tree brings fruit early”, metaphorically “moxto karpi” = “hard word is bringing results”. The passive verb “karpeti” =to be made, become with fruit, or to be turned to fruit, or fruit is produced; e.g. “pojo karpeti geo to?” = “who gets the fruit of this field / land?”, or “futo poro / eroto / karaako karpeti” = “the flower will turn into fruit” (flower can be called many ways, e.g. “the plant’s open thing / the plant’s sexual part / the plant's little head”); another example, “to kampo makro futo, ek'a urano karpeti” = “this vine is made to bring fruit by the sky (nature, or God)”. Now, dropping the –i we have “karp” = e.g. “may (the vine etc.) bring fruit! In the passive voice “karpet” = “may (it) become (with) fruit”, e.g. “to karpet!” = “may it (this orchard etc.) be full of fruit”, or “tewo zeto karpet!” = “may your desire be fulfilled!”.
Concatenation of suffixes
An important feature of the Systematic language is that the 5 main suffixes (also the “shortcut” affixes, see below) can concatenate. This is optional: the Systematic language can be used without adding any suffix on another one; Still, concatenating of suffixes is only limited by the speaker's creativity and the listener's understanding. Every added suffix refers to the word formed before it. E.g. xresi = s/he uses, xresia = by using, by means of; xreso = use, usage; xresoa = according to the way of using, and so on. We can also double the verb suffix -i: xresii (xres/i/i) then means "to make someone use", i.e. a causative verb, as also xresieti (xres/i/eti)= s/he is made / forced to use, xresetii (xres/eti/i)= s/he forces (him/her etc.) to be used as"; the noun suffix –o can also be meaningfully doubled, e.g. engo = I, so engoo = engo/o = a thing or person related to me, i.e. "mine". Combining of suffixes can give the Systematic language means of expression too many to list; they are to be discovered as the user becomes more and more familiar with the suffixes and the language as a whole.
Although the language as described above has been made very practical for most purposes, yet, to make it even more practical, a number of affixes have been deemed useful. The affixes described below as “shortcuts” are NOT indispensable; they may be replaced by the other means already provided for the Systematic Language; still they can be useful as means to express something more briefly. Briefness and succinctness are considered important for the language to be used as an international tool. Therefore, the following affixes are offered for optional use, so as to have a highly practical language and flexible too:
13 suffixes for production
Note: the 13 shortcut suffixes can, of course, be put after another suffix, but they are mostly meant to be put directly after the mere stem of words. E.g., for the word fengo (moonlight etc.) suffixes are mostly to be put directly after feng-, so we form: fengino (moon’s color), fengako (a moon appearing, or described as, small), fengaro (moon appearing, or described as, big), fengido (something similar to moon), fengiko (something pertaining to the moon), fengitiko (of the moon), fenguxo (with moon(light)), fengesi (s/he likes or desires the moonlight), fengtero (a bigger moon or more bright moonlight), fengani (can shine like the moon), fengtro (a lamp that gives white light reminding of the moon). The meaning of the shortcut suffixed words is based on the noun meaning of the word stems, because anyway all words in the Systematic language are considered as basically nouns, and even adverbs (-a) and verbs (-i, -eti) derive from the noun-meaning of every root. So even the shortcut meanings are based on the nominal (noun meaning), and therefore an –o after the bare root and before a shorcut suffix is usually pleonastic, although not prohibited; e.g. it is permitted to say “ameroesi” (s/he desires the day / sun to rise), but the meaning is the same as of “ameresi”. Sometimes a basic suffix (before the shortcut suffix) is useful to distinguish different meanings, e.g.: “tewo idikesi” (idik/es/i) = you desire (something which already is) yours; while “tewo idikiesi” (idik/i/es/i) = you desire to make (it) yours (because idik- = one’s own, but idiki= to make (it) one’s own). The 13 shortcut suffixes are:
- -in(o) is the color suffix, short for xromo. So the basic colors are: fatino (the color of light) or awgino (the egg-color) =white; saxino (blood-color) =red, kitrino (citrus-) =yellow, atrakino (coal-) =black, skotino (darkness-) =dark, grey, black(ish); kuanino (blue stone-) =blue, uranino (sky-) =light blue; prasino (leek etc.-) or futino (the main color of plants) =green; airino =metallic (shiny, glossy); geino (earth-) =brown; pnowino (air-) or ukino (color of nothing) =transparent.
- -ak(o) is diminutive, e.g. woikako = woik/ak/o = a small house or building, short for mikro woiko.
- -ar(o) is the enlargement suffix, e.g. woxaro = wox/ar/o = a big vehicle, short for mego woxo.
- -id(o) means something similar, (short for “omo”) e.g. antropido = antrop/id/o = similar to a human being, e.g. an ape.
- -ik(o) means pertaining to, related to (short for “apa” or "mita"), e.g. futiko = fut/ik/o = something pertaining to plants, e.g. futiko prago =something made of vegetable material.
- -itik(o) means belonging to (short for “apa” or “eka” or “exeti”), e.g. agriitiko = agri/itik/o = something belonging to wild nature; aderfitiko = something belonging to a sibling.
- -ux(o) means having (“exi”) or containing, e.g. sakaruxo = sakar/ux/o = containing sugar or some sweet substance.
