User:Am dying/Questions

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Questions I asked on the Reference Desk:

India Export Tax[edit]

Where can I find articles regarding export tax of India on Portland Cement? Do they have an export tax? --Transit1 02:46, 6 November 2006 (UTC)

Export taxes are one of the stupidest taxes ever invented, I would think India would be smarter than that. They just damage their own industry, exports, and economy. Import taxes, on the other hand, can help protect native industries. StuRat 05:50, 6 November 2006 (UTC)
Actually stu, I have to disagree. Export taxes do have their use, because selling in the foreign becomes more expensive selling in the homecountry somewhat more interesting. usually this also discourages the settlement of low-wage factories which usually are BAD for the health standard of a country. also the extra effect is that the production of cement in this case which is pretty highly polluting (at least with the techniques used in india). Graendal 06:13, 6 November 2006 (UTC)
Sorry, that makes no sense. They should aim to sell in both foreign AND domestic markets. Cutting off one market won't help the other. As for environmental protection, the way to do that is with tough environmental protection laws, not by destroying industry. That way, if it's possible to produce cement without breaking the laws, they will, and if not, they will go out of business. StuRat 14:52, 6 November 2006 (UTC)
Also, it's not the presence of low-wage jobs that are bad for the people, it's the absence of high-wage jobs. Adding low-wage jobs to an economy never hurts anything, unless it comes at the cost of high-wage jobs, and there's no reason to think that high-wage jobs would be destroyed by exporting goods. If anything, a few high-wage jobs would be created (engineering, etc.). StuRat 14:57, 6 November 2006 (UTC)

On a semi-relevant note, the U.S. constitution bans export taxes, brecause the drafters of the Constitution were afraid of future political favoritism between the exports of different states... AnonMoos 19:44, 6 November 2006 (UTC)

I'm still struggling with "selling in the foreign becomes more expensive selling in the homecountry somewhat more interesting". JackofOz 00:11, 7 November 2006 (UTC)
Allow me to translate into English:
"When selling a product in a foreign market becomes more expensive, the producer turns his interest toward selling the product in his home country."
I don't agree that this is good, however. If there was a domestic market with unsatisfied demand, the company would have already sold the product there before exploring export opportunities. If forced to dump their product on the domestic market, the excess supply will cause a price collapse, which will harm that company, as well as any competitors. StuRat 02:26, 7 November 2006 (UTC)

You should all love reading The Wealth of Nations. -THB 00:18, 7 November 2006 (UTC)

Please, no flashbacks to 1987, thank you. (Love? Shudder.) --Charlene 23:10, 7 November 2006 (UTC)

Institutional Investors & Patents[edit]

Say I have a good idea, and I have patented it. How do I get in touch with Institutional Investors so they will provide with start up capital for my company? --Records 20:47, 28 November 2006 (UTC)

I'm not sure there's a sure-fire way to do it. There are companies which will take your money and say that they will promote your invention (google "inventor agent" for a bunch of them), but personally I'd be suspicious of them (many of those sorts of companies—like self-publishing houses—feed on the vanity of their clients). If you google "venture capital" you'll get lots of resources which give suggestions or companies for finding funding; again I'd be wary. -- 02:15, 29 November 2006 (UTC)
Start with a business plan and make sure you have a good lawyer as ideas are quite often stolen. -THB 02:21, 29 November 2006 (UTC)

Thank you & THB. --Records 05:00, 30 November 2006 (UTC)

Molecules & Chemical Formula of Medicines?[edit]

I am wondering how people make up how the molecules of a medicine looks like? For example, Citalopram a popular anti-depressant known as Celexa, has the following image for the molecule:


& the formula is C20H21F1N2O1 .

My question is how do they make an image of the molecule, they can't see the molecule via a microscope, and how do they make the chemical formula of the molecule?--Records 21:09, 30 November 2006 (UTC)

Have a look at our article on X-ray crystallography. That's one of the techniques used. - Nunh-huh 21:13, 30 November 2006 (UTC)

Also such compounds are made by chemical synthesis, assembled from smaller molecules by chemical reactions that have well understood and predictable behaviour; therefor when making a compound they will know what structure to expect because they knew what starting materials and reactions they used to make it.
The image (as in your picture) is a representation of the molecule (like a technical drawing or blueprint) - even if there was a microscope that could see molecules it would look different to the image.
The chemical formula will also be known in the same way the structure is known - because the scientists that make it know what smaller building blocks they used.
Even so the formula and structure need to be confirmed (in case an unusual reaction has happened) - typicaly the structure is confirmed by NMR, infrared spectroscopy and other methods. The chemical formula can be confirmed by chemical analysis.
Note the chemical formula can be got from the image of the molecule - in this case unmarked vertices (the points connecting the lines) represent carbon - so by just counting the number of each type of atom gives the chemical formula
I hope I've answered your question - apologies if any of it sounds condescending - It's not totally clear to me what you need to know so I've tried to cover most of it. 21:41, 30 November 2006 (UTC)
Note - the formula seem wrong to me shouldn't it be C20H21F1N2O1 and not C20H22F1N2O1 ? Please check and correct.

I got the formula from Citalopram, why does it seem wrong?--Records 22:31, 30 November 2006 (UTC)
I just counted the hydrogens and only found 21 - maybe I missed one.. 23:13, 30 November 2006 (UTC)
Because it is! It was (sort of) vandalized a long time ago. Part of it was fixed, but not all; I've just fixed the hydrogen count. The molecular weight as given is correct; it was also broken, but was later fixed. --Tardis 23:14, 30 November 2006 (UTC)
Corrected it in my question. Thnx --Records 05:50, 1 December 2006 (UTC)

Say we merged Citalopram, Bupropion & Clonazepam together. What would the new image look like for the molecule, and what will be the new chemical formula?

Citalopram: Citalopram-skeletal.png





Citalopram: C20H21F1N2O1


Bupropion: C13H18Cl1N1O1


Clonazepam C15H10Cl1N3O3

--Records 22:54, 30 November 2006 (UTC)

That's an interesting question. We could add them together my making abitrary joins between the molecules, but I don't think that's what you're asking. There's no proceedure in chemistry for merging molecules (eg I'm assuming you mean something like merging a square and circle to make a square with rounded corners). Chemical structures have a set framework - there's no intermediate - it's like asking to merge a square and a triangle - I can't really give you a answer. 23:17, 30 November 2006 (UTC)
Ooh...this is a very interesting!! This is addressed in the heart of organic chemistry, and organic synthesis. The pictures given in the articles are a rendition of the molecule - indeed, nobody has ever "seen" a molecule, but we can come up with a model that is consistent with a tremendous body of scientific knowledge. From this, we have confidence that the picture gives us something reasonable that summarizes all that data. You might take a look at our article on tamiflu - it gives two synthesis routes for that medication, and might give you a general idea of the sort of thinking involved with solving these problems. For a classic, see Nicolaou Taxol total synthesis. --HappyCamper 00:17, 1 December 2006 (UTC)
As someone who is currently waiting for my reaction to run (another two hours or so, YES!) before I go home...Most active chemists don't make a molecule out of nowhere, we build them slowly step by step. Thus, we know what we expect to get out of the next reaction, and know what to look for. Yes, X-ray is a technique that can be used but it is expensive and relies on you able to meake a solid crystal (not always possible). Most structure determination is done through a technique called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. This works by using the fact that in a magnetic field, all atoms in a molecule "resonate" at a different frequency of applied magnetic field. They do this because they are in different chemical environments due to thae shape of the molecule. This technique can give you information about how atoms are linked together, and about how they are arranged in space relative to one another. It is fast, cheap, and easy to interpret, despite what hordes of undergrads will tell you...---John