- -es(i) means desiring or wishing (“zeti”), e.g. ugir(o)esi = ugir(o)/es/i = s/he wants water, i.e. is thirsty, or geo ugiresi = the earth needs water; ewi = to do something good, so ewiesi = to desire to do something good;
erxeti = to come, arrive, so erxeteso = erx/et/es/o = a wish / a desire to visit, etc; armieso =armi/es/o =a craving for salty food, sakareso =a craving for sweets; upereseso =uperes/es/o =willingness to help; uperesesio =uperes/es/i/o =a person willing to serve / help.
- -ter(o) means more (“kasa”, "ana"), especially useful for adjectival or adverbial words, e.g. makra = far away, makratero = makr/a/ter/o = something located even farther. makrtero (makr/tero, where r may be pronounced as a vowel) or makrotero (makro-tero) = longer.
- -tr(o) is the suffix for all kinds of tools or machines, shortcut for "makeno". For example, ugirtro or ugiritro is obviously a tap (faucet) or water hose or handshower, depending on the context; anitro is an elevator;
puxrtro or puxritro is a lighter or a match; fattro or fatitro is a lamp or spotlight; pnowtro can be a fan, or it can be pnowet(i)tro (pnow/eti/tro), that is "something used to blow air on oneself", a handheld fan, and so on.
- -nes(o) is the feminine suffix, short for 'gweno'; e.g., bowo =an ox, bowneso =a cow. "to" is the definite article, suffixed as tneso or toneso, it is the feminine definite article, or "she" or "she, who...".
- -wis(o) is the masculine suffix, short for 'andro'; e.g. 'ippo' is a horse, 'ippwiso' is a male horse (a stallion); the masculine definite article or masculine personal or relative pronoun is twiso or towiso.
- -an(i) means “can do”. Originally, SostiMatiko had a special word ("bor/i) for "can do"; later it was eliminated, as there are many other ways to express the notion of "can do" (e.g. “dunameti ina”, “poreti werg”, "exi werg", "gnosi (poja) werg"); The suffix /an/ was in SostiMatiko since its first design, and it needs special attention for people who are not familiar with expressing possibility / ability through suffixation.
- A few examples will help understand its usage in conjunction with -o (noun, "the"), -i (active verb, "doing"), -eti (passive verb, "get"), and -et (passive verb, "to get"):
- zesto =warm; zesti =(they) make warm; zesteti =(they) get warm / warm (them)selves;
- zestano =zest/an/o=the ability to make warm;
zestani =zest/an/i =(they) can make warm; zestaneti =zest/an/eti =(they) get the ability (=become able) to make warm.
- zestetano =zest/et/an/o =the ability / possibility to get warm;
zestetani =zest/et/an/i =(they) can warm themselves, they can get warm; zestetaneti =zest/et/an/eti =(they) can be warmed (by some other agent), i.e. it is possible to warm them.
- frasano =the ability to say / speak; frasani =(s/he) can say; frasaneti =(s/he) becomes able, is enabled to say or speak;
- frasetano =the ability / possibility to be said, spoken; frasetani =(it) is able (i.e. suitable) to be said / spoken; frasetaneti =(it) is possible to be said / spoken / expressed in words.
- Concatenation of suffixes is a simple matter if one is familiar with the 5 basic suffixes (-o, -a, -i, eti and lack of -i); the learner should first distinguish the suffixes, and then (if familiar with a head-initial morpheme order) can work out the meaning of the word from right to left. (E.g. omadetaneti =omad/et/an/eti =(eti) get (an) the ability to (et) get, become (omad) a group; so omadetaneti = "they get able / appropriate to become a group".
- Therefore we can say:
- "SostiMatika ufrasetanio, jadero frasaa ugnosetanio"
- =what cannot be said using SostiMatiko, is (only) what cannot be understood in another language.
4 prefixes for logical aspects
The shortcut prefixes have to do with the aspect of reality, i.e. in what way something is real or not; so:
- kse- is the reverting (“antia”, "opisa") or cancelling prefix; e.g. perii is to circle around or wrap around, so kseperii = kse/peri/i =s/he unwraps; pairi = s/he takes, ksepairi = s/he gives back what s/he had taken, etc.
- u(o)- is the negative (“uka”) or undoing prefix, so pairi = s/he takes, upairi = u/pair/i = s/he refuses to take; nekri = s/he kills, so unekrio = u/nekr/i/o = a person who does not kill, unekria = not by means of killing. tambo = blurred, so utambo = u/tamb/o = explicit, utambi = to make clear, to state clearly etc.
- um(e)- means NOT having or containg (“uka exi”, "uka mita"), i.e. the opposite of the suffix -ux; e.g. umepraso = ume/pras/o = (food) containing no onion or similar plant seasoning; umarmio (um/armi/o)= unsalted, containing no salt, etc.
- ksana- means "again", substituting e.g. nea / dua / kasa; for example, ksanaameri = ksana/ameri =the sun shines again, the sun brings a new day.
3 infixes for person
infixes are to be put inside the main word, immediately after the word's first vowel, e.g. pairi=takes, pajoiri=I take; woara (wo[wa]ra/) =you must see / watch; jaoder (ja[jo]der/) =i must change that. But if the word contains a consonant cluster of which the first is other than a nasal (n / m), then the infix must go in between the two consonants; e.g. atrako =coal, at[wa]raki= "you make coal" (or embers for cooking etc.). In case the word stem consists of one consonant only, the infix goes after that consonant, e.g. twao (t[wa]o, where t is the word stem, wa is the infix, and -o is the nominal suffix) = "you - that" i.e. "you there".
- All these infixes are to show the person of the word, i.e. the subject of the verb, or of the predicate:
- -(j)o- is "i" (or "we" if the word is marked or implied as plural); e.g. aisoteti (ais[jo]t/eti) =i feel.
- -(w)a- is "you"; e.g. eraxetso (er[wa]x/et^so) =you (here plural) must come.
- -(j)e- is he, she, it, or they; e.g. makera (mak[je]r/a) =away (with) that person.
- It is possible to combine two infixes, as follows:
- -(j)o(w)a- =me and you; -(j)o(j)e- me and him/her;
- -(w)a(j)o- =you and me; -(w)a(j)e- =you and him/her;
- -(j)e(j)o- =s/he and me; -(j)e(w)a- =s/he and you. Some examples:
- pajoaxo =me and you, both being fat (paxo); swaokotino =you and me, both being of dark (skoto) complexion;
pajeaizi =he and you play (paizi). paejoi (from pai) =he and me are travelling.
- Depending on the context, the infixes can be possessive, i.e. if we say "mawatino" (ma[wa]t/in/o) = "you - eyes + color", it doesn't make sense as "you ARE eyes' color", so it means "the color of your eyes".
- The infixes, especially those of the third person, are to be used really frugally; it is best to leave the person and subject understood by the context; next best way is to use the pronouns (engo, tewo, to); and only if these are not satisfactory, one may use the personal infixes.
Word stems ending in r, s, t; Backward formation
Backward formation of SostiMatiko words concerns especially word stems ending in -r; those ending in -s can also be affected, and possibly also those ending in -t. Backward formation might also be applied to words that appear to carry some of the shortcut affixes, while in fact they are not affixed.
- word stems ending in –r can be considered as mainly adjectival, and the noun which they are supposed to derive from is the same word stem without the –r. E.g. amero =day, ameo =the sun. In practice, losing that –r makes mostly abstract terms, e.g. sakaro =sweet, sakao =sweetness; varo =heavy, vao =gravity. The rule_of_thumb is that -r in the end of a word stem means "having".
- An "r" silenced for backward formation can be substituted by - (hyphen), and this can be shown in pronounciation by lengthening the previous sound, e.g. makro (long) >> mak-o (length), mak-o pronounced "makko", but written mak-o or simply mako.
- word stems ending in –s appear to signify the practical application of something signified by the same word without the –s, e.g. gnoso =knowledge, gnoo =mind; fraso =words, frao =communication. Hereby also, mostly abstract words are created.
- An "s" dropped for backward formation can be shown by ' (apostroph), and it is not shown in pronunciantion unless there is a possible confusion, in which case the previous vowel should be prolonged and raised in pitch; e.g. ekso (out) >> ek'o (origin), pronounced "eko"; the only known case of possible confusion is ka' (from kas =add, and), which might be confused with !ka ("in some way") from uka ("no way").
- word stems ending in –t generally signify things created by something else signified by the same word without the -t, e.g. auto =self, auo =identity or identification; donto =tooth, dono =jaw or gums (or even age, that makes the teeth grow); futo =a plant, fuo =a root; moxto =fatigue, moxo =hard work; mato =eye, so "mao" can be "the desire to see / visualization", zesto =warm, zeso =heat, source of warmth, etc.
- Absence of -t for backward formation may be shown by + (cross), which can be shown in pronunciation by a momentary stop of the speech airstream (usually a glottal stop); e.g. fa+o (source of light) from fato (light), potentially pronounced fa.o or /faʔo/.
This elimination of r, s, t, and backward formation in general, may be used by advanced users only, who are familiar with the 222 words of SostiMatiko.
- Examples of words that might (falsely) appear carrying some suffix, are idiko (one's own) which looks like *id- + suffix -ik(o), so one might think that "ido" means personal ownership, and dunamo (strength) which might be seen as *dun-a (strongly) and -mo (condition, situation, action, abstract thing).
Even the shortcut suffix -itik(o) may be seen as -it- ("belonging") + suffix -ik(o). In practice, a suffix /it/ has never been used until July 2014. Once again it must be reminded that backward formation may be used very frugally or not at all; it can sometimes be useful for puns, or for highly theoretical texts, or for creating shorter forms instead of longer ones. Abstact nouns (the most common application of backward formation) can be formed with ^mo, e.g. varomo (heaviness, gravity) instead of using backward formation (vao).