The starting material of Citalopram, (4-bromo-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl)-(4-chlorophenyl)-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) methanol was prepared in the following manner:

A Grignard reaction-solution prepared from 220 grams (1.15 mol) of p-chlorobromobenzene and 29 grams of magnesium turnings (1.2 mol) in 1500 milliliters of dry ether was added dropwise in the course of one hour to a suspension of 213 grams of 5-bromphthalide (1 mol) in 1500 milliliters of dry tetrahydrofuran. The temperature was not allowed to rise over 10 degrees Centigrade. After the addition was completed the reaction mixture was stirred for three hours at room temperature. The mixture was then poured into 2 liters of icewater and 100 milliliters of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride were added. The etherphase was separated and the water-tetrahydrofuranphase extracted once with 500 milliliters of ether. The etherphase was washed with water, dried over anhydrous magnesiumsulphate, filtered and evaporated in vacuum to yield 320 grams of 2-hydroxymethyl-4-bromo-4'-chloro-benzophenone in the form of a yellow oil which was not purified further but used directly in the next step. The 320 grams of oil were dissolved in 200 milliliters of dry tetrahydrofuran and added dropwise to a great excess of N,N-dimethylaminopropyl magnesium chloride in tetrahydrofuran under gentle reflux. After completed addition the mixture was refluxed over night. The reaction mixture was then poured into 5 liters of icewater and 200 milliliters of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution added. The mixture was extracted with a total of 2500 milliliters of ether. The etherphase was then extracted with 20% aqueous acetic acid to acid reaction, whereupon the acetic acid solution was made alkaline with 10 N sodiumhydroxide solution. After cooling, the oil, which separated out, was extracted twice with 500 milliliters of ether. The combined ether extracts were dried over anhydrous potassium carbonate, treated with active carbon and evaporated in vacuum. The remaining oil consists of somewhat impure (4-bromo-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl)-(4-chlorophenyl)-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) methanol which was used in the next step without further purification. Yield: 219 grams.

The 218 grams of oil from the previous step were heated for three hours on a steam bath with 1800 milliliters of 60% aqueous phosphoric acid while stirring vigorously. The reaction mixture was neutralized with saturated aqueous ammonia while continuously adding ice. The reaction mixture was then extracted with 1500 milliliters of ether, the etherphase separated, dried over anhydrous potassium carbonate, treated with active carbon and evaporated in vacuum. The residue was distilled in vacuum and 105 grams of 1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-5-bromophthalan was obtained as an oil which boiled at 188-190 degrees Centigrade/0.1mm Hg.

1. Above they say "220 grams (1.15 mol)" how can they tell the number of molecules?

2. What equipment do chemsists use to perform the above experiment i.e. Test tube and?

3. Say we took a Citalopram tablet, Bupropion tablet, and Clonazepam tablet. Crushed it. Add water. Mix it up and then dry it. The resulting mix would be new molecule?

(and thanks for all help given so far)--Records 06:44, 1 December 2006 (UTC)

1. They use the molar mass - each moleclue is assumed to have a molar mass - the sum of the mass of the parts. Dividing the mass used by molar mass gives the number of 'moles'. A 'mole' is a standard measure of number of molecules. 1mol contains a set number of molecules.
In the case above the molar mass of chlorobromobenzene is ~192 grams per mole. So 220 grams has 220/192 moles = ~1.15moles. See Mole (unit)
2. Probably not a test tube. More likely a round bottom flask connected to a condensor see Laboratory glassware. A book on experimental organic chemistry should give you more details.
3. No. The result will be a mixture of Citalopram, Bupropion & Clonazepam plus the tablet filler (usually chalk). In this case it is unlikely that any reaction will have occurred.
Hope that helps. 15:42, 1 December 2006 (UTC)

Please can you give me the chemical formula and image of Citalopram, Bupropion & Clonazepam when mixed together?

The mixture doesn't have a formula.. The original chemical formulas remain the same on mixing.

If a chemist uses Laboratory glassware, what equipment do Pharma companies use for mass production of medicines? --Records 03:39, 2 December 2006 (UTC)

They use larger scale versions of laboratory glassware, and also probably some stainless steel vessels - imagine a cross between a science lab and industrial food processing equipment. 14:16, 2 December 2006 (UTC)


In terms of content, Folding@home has zero information on how the technique works (which is all published); to be a comprehensive article on the subject, it would need substantial descriptions of the algorithms and methodology, and in particular it needs to detail the justification for sampling many short MD trajectories rather than one or a few very long ones, which is the key that makes distributed computing work for these types of calculations. Similarly, the types of problems for which this technique works well should be explicitly pointed out and contrasted to those problems for which it fails because a long trajectory really is needed. There is no academic criticism of the method presented in this article either. --Foundby 10:23, 9 December 2006 (UTC)

Im sorry but what is the question here? If you are only commenting on a certain article, you should do it on that article's talk page, in this case Talk:Folding@home. Shinhan 11:40, 9 December 2006 (UTC)
I agree, that's the proper place to criticize a Wikipedia article and request changes. Of course, you can yourself make those changes, that's the whole point of Wikipedia. StuRat 12:38, 9 December 2006 (UTC)

Re-phrased Question[edit]

How does the Folding@home technique work? --Foundby 23:45, 9 December 2006 (UTC)

It does not seem as if there is be someone here who could tell you more than you can find at the project website, or in the project forums. Judging by the titles of published material which can be downloaded from the site, you may find answers amongst them: "Mathematical Foundations of ensemble dynamics.", "Atomistic protein folding simulations on the submillisecond timescale using worldwide distributed computing.", and "How well can simulation predict protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics?" are but some. Critiques would clearly be a different issue:) -- Seejyb 12:09, 10 December 2006 (UTC)

Financial Models[edit]

What are Financial Models? How do Financial Models work? --Foundby 06:58, 19 December 2006 (UTC)

How to make Financial Models?[edit]


    • It would be useful if you told us what precisely you wanted to model, how detailed the model has to be and whether you want to make a continuous or discrete model, but I can recommend the article on the Black-Scholes Model to get you started. JChap2006 03:53, 21 December 2006 (UTC)