Many words of the Systematic Language can function as prepositions, conjunctions, articles, and grammatical particles in general; prepositions and conjunctions are usually treated as adverbs and therefore they should have the suffix -a. But also, a particle WITHOUT the suffix -a can be regarded as an imperative to the person addressed or to oneself, and so it is identical to zero-suffixed, i.e. the main word with no suffix at all. A few examples can make this clear: "kas" is the main word meaning adding or joining, so for "and" we use "kasa" (adverb suffix -a). But we can see it as an imperative, so we can simply say "kas" (verb imperative, no suffix) meaning "add / join", or "let me add / join" and this is practically the same as "kasa". Likewise, "of" is "apa" ("starting from", adverbial -a), but it can also be "ap" ("start from", "consider it belonging to"). The object marker is "no", so it should be “na” (adverbially), or “no” (noun meaning “object of verb”) but merely "n" means "consider it an object of verb", so the mere "n" works fine as an object marker. The same can be said of most of the prepositions or conjunctions: although ideally suffixed -a, they can usually work the same as well with no suffix. All grammatical words are treated as independent words and are separately written; only ^mo (happening, action, situation, abstract thing, infinitive), ^no (object of verb, thing done, created, modified, controlled etc.) and ^so (a number of things, plural) may optionally adhere to the preceding word in writing.
The Systematic language lacks a specific subject marker, and the sentence subject is quite often omitted altogether, but it can be indicated in many ways, mainly through the context and word order. With a SVO word order (main word order of Systematic), there is no need for a subject marker. Such a need might be felt when the subject is not followed by a verb. If the sentence contains a verb object marked by n(o), then the other noun close to the verb is obviously the subject. An auxiliary verb "ti" (does that) or "t" (do that) or "teti" (gets that) after the subject clearly indicates the subject of the main verb. To indicate a nominal word as subject that must not be taken as a modifier to the following noun, we can simply use punctuation, such as a comma, or ":"; if the subject is linked to a predicate without a copula (such as "ejneti"), we can also use a question mark "?" after the subject.
Grammatical words as described above are usually treated as clitics and the most common available means to distinguish them in writing is the hyphen; in pronunciation, the clitics are pronounced without any strength or emphasis, as joined to the main (or "host") word. Hyphenation can also be used for ordinary words joined to each other semantically. It is interesting that hyphenation has not been used at all until the end of the year 2013, as it has not been deemed necessary; however, for facilitating the learners or in case ambiguity may seem to arise, hyphenation may be proved very useful for the Systematic language.
Making compound words
The only compound words consisting of more than one word stem but possibly written as one word, are those with ^mo / ^no / ^so as the second element. Even ^mo / ^no / ^so can be written as separate words. However, there is no restriction in joining words to make compound terms; this is done by placing the modifying / supplementary word before the main / modified one (head–final positioning, as usually in English); e.g. pnowo woxo = “air – means of transport” = airplane; pnowo woxo geo = airport; pnowa pai “by air – goes” = it is flying. It must be remembered though, that all words are written separately, even when joined semantically.
When people not knowing each other’s language meet, usually they know the international way of writing numbers (1, 2, 3 etc.), so for numbers they can communicate in writing, even with a finger as a notional pen; therefore, it is not very important for beginners to learn the words for numbers in Systematic language. There are only two words applied for numbers only: edno =single, 1, duo = couple, 2; to say 3, a practical way is "to to to" ("that, that, and that"), or duo edno (2+1). A number of words can be secondarily applied to numbers, in mathematical context or with prefix "sa" ("in terms of numbering"):
- sa mikro (small) =a few
- sa orto (standing) =3
- sa stawro (cross) =4
- sa xero (hand) =5
- sa iso (directions) =6
- sa giuro (circle) =7
- sa geo (earth) =8
- sa ano (high) =9
- sa dexo (both hands) =10
- sa jadero (different) =11
- sa zojo (animals) =12
- sa erxo (arrival) =13
- sa mito (company) =14
- sa kako (bad) =15
- sa ewo (good) =16
- sa kino (movement) =17
- sa eo (past) =18
- sa newo (new) =19
- sa podo (feet) =20
- sa donto (teeth) =32
- sa woiko (house) =100
- sa mego (big) =1000.
Further the Systematic Language can easily express all numbers for all practical purposes, not only by adding, but by multiplying as well: the imperative form of words (with zero suffix, that is the word stem unsuffixed) means “multiply”, so "du" means "double", "xer" = “multiply by 5”, "dex" = “multiply by 10”; so e.g. (sa) dex dex dexo = 10x10x10 =1000. e.g. 1821 can be expressed as sa mego, (kas) du du du dex dexo, du dexo, edno. Another way is: edno (1), du du duo (8), duo (2), edno (1). For a fraction we use some form of the word "mero" (part) e.g. 22/7 can be "xero duo mera du dexo duo" ("of 7 parts, 22"), or “xero duoa: du dexo duo”. For an ordinal number, sera (“by order”, “in series”) can be used, e.g. “sera dexo xero edno” = sixteenth; sera (sa) eo =eightteenth.
For square powers of numbers, the augmentative suffix /ar/ can be used: e.g. sa zoj/ar/o "a big twelve" =12 X 12 =144, sa megaro =1000 X 1000 =one million. For fraction denominators, the diminutive suffix /ak/ can be used: e.g. sa ort/ak/o "a small three" is ⅓, "sa du ortako" is two thirds, and so on.
Syntax is based on the head-final word order, mostly dependent-marking or with zero marking.
Reversing the word order is permitted, but then the meaning is modified. So, for example, "makro sneo" is a long rope, but "sneo makro" means "the rope is long".
Normally preceding are also the relative clauses complementing a noun; e.g. apa terio fagetio jago "by wild beast eaten sheep" = the sheep that (a) wild beast ate;
However, the definite article / pronoun TO can be used as a relative pronoun to introduce a relative clause after the main (modified) word: jago, to apa terio fageti =the sheep, that by a wild beast (was) eaten; jago, ton terio fagi =the sheep, that a wild beast ate.