Part 1 - (Precisely what I wanted in the model)[edit]

Say we know some items of the Model. In this example:


  • Real Cash Flow to Owner
  • Present Value of Real Cash Flow
  • Net Present Value of Real Cash Flow:
  • After Tax Real Internal Rate of Return:
  • PROFORMA INCOME STATEMENT: years 0 through 11
  • Annual Gross Rental Income
  • Vacancy and Collection Losses
  • Effective Rental
  • Operating Expenses
  • Net Operating Income
  • Interest Expense
  • Depreciation (cost recovery)
  • Taxable Income
  • Income Tax Liability
  • Net Income After Tax
  • PROFORMA CASH FLOW STATEMENT: years 0 through 11
  • Annual Gross Rental Income
  • Vacancy and Collection Loses
  • Effective Rental
  • Operating Expenses
  • Net Operating Income
  • Debt Service
  • Income Tax Liability
  • Equity Dividend (cash to owner)
  • Down Payment/Reversion
  • Total Cash Flow to Owner
  • Purchasing Power Adjustment
  • Real Cash Flow to Owner


  • Balance Owed, beginning of year
  • Annual Mortgage Payment
  • Interest Portion of Payment
  • Amortization of principal
  • Balance Owed, end of year


  • Net Operating Income Projected, Year After Sale (Year 11)
  • Cap Rate At Sale Date
  • Capitalized Value (Sale Price)
  • Transaction Cost
  • Net Sales Price
  • Book Value At Sales Date (cost-dep)
  • Capital Gain ( Net Price - BV)
  • Capital Gains Tax
  • Mortgage Balance Owed
  • Reversion in nominal dollars to owner at sales date
  • What is the next step? --Foundby 05:59, 22 December 2006 (UTC)
    • The first step is to determine what it is you want to model: The expected revenue of a ski lift? When to declare bankruptcy? Is this a "what if" exercise, and what conditions are under your control to vary? Then you determine what quantities figure into the equation (inflation rate, number of baby boomers retiring, whatever). At that point you realize you're never going to be able to find sufficiently reliable forecasts and give up. If, however, you insist on continuing, then the next thing to do is to examine the relationships between all relevant quantities and express them as mathematical equations (revenue = income − expenses; income = quantity × price; expenses = fixed + quantity × variable; that kind of stuff). Possibly you have a time involvement (revenue2006, revenue2008, balance2008 = balance2006 + revenue2008). Then you do the calculations, or solve the equations, or determine the optimal value of something, depending on the nature of the model. Perhaps you could first try something a bit simpler and less ambitious than you seem to have in mind.  --LambiamTalk 11:36, 22 December 2006 (UTC)

Part 2 - (Net Operating Income Year 1 & Property Valuation)[edit]

    • In the first equation you need a minus sign instead of a plus sign. It is basically the equation Net profit = Gross revenue − Expenses. The revenue goes into your wallet, the expenses are paid out of your wallet, and what remains is the net profit. For the second equation, per definition Cap rate = Income / Value. So then by elementary algebra Value = Income / Cap rate. The two factors 100 cancel.  --LambiamTalk 05:11, 23 December 2006 (UTC)

Part 3 - (Loan Amount & Equity Required)[edit]

To answer your specific questions:
  • Loan Amount = Loan to Value ratio X Property Valuation is just a rearrangement of Loan to Value ratio = Loan Amount / Property Valuation, which is a definition of Loan to Value ratio.
  • Equity Required = Property Valuation - Loan Amount is a definition of Equity Required - it says that the purchaser's equity in a property is what is left after subtracting the amount of any loans or mortgages from the value of the property.
If you are asking questions like these, you need to study some financial mathematics, especially around commercial mortgages - you are a long way from constructing the type of complex financial model that you seem to be aiming for. Oh - and moving your question around on the Reference Desk won't get it more attention ! Gandalf61 13:06, 23 December 2006 (UTC)

Part 4 - (Frivilous Comments part)[edit]

  • Time for a christmas present to yourself. Get hold of a book on small business accounting. This would go into much more detail of how to drawup ballance sheets and cash flows than we will be able to do justice with here. The cost of purchace will really pay in the long term. Do not rely on wikipedia for financial advice! --Salix alba (talk) 12:14, 23 December 2006 (UTC)
    • Whatever happened to You can give the gift of knowledge by donating to Wikimedia?--Foundby 12:58, 23 December 2006 (UTC)
  • I'm sorry to hear that. Maybe a library in your vicinity has helpful books. I'm also sorry to see that you considered Salix' or my responses frivolous. I can assure you they are meant to be entirely serious.  --LambiamTalk 12:34, 24 December 2006 (UTC)

Part 5 ( 1 + i )[edit]

From User:Gandalf61 External Link:

Anyone who has studied business has at least a passing familiarity with “time value of money” formulas. Yet while many people can comprehend explanations of loan repayment schedules or retirement savings accounts, or even use financial calculators, their level of time value understanding may not include any sense of where the time value formulas come from, or how the various time value applications are related. This brief article presents a derivation of all of the standard (and some less well-known) time value of money formulas from the future value of one dollar factor.

Basic future value applications are easily understood at an intuitive level. Suppose you have $1,000 in an account today. If this amount earns a rate of return of 10% for a year, the balance grows to $1,100 (the original $1,000 plus $100 in earnings). Symbolically, this time value adjustment can be represented as

(1) PV0 (1 + i) = FV1 ,

an equation in which PV0 is the $1,000 in the present, i = .1 or 10%, and FV1 is the $1,100 future amount one year hence.

This process can be repeated, in the sense that we can now view the $1,100 as the initial balance in a second future value analysis. If this amount grows at 10% for one year, the account balance grows to $1,210 by the end of that second period. Symbolically,

(2) FV1 (1 + i) = FV2 .

Substituting equation (1)’s representation of FV1 into equation (2) reveals how the initial present value can be transformed into a future value two years later:

PV0 (1 + i)(1 + i) = FV2 or

(3) PV0 (1 + i)2 = FV2 .

Generalizing for any number of years n, we have

(4) PV0 (1 + i)n = FVn .

Thus, we have discovered the first of the standard time value of money factors, the future value of one dollar factor: FVFn = (1 + i)n .

  • In formula 1. PV0 (1 + i) = FV1, how did they come up with 1 + i ? --Foundby 16:41, 24 December 2006 (UTC)
i is the interest rate - in the example it is 10% or 0.1. So the interest earned on an initial balance of PV0 in one year is PV0 times i. But you also have your capital of PV0 at the end of the year. So the future value of your investment at the end of year 1, FV1, is given by
FV1 = Capital + Interest = PV0 + PV0.i = PV0(1+i)
Take a look at our article on time value of money. Gandalf61 18:37, 24 December 2006 (UTC)

Part 6 - (Mortgage Loan Constant)[edit]

    • Mortgage Loan Constant is the annualised ratio of the loan repayments to the initial amount of the loan - it looks like an interest rate, but it is higher than the interest rate of the loan because repayments also include capital repayments as well as interest. This link might help, although it is quite mathematical.Gandalf61 13:06, 23 December 2006 (UTC)

    • If you just take the ratio of a single loan repayment to the initial value of the loan, you get very different figures if the repayments are, say, monthly than if they are, say, quarterly. To establish a common yardstick you need to annualise the ratio by calculating an annual equivalent rate. For example, if your monthly repayment is 1% of the original loan value, the annual equivalent of 1% monthly is (1.01)^12 - 1 = 12.68% (approximately), so the Mortgage Loan Constant would be 12.68%. (Feel free ask any follow up questions on my talk page). Gandalf61 10:25, 26 December 2006 (UTC)

A Person with Great Intelligence - Adolf Hitler & Napoleon Bonaparte[edit]

Does the Ability of a Person to Manipulate others = A Person with Great Intelligence? --Foundby 14:20, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

Naaah, that's social competence. --User:Wakuran 15:10, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
And what might social competence be? --Foundby 16:37, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
I would call that guile. Also note that there are different definitions and ideas about the word "intellect" Chickenflicker--- 16:43, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
Guile makes no sense at all. There should be an Article descibing what Social Competence Entails. Or did you guys just make it up Social Competence, never heard of it. --Foundby 16:48, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
You would agree that manipulating someone is tricking someone into doing something - being deceptive, being duplicitous, right? Thus, while guile means "insidious cunning in attaining a goal; crafty or artful deception; duplicity" [1], a manipulative person would need to be guileful. Chickenflicker--- 16:57, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
Isn't social competence used in English? As far as I have understood, it's just a common catchphrase for vaguely perceived as "people skills". It was a joke... =S 惑乱 分からん 17:39, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
Yeah and why are we on the word Guile? When we are talkking about human intelligence? --Foundby 18:45, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
Then that would make the person manipulated, stupid, retarded, unintelligent, a person who is not very bright, and without much intelligence? --Foundby 17:02, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
Well, yes. It's not nice, but people who let themselves be manipulated will often be described in those words. Skarioffszky 17:10, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

Emotional intelligence is "the ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups" (emphasis added). Skarioffszky 17:08, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

So if you have high Emotional intelligence you can control the world? --Foundby 18:39, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

A person of high intelligence will know well that manipulating others will generate bad karma. Vranak 18:39, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

And this Karma article redirects me to a spiritual article. I am an Athiest. --Foundby 18:46, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

Yeah, I don't think that article is very useful or even accurate. Karma's the type of thing that cannot be taught... and once you do know it well, you can forget the about the concept entirely. Vranak

Say this person has no Karma but high Emotional intelligence, then he would be able to control the whole world? And rule the whole world? --Foundby 18:42, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

No. Consider two people with extremely high emotional intelligence and very little karma/scruples: Napoleon and Hitler. It's impossible to manipulate everybody at the same time, no matter how good you are at it. Clarityfiend 19:50, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

Yes I remember now before the war how Adolf Hitler started building up military, and by breaking that treaty, by manupilating England & France, saying its all for peace. Then he took over the Austria I believe, and told England & France that Austria wanted to be invaded. He conviced Englands Prime Minister so much that the war started too late. Then when he invaded Poland, England was not fooled this time. So Hitler signed a treaty with Russia by Deciet (he broke it later). Then he tried invadeding the whole Europe. And then he died. The End. --Foundby 21:33, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

The ability to get others to do what you want is power, not intelligence, at least according to Bertrand Russell, who seems as good as any expert to consult on this. -- 22:34, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
"You may fool all the people some of the time; you can even fool some of the people all the time; but you can’t fool all of the people all the time." --The Dark Side 22:50, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
That's true, but couldn't Hitler just send some diplomats after the war was declared, and make Britain and France call it off by a signing a treaty with them? (see I am smarter than Hitler lol) --Foundby 23:17, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

What is your definition of "smart?" Some Nazi leaders were thought to have high IQs, but they were dumb enough to blindly follow a paranoid leader into a war that nearly destroyed their country. Hitler may have been charismatic and succesfully manipulative, but that doesn't mean he was intelligent. It's clear his views on race were completely wrong from a scientific point of view, not just a moral one. I mean, this was someone who (assuming Nazi propaganda reflected his views) not only believed blacks (and Jews) were inferior intellectually but believed they were inferior athletes! Doesn't sound too smart to me. -- Mwalcoff 03:54, 8 January 2007 (UTC)

Mwalcoff There is a difference between IQ and Emotional Intellegince. So even though they may have had high IQ, they must be defficient in Emotional Intelligence. --Foundby 19:09, 8 January 2007 (UTC)

Scientifically speaking Alcohol[edit]

Scientifically speaking Alcohol makes a person sick? --Delma1 08:30, 6 January 2007 (UTC)

In excess, yes it can. Ethanol#Metabolism_and_toxicology --Joel 11:02, 6 January 2007 (UTC)
Anything in excess can, but that's where the definition of "in excess" is. Vitamin C won't though! X [Mac Davis] (DESK|How's my driving?) 03:42, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
In response to Vitamin C, that is not completely true. For example, there is a case report about a guy with acute renal failure taking 5,000 mg of Vitamin C per day to fight off an upper respiratory tract infection. It resulted in the guy going to the hospital and was found to have tubular necrosis with massive oxalate deposition. The report goes on to say, "Our patient’s course and our review of the literature again support the contention that vitamin C ingestion may cause significant morbidity and mortality. Vitamin C should therefore not be viewed as a benign, water-soluble drug but rather as a drug that is potentially toxic, not only for diseased kidneys, but also for normal ones given the proper circumstances." - Dozenist talk 15:42, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
Then why does alcohol make you vomit? --Delma1 04:03, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
Vomiting is a "reflex" that eliminates ethanol from your stomach so your liver does not have to metabolize it. -Michael 04:55, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

Well how is this reflex activated due to alcohol consumption? --Delma1 14:03, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

I can't say with any certainty, but I'd assume that the body reacts to the presence of the toxin in sufficient levels by activating the vomiting center of the medulla, either by the vagal system and enteric nervous system being stimulated by the presence of ethanol or via the action of ethanol on the brain's chemoreceptors (by the action of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde perhaps?) This is an educated conjecture, but I'm not an expert, so I can't say with 100% certainty. Wintermut3 22:46, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

Love and P A I N (other questioner)[edit]

I'm in love with someone I probably can't get. I'm very curious as to why this psychological state causes actual, physical pain. Specifically, a burning feeling in my chest when I think about that special someone. I guess it's pretty mild compared to, say, cutting a finger open, but still. Has anyone figured out why this happens? Pain means nerves must be being stimulated, yet my body is wholly intact. I imagine this is why love historically came to be associated with the "heart", though the blood-pumping musculature is obviously not directly involved. What gives? Thanks. 07:12, 6 January 2007 (UTC)