Clauses can be inserted through punctuation: jago, teria fagetio, too dermo to =the sheep, by (a) wild beast eaten, its fleece is this.
Prepositions and head-adverbs
SostiMatiko uses prepositions and no postpositions, but quite often adverbs with their dependents before them appear to work like postpositions. This matter is in fact an application of the head-final syntax, and to understand this is to know even the most subtle syntactic functions of the Systematic Language.
- The reason why SostiMatiko uses PREpositions and no postpositions is that prepositions work as secondary verbs (followed by their objects). On the other hand, adverbs work as head words in relation to their dependents preceding them (because of the head-final word order). Objects usually come after their verbs, because object is usually considered a head (e.g. wergis woiko "they are building the house", is actually "what they are making is a house", so "a house" is justified to be put last in the sentence as the head of it).
- Some examples from Chinese will be very useful, because SostiMatiko word order is similar to that of Classical Chinese.
- 勺子在桌子上 =ostrako rabo - ejna - podo pinako - ana = "the spoon - existing - table - on" =the spoon is on the table.
- Here 在 "ejna", existing, is a preposition; 上 "ana", on, is an adverb expanded by its dependent 桌子 "podo pinako", table. So, "table on" means "on the table", as is the common word order in head-final languages e.g. Turkish or Japanese.
- 硬幣是你的腳下 =argurako - (ejna) - tewo podo - kata = "the coin - (existing) - you foot - down" =(the) coin is under your foot.
- Here 是 "that one; indeed" (in SostiMatiko "ejna") is the preposition, and 下 "kata" (down) is the adverb, so 你的腳(=your foot) 下(=down) =under your foot. Again the adverb's dependent precedes it, as in typically head-final languages.
- 煙灰缸是你的口袋裡 =puxro skono doxo - (ejna)- tewo somo panno doxo - mesa =(the) ashtray (existing) - you pocket - inside =the ashtray is in your pocket.
- Here again "that one; indeed" (in SostiMatiko "ejna" which can be ommitted) is the preposition, while 裡 "inside" (in SostiMatiko: "mesa") is the adverb modified by its dependent 你的口袋 "your pocket", so "your pocket - inside" = inside your pocket.
- SostiMatiko works exactly like that: we can have a preposition and then an adverbial clause ending with the adverb preceded by its dependent.
- And yet, in SostiMatiko it is not necessary to have all these: it is possible to omit the preposition, or the adverb, or both of them, if the context is enough to know the meaning. E.g. we can say "arnito edreti idiko woiko mesa" ("bird sits own home inside") =the bird is sitting in its nest (here no preposition); also we can say "pa idiko woiko" ("go own house") =let (the bird) go to its nest (here no preposition and no adverb, also no subject stated, as it can be understood by the context; say that is in a dialog: "arnito frasi 'pajo pojo gea! pajo pojo gea!'" - "pa idiko woiko" = "the bird says 'where should i go? where should i go?'" - "it should go to its nest!").
- Words commonly used as prepositions or conjunctions in the Systematic Language are: ana (on), antia (opposite to, responding to), apa (of, from), dia (through, between, because), ejna (indeed, existing), ek' (out of, because, since), empra (in front, before), saita (straight, directly), deksa (to / on the right side), erxa (on the arrival of; just after), exa (having, with), ftana (arriving; until), gea (at that place, there), ina (aiming, in order to, with the purpose of), isa (towards, to, at), jora (at the hour, then, when), kaira (at the time, when), kasa (also, and, too), kata (down, under), konda (near, nearly, soon), makra (far, away), mesa (inside, at), mita (with, together), oma (like, similarly), opisa (behind, after), paa (going, towards), para (next to; comparing to), perana (to / on the other side), peria (around), suna (with the complement of), tura (through the door, passageway of), xawra (in the place of, there; instead), xena (supposing, if), xresa (using, by means of), zerva (to / on the left side).
- Some of the above (mainly 'apa', 'isa') are more common as prepositions, but most of them are more common as adverbs (appearing like postpositions, with their dependents before them). Punctuation (in writing) and intonation (in speech) are usually necessary to make it clear whether a word functions as a preposition or as an adverb with modifiers before it. The most common practice so far is to put some punctuation, mostly "," or ":", after the adverb which is preceded by its dependent (e.g.: ewo antia, dos ewo; kako antia: dos sosta "in return to good, give good; in return to evil, give according to justice" -from Confucius Analects). For hyphenation and usage of zero instead of "-a" suffix, see also "Grammatical words" above.
The word i (derived through backward formation from 'is') has existed for long time only in theory; however, it is now (2004 September) seen that it can be the most helpful preposition of SostiMatiko in order to denote placement, position, e.g. "i pojo? - i to" (where is it? - there!). This "i" can go after a preposition to make clear it is a preposition: "to oma i eo" = "the present is like the past" (here 'oma i' is the preposition), or after an adverb to show it is complemented by the following term: "ana i mego futo" =up on the tall tree, although adverbs showing position are typically put after their dependents, as "to, eo oma" and "mego futo ana". When that "i" goes as an adverb after its dependents, it will have the form "ia" (as and adverb) and not just "i" which is to be used prepositionally.