Thats gives me an IDEA (not IKEA). Love Sickness can be Cured, lol. Sorry for my jokes but this is the best question I have ever seen on the Reference Board. Oh yeah and I have the same symptoms too, the anti-depressants: Celexa, Wellbutrin don't seem to be working for me. --Judged 08:35, 6 January 2007 (UTC)
It resembles the same pain as for anxiety. --Zeizmic 14:42, 6 January 2007 (UTC)
In addition to non-cardiac chest pain associated with emotional stress there is also research on Pathophysiological processes underlying emotional triggering of acute cardiac events. --JWSchmidt 23:12, 6 January 2007 (UTC)
The question, I believe, is why is depression associated with the heart? --Judged 04:18, 7 January 2007 (UTC)
I would guess, neurotransmitters trigger hormonal stress that triggers raised blood pressure and adrenaline rushes and general tension, and increased heartrate. That could all trigger acute cardiac events. Though the above links will be much more informative and authoritative than this guess of mine, which should be seen as a way to explain things in simpler terms. Oh, broken heart might help as well. Also acute coronary syndrome and panic attacks. Carcharoth 06:10, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

:From the above analysis you all relate it to stress, which acts directly on the Heart? How can you compare that with sadness in which there is no stress? --Jones2 11:20, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

  • Let me break it down for you, the neurotransmitters affect the whole body not just the brain. For example lack of neurotransmitter Dopamine, causes movement disorders eg. Parkinsons disease. So these neurotransmitters affect the chest region some how, I am guessing this part though, someone want to back me up? --Foundby 17:14, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

Power: A New Social Analysis[edit]

I am looking for the complete book online of Power: A New Social Analysis. Since it was released in 1938 it is free domain now. Where can I find the complete book. (I am a bad google searcher). Much Appreciated. thnx. --Foundby 23:39, 7 January 2007 (UTC)

It's not public domain. Copyright extends to either 50 or 75 years (depending on jurisdiction) after the author's death, and Bertrand Russell only died in 1970. --Nicknack009 00:12, 8 January 2007 (UTC)
Where can I find the pirated version, you know the ebook for free? --Foundby 01:16, 8 January 2007 (UTC)
This is not a place to look for pirated material. If you want a version for free try your local library. --Fastfission 21:52, 8 January 2007 (UTC)

Wellbutrin & Zyban[edit]

In the article Bupropion it states: "Bupropion is both a dopamine reuptake inhibitor and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor."

Where can I verify this information? (I have added [citation needed] after that line in the article). Please reply. Thnx. --Delma1 10:59, 16 December 2006 (UTC)

Check some of the results of THIS GOOGLE SEARCH, one of which is the Mayo Clinic. Or THIS SEARCH OF GOOGLE SCHOLAR. Anchoress 11:06, 16 December 2006 (UTC)
Thnx for help Anchoress. Question Solved. --Delma1 11:24, 16 December 2006 (UTC)

Cargo ship v/s Cargo airline ?[edit]

After reading the articles Cargo ship & Cargo airline, there is no information regarding the comparision. I am wondering is Cargo ship going to become exticnt due to new technology Cargo airline? --Delma1 10:43, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

Del, I doubt it. The cost of air fuel is rising, and there is a not-to-distant future when it will be the privilege of the middle classes. Ships and trains are the most practical alternative for cargo, and for passengers, high speed rail (eg TGV, Shinkansen, and the equivelants, ICE in Germany, TAV in Italy, etc.) will have to be the norm. That means other countries - like the US and UK - building similar networks.martianlostinspace 11:08, 29 December 2006 (UTC)
In other words Air Cargo is expensive compared to Ship Cargo? --Delma1 10:00, 30 December 2006 (UTC)
Very much so. As a general rule, it costs ten times as much to ship something by air as it does to ship it by ground or water. --Carnildo 01:52, 31 December 2006 (UTC)

Town twinning[edit]

I don't understand the artlicle Town twinning. What does it mean? For example it states:The city of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada was one of the first cities ever to enter into an international twinning arrangement when, in 1944, it twinned with the Ukrainian city of Odessa, which at the time was part of the Soviet Union. This was based on aiding the allied port city during World War II.? --Delma1 10:03, 30 December 2006 (UTC)

The article seems perfectly clear to me. Please indicate what it is you don't understand, and perhaps people can help. --ColinFine 12:27, 30 December 2006 (UTC)
The arrangement is one to one with local councils. Sometimes local councilors will visit the sister city and learn about local arrangements that work, in the hopes of transference. Sometimes schools get involved too. It is not a mutual defence pact, as between states. DDB 13:00, 30 December 2006 (UTC)

So what actually happens, take in the above example? --Delma1 13:02, 30 December 2006 (UTC)

See DDB's answer above. As far as I am aware, it is a purely civil arrangement, i.e. there is no contractual obligation to do anything at all. It all depends on people in the town taking some initiative and organising at least a few exchange visits. In the end, it's all down to the people involved to come up with ideas. Sometimes very little happens. I must confess I have no idea which cities my home city is twinned with.--Shantavira 14:48, 30 December 2006 (UTC)
I think twinning is often used to promote tourism. I remember reading an article about the people of an american town complaining that lots of them had visited their british twin but few had come from britain to visit them. meltBanana 15:33, 30 December 2006 (UTC)
No to your last question. Have a look at the site map of the Sister Cities International site. There are pages and pdf articles that should answer almost all of your questions. --Seejyb 14:09, 31 December 2006 (UTC)

It's more of a sort of social/cultural/friendship exchange. Where I live, we have sister cities (a.k.a. twin towns) in China and Japan. My home city is promoted as a holiday destination in its sister cities - they are promoted here as good places to do business in Asia. Our city's botanical gardens include a traditional Japanese garden, and a traditional Chinese garden is under construction - both of these built with the financial and technical support of people in our sister cities. Those cities have hosted art exhibitions by artists from my home city. And so on. Grutness...wha? 07:31, 1 January 2006 (UTC)

It's also often a good excuse to have a few trips somewhere at taxpayer expense for a committee while these things are being arranged - but I'm just a cynic sometimes. Robovski 01:18, 3 January 2006 (UTC)

President of USA[edit]

  • Well has there been a president who was born outside USA, to non american parents? --Delma1 07:27, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • It's in the US Constitution, Article II, Section 1: "No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States." Antandrus (talk) 03:06, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • I heard that when Arnie became the govonator some group started to lobby to repeal that, don't know if it was just a rumour. Vespine 04:31, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • The President must be a U.S. citizen when born, and being born in the United States is only one way of this happening. Someone born abroad to American parents would also be considered a "natural born citizen". - Nunh-huh 04:39, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • This is correct. There were also attempts to change the Constitution to allow Henry Kissinger to run for President. User:Zoe|(talk) 18:13, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • It's not as clear-cut as that. See natural born citizen. JackofOz 05:22, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • Now there's an article that's going too far in its attempt to be neutral. "There is currently debate" sounds as though there was some serious doubt; if there had been, it would have been a major issue when the candidates mentioned were running. --Anonymous, January 4, 2007, 07:18 (UTC).
    • Just a guess, George Washington? Whoops, wrong again... 惑乱 分からん 07:42, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • Any presidential candidate whose eligibility was not 100% certain and who stood to win the presidency, would find their status being questioned by the opposing party, and determined by the Supreme Court. Since no person whose status has been in doubt has ever received a majority of electoral college votes, the court has never had to rule on the issue. IANAL, but I'd be surprised if the Supreme Court would ever devote time to determining whether a person who had not yet been elected president was constitutionally eligible. Do that for one person, and they'd have to do it for any other would-be president of doubtful citizenship history. They would prefer to wait till a real live case came along. That has never happened yet. JackofOz 08:23, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • What is electoral college votes? --Delma1 08:45, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • United States Electoral College votes. Skarioffszky 10:17, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • Whether the opposing party would try to challenge a candidate on these grounds would depend on a political calculation as well, because such an attempt could backfire in a big way. For example, if I were a candidate running against John McCain, I might decide it best not to try to have him disqualified for having been born in the Panama Canal Zone –- he might very well win the case and it would look pretty bad for me (and my party, who'll be facing another election in two years), attacking a man for being from a military family. So even then the question might remain open.--Rallette 11:10, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • That may well be the way things go with McCain. In any event, the point is that the question is still open as to whether a person born outside the USA to American parents is constitutionally eligible to become US President. John McEnroe, for example, would be well advised to get very, very good advice before embarking on a presidential run. (I can see it now. The lawyers tell him that unfortunately he is barred from office, and he fumes "You cannot be serious!"). JackofOz 20:59, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • Or you could be a citizen "at the time of the adoption of this constitution". That is, George Washington wasn't born in the states, because when he was born, the states didn't exist. But he was eligible because he lived there in 1789.martianlostinspace 14:29, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • I'm not too sure about that. Alexander Hamilton was considered ineligible because he was born in the Caribbean, even though he was a citizen "at the time of the adoption". User:Zoe|(talk) 22:49, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • And no, there will not be a constitutional amendment specifically to let Arnie run for President. The consitution is more or less impossible to amend. That happens when pigs fly.martianlostinspace 14:30, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • So Arnie can't run for president because he was born outside USA, and to non American parents even though he has lived in USA for 14 years and is over 35?
    • That's correct. It's a moot point anyway, since nobody will vote for an actor for president. --Nelson Ricardo 16:35, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
    • There have been a couple of cases in which the term "natural born citizen" has come up. The first case that I know of was George W. Romney, born in Mexico to US citizen parents (his son, Mitt Romney, is considering a bid in 2008). And look out for further discussion, and perhaps even a Constitutional challenge, if John McCain becomes the Republican nominee, since he was born in Panama. User:Zoe|(talk) 18:13, 4 January 2007 (UTC)

F-22 Raptor Law[edit]

In article F-22 Raptor it states that export is prohibited to other countries? Does that mean if Canada had money it will not be able to buy it? And which law? --Jones2 02:25, 4 January 2007 (UTC)

Canada a)does have money, but not nearly enough to but these planes and b)is a sovreign state, i.e. not part of the United States of Amerca, so the ban still applies. --The Dark Side 03:32, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
The law in question was House Amendment 265, introduced by Rep. David Obey (D-WI), and attached to HR 2266, which was the Defense appropriations bill for the 1998 fiscal year. Carom 04:37, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
I wouldn't think they would really need their own F-22s anyways, being part of NATO, an attack on Canada would be regarded as an attack on all NATO member nations, so they could very well have F-22s fighting on their behalf without the $120 million price tag. Cyraan 06:05, 4 January 2007 (UTC)

Carom your first link doesn't work? --Jones2 07:23, 4 January 2007 (UTC)

Sorry about that - you can stil get to the page. Open the second link, click on "Amendments" and scroll down to H Amdt 295. It's number eight on the list. Carom 13:50, 4 January 2007 (UTC)
Wow, those planes aren't cheap. :-O | AndonicO Talk | Sign Here 13:17, 4 January 2007 (UTC)

But are the ammendments in the actual text of the legislation? Because if it is not, then it is of no effect? --Jones2 16:10, 4 January 2007 (UTC)

If a member of the House offers an amendment to a piece of legislation, the most likely course of action will be a voice vote, in which the members of the House either support or oppose the proposed amendment. If the amendment passes, then it becomes a part of the legislation, and, if the bill passes and becomes law, so does the amendment. Carom 16:17, 4 January 2007 (UTC)

Paul Martin buys CSL Group Inc.? HOW[edit]

One month later, in July, 1981 Power Corporation announced it was selling its subsidiary Canada_Steamship_Lines_Inc. for $195 million (CAD). CSL Group at this time included the shipping company, shipyards, engineering firms, and a bus service (Voyageur, previously known as Provincial Transport). The following month in August, 1981, Paul Martin and his friend Lawrence Pathy secured financing and announced their intention to purchase CSL Group Incorporated for the price advertised by Power Corporation.

How did they secure the financing for 195 Million Dollars? --Jones2 15:50, 20 December 2006 (UTC)

I can't answer the specific, but in general it sounds like a Management buyout, and that article has some brief discussion of the finance problem given that management will not normally have sufficient access to funds. --Tagishsimon (talk)
Your question is still extant on the Humanities desk; please don't cross-post. Anchoress 18:49, 20 December 2006 (UTC)
Thank You Tagishsimon, you are the first one to give a response to my question, and I must say I never knew that article Management buyout existed and its quite interesting. To Anchoress, I had to post here no responded there for days. Take a look now its about to be archived with out any response there. --Jones2 22:25, 21 December 2006 (UTC)
Removed from Humanities Desk. --Jones2 02:13, 22 December 2006 (UTC)

The Black Sea ?[edit]

A port is a facility for receiving ships and transferring cargo to and from them. Are there any ports in the black sea? --Jones2 10:33, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

Absolutely. Odessa is one. Other ports include Burgas, Varna, Constanţa, Yalta, Sevastopol, Kerch, Novorossiysk, Sukhumi, Poti, Batumi, Trabzon, Samsun and Zonguldak. Note that seaports may also be used to transfer passengers, not just cargo. StuRat 14:47, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

Burgas Port[edit]

I am looking for more information on the Port of Burgas. --Jones2 23:49, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

Something other than you'd find in the article Burgas? - Nunh-huh 00:27, 30 December 2006 (UTC)
Yeah, cause the article Burgas has no information regarding the port. --Jones2 09:47, 30 December 2006 (UTC)
Burgos is a port. You'll have better luck if you specify the information you're looking for. - Nunh-huh 14:49, 30 December 2006 (UTC)

A question of psychology (other questioner)[edit]

I don't know if anyone will be able to help me here, but maybe someone can at least give me a second opinion. Maybe others can relate to my, problem. I consider myself pretty smart; I think I would be able to do many things, if I tried. The problem is that I don't try. I have spurts of inspiration once in a while, sometimes lasting for only a day, sometimes for weeks. I'm one of those guys that never finishes anything, and is able to do a lot of things "pretty well". The one thing that I can truly say that I did well was something incredibly easy that not many people had tried before, so it was easy to produce results that stood out, or at least that's how I felt.