Writing system and pronunciation
The Systematic Language should preferably be written in the Latin alphabet as explained; second preference is the Cyrillic alphabet. Third preference is the Japanese katakana with half width kana or short "u" kana used for the first of clustered consonants. Apart from these, the Systematic Language can be transliterated in any other system of writing, EXCEPT GREEK alphabet; the reason is that the Greek alphabet is reserved for the FreeGreek Language.
Proper names are to be written as in the language in which they belong, possibly also as in the native language of the people addressed; Greek proper names are to be written in the Latin transliteration system as used for the Free Greek Language, or as in the native language of the people addressed.
The sentences are not to start with a capital letter; only proper names are to be written with the first letter capital and all the rest in lower (or upper) case; this means that proper names should stand out by their first letter capitalized and all other letters in lower case, within words entirely written in lower case (or entirely in upper case).
Exclamations should be written between two exclamation marks, e.g. !ha ha!; or between quotation marks when there is no chance of confusing with the Systematic vocabulary.
Apart for proper names, exclamations and imitating sounds, the Systematic language uses the following letters of the Latin alphabet: abdefgijkmnoprstuvwxz. The consonants are to be pronounced ideally as in the International Phonetic Alphabet; Still, some deviation according to every speaker's native language, will not cause a problem.
The only letter that calls for particular attention is "x", although the sound is familiar in many languages; If one cannot pronounce /x/, then one can substitute it with h or another sound similar to /x/ or even to /ç/.
There is no mute letter as often e.g. in French; all letters are to be quite audibly pronounced; Also there is no sound represented by more than one letters; (for this reason, the “th” of original Greek words has been reduced to t). A possible exception is that stem-final j (which is actually purely euphonic) may optionally be muted -still written-, and final -oo which optionally may be pronounced as /u/ (to facilitate pronunciation, see next heading).
The five vowels of Systematic are to be pronounced as in any of the many languages that use a 5 vowel (a e i o u) system; ideally, “a” is the most open, most back, and most unrounded vowel; “e” is front and explicitely more open than “i”; “i” is front and as close as practicable. “o” and “u” are the only rounded vowels of Systematic, they should be pronounced as much rounded as practicable, (“o” as a back vowel; “u” as back (or near-back, but even possibly front) vowel); “o” is open (low) and “u” is close (high), both as much as practicable.
Semivowels and means to facilitate pronunciation (sandhi)
j is "a half i", w is "a half u", i.e. semivowels, more scientifically called approximants,
j articulated as i, w articulated as u, but j and w cannot be lengthened or stressed.
There are various means to facilitate pronunciation, but these are NOT to be shown in writing:
- It is important in Systematic language to deal with hiatus:
- hiatus is not forbidden; yet if it is desired to avoid hiatus, one may add a pharyngeal, glottal or epiglottal sound (h or something similar to h) after a, j after i or even e, w after u or even o.
- As in many natural languages, hiatus can especially be avoided by the glottal stop /ʔ/ inserted between vowels; (like all other means to facilitate pronunciation, the glottal stop is not to be represented in writing).
- It is also possible to pronounce "eji" in place of "ii" and "owu" in place of "uu", if "ii" or "uu" is considered difficult; sometimes there is a sequence "iii", and that is much easier pronounced as "iei"; e.g. in "armiii" meaning "(she) made (him) put (more) salt (to the food)", that is better pronounced as "armiei" - still written "armiii".
- At the end of words, oo can be pronounced as ou, ow, or u (so pronouncing "-oo" practically same as in English "too").
- An i next to another vowel may be pronounced like j, and an u next to another vowel may be pronounced like w. (so, e.g. in the case of giuro, one may pronounce “giuro” or “gjuro” or “giwro”). As the distinction between o and u is hardly phonemic, -oo at the end of words can be pronounced "ou", thus by coincidence resembling the Classical Greek genitive ending -ou.
- An i after a vowel can be pronounced as ji, and an u after a vowel can be pronounced as wu; especially in the combinations "ii", "ei", "uu" and "ou".
- Some people, according to their native language, find it hard to pronounce consonants unless followed by a vowel; for such a purpose, Greeks tend to use a "u" after a consonant, Japanese usually add a Japanese short "u", Turks often use their "ı", Koreans use “ᅳ” which sounds exactly like the Turkic "ı" /ɯ/, and other people use a kind of "ə" ("schwa") for enabling a consonant to be pronounced; (such auxiliary vowels for pronouncing a consonant not followed by a vowel, although freely permitted, are not to be represented in alphabetic writing).
- Non plosive consonants that can be pronounced with some duration, especially r, m, n, can be pronounced as vocalic when they are found without any vowel next to them.
- A -j in the end of a word stem may be silenced if that makes the pronunciation easier or the word more explicit; e.g. "diktuj" (make / use a net) can be pronounced as "diktu"; again, as all means for facilitating pronunciation, it is not to be shown in writing: even a silenced -j should still be represented in written texts.
- ow and wo within word stems can be pronounced aw and wa respectively.