I know I'm not normal (other, unrelated details), but I'm not affected by anything like ADD/ADHD, and I'm rather healthy and clean. If I have a certain goal that seems direct and attainable (usually in the form of a member of the other sex) I often discover immense amounts of unused motivation to use in order to improve myself, but since those situations don't come that often for me, I'm often disgusted by my own laziness, my own lack of a drive to do anything productive.

Even though I am so strongly concious of my faults (I have others), and have such a strong want to become motivated, I can't change this part of myself, and it seems like I'm doomed to be lazy for the rest of my life. Why don't I try? I mean... I think I can, but I don't know why I don't. Hell, I've even thought of self-meditation, but of course I gave up on that, too. 15:00, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

If you don't have much self-motivation, perhaps you need another person to motivate you. Parents can serve that purpose early on, with "significant others" and spouses taking on that role later. I suggest you look for a life-mate who will motivate you to reach your potential. Some combination of the "stick and carrot" might be appropriate motivators. Of course, too much "stick" might make you resentful, so choose a mate which has the right balance for you. Don't, however, choose a mate like yourself, or you will both end up reinforcing each other's lazy tendencies. StuRat 15:07, 29 December 2006 (UTC)
Yes, I do think you are exactly right that I need another person to motivate me; a significant other to ying my yang and provide or restore some balance to my troubled mind. I'm on active watch. I know it is said that "no man is an island", but some men are, and as long as I'm an island, I'd like to, as much as I can, make myself into a respectable one. I think it sounds a little bit unfair to shoulder the responsibility of motivating men with half-assed lives over to women. I'm metrosexual like that I guess. Is "stick and carrot" old American for "apples and oranges"? 15:29, 29 December 2006 (UTC)
Sorry, I thought that was a universal expression. I believe the expression comes from how to motivate horses, with the "carrot"; being a reward, and the "stick" being a punishment. For example, your wife could reward you by letting you go out to a bar "with the boys" or punish you by banning you from watching sports (if that's something you like). Of course, you could always ignore her and do as you please, but the hope here is that your desire to please her, along with that part of you that wants to accomplish things in life, will together defeat your lazy tendencies. StuRat 15:42, 29 December 2006 (UTC)
By the way you explained it, I think your "problem" is a lot more common than you realize. Not everyone's a "type A" personality, and apparently, neither are you. Wile Stu's suggestion is definitely a helpful one, from what I gather, I don't think he realizes that the whole "finding a mate" thing is likely one of the biggest hurdles within the "problem" itself. Don't get wrong, I think it would be terrific if you had a mate as Stu suggests, but it can be really tough getting there. The first step I'd suggest is to quit criticizing yourself. You're not a "type A", but whatever "type" you are, don't try to change it, learn to love yourself for whatever "type" you are. Believe me, once one is happy in one's own skin, motivation rises markedly and things that used to be tough become a peice of cake. But you have to start by loving yourself for who you are. Good luck. Loomis 15:30, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

Another thought, are there support groups for this ? The model of Alcoholics Anonymous would seem likely to work here, with an assigned "buddy" to check up on you, make sure you attend meetings, etc. You would do the same for him. So, if one of you decides to stop going to work, the other would yell at them until they go. StuRat 15:47, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

If it's any help, I can fully identify with your problem. I have exactly the same difficulty and have had all my life. I have tried really hard to resolve it but never succeeded. Yet I have had an otherwise successful life, marriage, kids, career etc., etc., but the awful feeling of not feeeling motivated has always been there. I too am good at most things, in fact, I am often complimented on the wide range of skills I have mastered, and the results of my efforts, but as soon as I pick up a paintbrush or pen, I begin to resent having begun the project. The worst part is, I know how well I might have done if I had really been enthusiastic about it, like learning a language, playing an instrument or whatever. I am now at an age where I have to really struggle NOT to look upon my past life with regret or resentment, and any advice I would offer would be for you not to waste your life looking for a life-changing holy-grail solution, but to instead accept this condition as a part of YOU; like your height or gender, you cannot effectively change it or cast it off. But please, don't thrust the problem of providing the solution onto a partner. Choose a supportive partner by all means, but be honest with them from the beginning, even to asking them to give you a kick up the bum from time to time. And you can have my support to get you started. Good Luck. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 16:46, 29 December 2006 (UTC).

I find your problem most interesting since I would be considered at the opposite end of the spectrum. I am self motivated most of the time. I am a retiree now and doing MANY fascinating projects. I just recently retired about 2 years ago. I otherwise was self motived all my life also. I ALWAYS had plenty to do. My projects now are so interesting and fun that I do NOT have enough time in the day to get everything done (and I have ALL day). Perhaps you could learn something from me. I'll start with a couple of questions and see if this develops into something. FIRST: What are your "basic" interests? Here I mean, do you like computers? My guess is that you do, since you are here. What other "hobbies" do you like? Hobbies make for a very fasinating pass time. Also by default they are a great teacher of that field. One of my "hobbies" is Family Genealogy. It has been so "addictive" that lately I have had to wean myself off it for awhile. Now my hobby is "cracking the Da Vinci Code". It now is VERY addictive and uses up about 10 hours or more a day, seven days a week. So maybe a good start in getting self-motivated is to get a hobby. TWO: What is your job or career? What do you do for a living? Are you interested in making MORE money. Do you believe you should be interested in making MORE money? Why? Do you know HOW to make money? Are you interested in money? THREE: Do you travel? Where? What places would you like to go to? Tahiti perhaps? Maybe Bora Bora? Mexico? Club Med??? FOUR: How old are you? Do you think the advice of "Elders" is good? FIVE: Would you be considered an "honest" person? When you say "clean" is this from the viewpoint of good morals? I myself am NOT a "religious" person, however am considered a very moral person. FIVE: Instead of NOT signing in ("Logging in") as normal and saying what your name is, have the motivation to try to figure out how to "Log in" as normal and provide a name. This could even be a "nick" name like "Unmotivated", however perhaps a more positive name like "Need-Useful-Ideas" might be a better name. Start there and IF you have the motivation to answer my questions, perhaps there is much more here from an "Elder" that has "been-there-done-that". --Doug 20:17, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

For the original poster: motivation comes from within. It will not be plied with reason, logic, or conventional wisdom.