Syllable / vowel emphasis
A syllable may be emphasized by lengthening its vowel, by higher pitch of the vowel, or by stressing the vowel. Emphasizing is quite optional; the user does not have to emphasize any syllable or vowel; yet it is useful for expressive reasons. Emphasizing a syllable does not change the meaning of a word; it is only to add emphasis if desired. Emphasis on a stem syllable of a word highlights the word's root meaning. Stress on a suffix is to highlight that suffix. Syllable / vowel emphasis does not have to be represented in writing. If the user wishes, it may be shown by the accent mark, e.g. á for a, é for e, ó for o etc., or by adding an ! (exclamation mark) before the emphasized vowel. So, it is possible to write !a for a higher pitch "a", !aa for a longer "a", !A for a stronger "a", but all these are only to emphasize an "a", and likewise the other vowels; as the meaning remains really the same, it is best to avoid writing emphasized vowels, or to write them very sparingly, for style reasons only. Emphasizing a whole word can be shown by simple underlining or capitalizing the word.
Questions are clearly marked in speech by intonation, and in writing by a question mark. There is no special grammatic marker for questions, but if desired, "weja" ("alternatively, or") can be used for such a purpose; e.g. tewo ejna frasi, weja? = "Are you talking seriously, or (what)?".
The most important concern while constructing the Systematic language was to eliminate as much as possible any chance for ambiguity. For easier minimizing the chances for ambiguity, the “shortcut” prefix u- has the alternative form uo-, and the “shortcut” prefix um- has also the alternative form ume-. The word stem "e" (past) can be pronounced and written "je" in case of possible confusion with "ew" (good). Also, the word stem ex (to have) should be pronounced "jex" if there appears to be a chance of confusing with wex (sound, voice). Infixes can further be added to eliminate any possible chance of ambiguity, and again for avoiding ambiguity the infixes have two forms each: (j)o, (w)a, (j)e.
"mon" could be taken as "mo" (abstract thing) with ^no (object), but the longer recognisable forms are always to prevail, so "mon/" is "mon/" meaning "alone", and not "mo" with "no". "mo no" is to be written and pronounced as separated words, each separately stressed. Also, mo with an infix (e.g. meo) is a good means of distinguishing from the stem "mon/".
Literature and Divination
Although the Systematic language is newly created, there is already a rich amount of texts already written in it. Also, there are already a considerable number of interesting short texts automatically produced by computer. Automatically produced texts are called “divinatory” if they are prompted by a person asking a question; this function is considered important, because in this way everyone can be a user and learner of the language even when there is no visible person to talk with in the Systematic language. The “divination” function of the language can work not only electronically, but also with a deck of 222 square cards, on each of which 8 forms of a word can be written, i.e. the six basic forms (e.g. anango , ananga, anangi, anang, anangeti, ananget) plus with prefix u(o)–, and prefix kse- with basic suffix -i (e.g. uanango and kseanangi); 4 of these forms to be on the 4 sides of recto and the other 4 forms on the 4 sides of verso of each card.
- geo pnowo ktupo wexo
- fato xromo airo xero
- suringo agapo sakaro fraso
- akuo psuxo ewo ejno.
It is not possible to translate because it can be interpreted in many ways, but the individual words basically mean: “earth breath beat sound – light color metal hand (implying: five) – tube love sweet speak – hear spirit good being”.
- Note that the handwritten text preserves the original form "foto" (light, brightness) which was later made "fato" to differentiate from "futo" (plant).
ejna, SostiMatiko frasaoo onumo aritmo mikro, jadera: xresia onumoo karao suno, kasa fraso no kondio suno kas mitia onumo so, dunameti frasi bioo ananga panto. xen panto antropo gnosi to SostiMatiko frasao, uka anangeti jadero kaso frasao kas pori panto frasaiko frago. ftani to, xresa mona gnosi idiko frasao kas SostiMatiko, to ejna umoxta gnoseti: edno amera, weja 8 (du du duo) joro mesa. SostiMatika, panto antropo xresoa dunami krisano: dia meria, ejnia, mitia onumo so; ta, gnosia SostiMatiko, antroposo xresa xresa texneti ina sosta worai kasa sosta frasi ejno. ta, isa antropo so, konda uko ejneti xresoa ewtero.
Liberally translated as:
On the usefulness of the Systematic (language)
“Although the Systematic Language uses a minimal vocabulary, by using the basic suffixes or even the "shortcut" suffixes and by combining words, it can express practically everything in human life. If all people knew this Systematic Language, they would not need another second language to overcome all language barriers; it would be enough to know one's native language, and the Systematic, which is really easy to memorize - it can be learnt in one day or in eight hours - and by using it all people would exercise their intellect in analysing, structuring and combining concepts; by knowing the Systematic Language people will be trained in discerning and transmitting the truth. So, hardly anything can be more useful for humanity”.
The Lord’s prayer
- o uranosa gonio apa engos,
- megateratera ewo tewoo onumo,
- erxet tewoo karaamo,
- werget tewoo zeto,
- poja urana, ta kas gea.
- engosoo anango fagon
- dos isa engos to amera
- kas afi udojoosanimo, ta kasa engos afii udosanios isa engos.
- kas engosno uka is fobetmo krisetmo,
- aa! engosno eks apa kako.
- dia: iwadiko ejneti karaamo kasa dunamo kasa amo
- to to kaira kasa panto kaira,
krisa weja ejna
urano geo mita: panto ejneti to ejneti; uka krisa ejneti, mona ejna ejneti. edno woraii: nekrio muko weja jadero nekrio futo utamba frasi: uka fag engo, ta nekri tewo. panto zojo gnosi to. uko zojo, uko kaira fagi nekrio muko weja jadero nekrio futo; xen e fagi, to to kaira uko zojo bii. to gnoso xodon antropo e afii, uk exi. edno ton frasi ano ewo gnoso membrano doxo (Hajia Grafee, Holy Bible): e fagi ap “futo to gnosii ewo kas kako”. to mo ejna pojo? pairi MONA IDIKO KRISA xodoa pragoson gnosimo, ta kakon krisi ewon kas toa antia. is to, fatia gnoson meni edna to: ftorio futoson uka gnosi ftorioson: fagani nekrio muko, ton uko zojo uko kaira fagi; toa opisa, antropo aisteti ewo ek' umeakro aritmo prago to ftori auto.
(woraiios: xresa eroto ftori idiko bio, skoto pnowoi, trero ugiroi, argura paizoi, nekretio fagoi, panta autoo bion ftoria aisteti ewon. aistimo frasi: uka fag nekretio sarko; fagia kakon aisteti, stoma eksesi, krisi jadera: nekron sarkes, kako aiston skep kas fag to. broxa «gaxu guxu» wexa somo makrai skoto pnowo, krisi jadera: skoto pnowon kas, somo pair to. somo zeti sosto wergo, krisi jadero: sosto wergoa fagon kas anango pragon exio, uk gnosi; argura paizoa pair. panta ta: kakon krisi ewon, kako aiston maxa ewoi. tón Hajia Grafee onumi «ewon kas kakon gnoso», ejna antia gnoso, ejna soston ftorio gnoso, auton ftorio gnoso).
ta, karpa pojo? nekreti! urano geo mita: uko nekreti, dia to: panto gnosi psuxo unekreti; mona antropo uk gnosi to, dia pojo? dia to: fagia ufageto futo (to: gnoson tambio) mega podi is auta pseudomo: afii xoda gnosimo ejna ejnon, uk miteti ejna ejno. dia to to: ek'i kasa to uka krisi fraso: ea, panto fraso wexo mito gnoseti mita idiko ejno meno onumetio: panto onumo gnoseti mita idiko onumetio. (onumo ejneti fraso wexo mito. panto wexo mito, uka antropo omada, mona urano kasa geo mita: mena onumi edno prago, ton antropos e gnosi); ta panto xresa mono edno fraso xodo frasi. toa opisa, ek'i dosi is onumos idiko krisa onumetios, ta edno frasao mereti isa mego aritmo frasao kasa antropo uka gnosi fraso ap jadero antropo. kas, engos pantos xresia edno frasao, pantos Helleen-ika (Greek), antia: woraeti pojo moxto ina omada gnosi.
On subjectiveness and objectiveness
By nature, everything is what it is objectively, not subjectively. A proof for that is every poisonous mushroom or other deadly plant, which says: “do not eat me, or i kill you”. All animals know that; no animal has ever eaten a poisonous mushroom or other poisonous plant; if animals would eat poisonous mushrooms and plants, now there would be no animal living.
But humans have abandoned this natural wisdom and do not have it any more. Exactly this is what the book of higher wisdom (the Holy Bible) means when it says that they ate “of the plant that gives knowledge of good and evil”. What is the real meaning of that act? That (people) acquired a quite SUBJECTIVE way of judging things by which they know evil as good and reversely. This is confirmed by the fact that they do not know the harmful plants as harmful; people may eat deadly mushrooms which animals never eat. After that, people find pleasure in countless things that harm themselves.
(Examples: by means of sex they harm their own life; they smoke; they use alcoholic or psychotropic drinks; they gamble for money; they use killed (animals) as food… a human being finds pleasure in harming one’s own life in every way.The sense says: “do not eat killed flesh”; trying to eat it, one feels a disgust, a tendency to vomit; but one judges “one must desire dead flesh, must cover the repulsive taste (in various ways) and eat it”. By coughing, the body repels smoke, but one judges: “continue smoking, so that the body accepts it”. The body wants righteous work, but one judges: “those who obtain food and other necessities by righteous work, are not clever; one should (rather) obtain these by gambling”. In every way behaves like that: judges the evil to be good, and by force turns the bad sensation into a good one. This is what the Holy Bible names “knowledge of good and evil”: it is a reverse knowledge, a way of “knowledge” that destroys righteousness, “knowledge” to harm oneself.
What is the result of such (attitude)? (People) die! By nature nothing dies, because all (creatures) know that the soul is immortal; it is only humans that do not know that; why? Because, by eating the plant(s) that is not to be eaten (that is, narcotic plant(s)), (humans) made a great leap to self deception: they abandoned objectiveness, they should be known to have lost contact of the objective reality.
This same reason is also the origin of not understanding languages: In the past, every combination of phonemes was known with its own objective and stable meaning; every word was known with its own meaning. (Words are combinations of phonemes; every combination of phonemes –not according to human groups, but according to nature– permanently names one thing, which thing was known by people in the past): and this is how all (people) talked by using one language only. After that (epoch) they started giving subjective meanings to words, and this is how the one language was divided and was made into numerous languages, then a person does not know the language of another. Even all us who use one language, all of us (know) Greek, but still it is obvious how hard it is for us to know (something) in agreement.
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