Ply: (from

4. To continue offering something to; ensure that (another) is abundantly served: plied their guests with excellent food.
5. To assail vigorously

Vranak 21:08, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

Also for the original poster: passion and fire I believe is what this one above is saying to you. Do you have this "fire"? If you do, then there is LOTS of things out there to be motivated about. Out of all these questions I posed, which ones stuck your interest? Are you interested in money? Perhaps "the Da Vinci Code" or maybe travel to exotic places? Which things would you say you are MOST motivated about? What is "fun" to you; things that make you happy? What "excites" you to put some fire under you? What if you discovered a document (that nobody else has) that showed EXACTLY the names of the Apostles in Da Vinci's Last Supper masterpiece painting in the correct order; would this "excite" you? What IF this document were hundreds of years old; would a discovery or find like this give you "excitement" and passion to tell the world? What motivates you with fire? Perhaps making a lot of money? Would making a lot of money excite you? What fields of science or other fields do you like? What hobbies do you presently have? What "| hobbies" would you like to take up, IF you had the knowledge? Would you say you can apply common sense and are a practical person or do you come from the viewpoint of academics? --Doug 22:27, 29 December 2006 (UTC)

This is the usual sort of answer for people lacking drive: of all these exciting activities, surely something must spark your interest?
We're all the same: we all like the same, basic, things. It's a red herring to tell someone to find something to 'ignite their passion'. It just does not work like this. Vranak 23:54, 29 December 2006 (UTC)
Very true Vranak, the questionner is telling us he cannot get motivated by anything; I then confess to being the same, and Doug comes along and tells us to get motivated?????????? Nice try Doug, but it's like trying to tell an alcoholic or a drug addict or a gay guy to act "normal". I am only 5'4", but have always wanted to be 6'2", can you suggest anything Doug?

Thanks everyone for your comments. It gives me a little more to think about. Especially Doug, for speaking your mind and representing the concrete wisdom of "the elders".'s comments also especially hit me hard, because, though I'm sure you've lived to be happy with your life, it is truly dissapointing that you never found your place, and I see myself heading in the same direction. To Doug: People have asked me ever since high school what I "liked". For some people, that's an easy question to answer. People have hobbies, likes and dislikes. I don't really. I like everything, I want to know everything, I want to do everything and be everything, for a while. The idea of me devoting myself to a single task, or a bunch of related ones, is not only unthinkable, but entirely undesirable and even scary when I think too much about it. I guess the only thing I can say that I truly believe is "fun", is change, difference, newness. That basically explains my thirst for knowledge; learning things forces me to adapt myself to a new base, I feel like I become a different person. When I was younger, games were interesting because they are designed to suprise, to force you to think in creative ways. Being logical though, I no longer let myself enjoy such forced entertainment, because I feel that it takes away from the "enjoyment" of real life, something which I have yet to find much of yet, I guess. I think I am extremely moral, an extreme athiest, and extremely forward thinking. There are of course conflicts between my "brain" and my "heart" (my self and my superego?) as I am only human, but I do my best to keep them in balance.

Even so, the self doesn't respond well to the wants and the needs of the superego (it gets bored), and that, I guess, is my problem. I think Doug has a very strong "self", and that's something that I admire, something that I can't control. Also Doug, you have two FIVEs! 05:57, 30 December 2006 (UTC) (I am the same user as User:

You are absolutely correct, I do have two FIVES. I was having so much fun I lost track. Thanks for the positive remarks. Perhaps I can introduce some ideas from "an Elder" that might get you inspired. I have found that hobbies got me inspired and taught me to focus in on a single item. I have learned that focusing your energies on a single task gets MUCH better results. Also I too am NOT inspired by games. Never liked just playing games (because I figured it was a waste of good time), however DID enjoy what you call "enjoyment of real life" by applying all my energies instead to "real life" applications. One of my hobbies early in life was that of electronics. I liked building circuits and learning how they worked. This then lead me to my first career as an Electronics Technician. Since I already knew how the circuits worked, I became VERY good at my career. I was then paid very well and got the "gravy" jobs. I knew my stuff and it paid off. That was because I focused in on this single task. My next career was that of real estate. Because I knew how to focus my energies and also knew how to think logically (from logical electronic circuits) I then learned techniques of real estate. In the 1980's we moved from the eastern United States to San Diego. As you know real estate in San Diego is expensive. However I managed to learn how to acquire several properties (and I started with little money). Self motivation was the answer. Focusing in on a single task and putting all my energies in on real estate ultimately paid off very well. There were at the time several thousand real estate Agents and Brokers in San Diego County. Because I knew how to apply common sense, logic, and focus in on a single task I ultimately outwitted and outsmarted MOST of the Agents in San Diego County. One of the ways also that is VERY important here is honesty and morality. Because I was honest with people, people then liked working with me. I was then like a "magnet" and things just fell my way. I was definitely forward thinking. In fact once you learn to concentrate on something, you will learn also then you somhow set up what I might call "Universal Vibrations". You somehow then just attract things your way. I figured out such good honest moral real estate techniques that properties just came my way. Many times I purchased and obtained properties with no money out of my pocket. Really, it happens! There was a couple of instances that I was actually paid CASH money to take the property off the owner's hands. I will be glad to pass these techniques on to you, IF you are interested in these. It will make you LOTS of money, IF you are motivated to earn lots of money. And it is perfectly legal and legitimate. That was the "fun" part, I did it all honestly. You CAN make a lot of money and NOT have to do illegal or immoral things. In fact, I found in the long run, being 100% honest with people pays off in the long run. Now keep in mind, this is advice from "an Elder" that has been-there-done-that. Being DISHONEST will not work. Trust me on that one.

In my real estate career in San Diego my "speciality" was bank repossessions (foreclosures). Because I was so good at what I did and honest with the Bank, I was having most of the Banks calling me personally when they took back a property. I then proceeded to sell their property. My selling techniques were EXCELLENT and moral. I did not have a real estate office and no Agents under me; however DID have 6 - 8 transactions going at the same time. Most Agents are lucky if the have even ONE transaction going. Many other Agents that were trying to get this same business from the Banks were from large firms (i.e. Century 21), however the Bank presidents would rather work with me instead. Then when there was an OUTSTANDING deal, I took it. Then I negotiated DIRECTLY with the bank and purchased it far below the market. When I say "far below" I am talking 80% of market, or 70% of market, sometimes 60% of market. In one instance I bought a half million dollar home in Del Mar (if you know the area, you know this is an expensive area) for under $200,000. It had an ocean view and was in pretty good condition. The home had just recently been re-carpeted. My down payment was 10%, however since I already had commissions from this Bank "in escrow" I basically did not come up with any CASH out of my pocket. In MOST instances I was dealing with the Bank President or one of the top Bank executives (who controlled the properties). Just by "stumbling across" great deals I made LOTS of money. The Bank presidents liked how I handled their deals, so would not even bother to return the calls of other Agents trying to get their business. They then CALLED ME directly and gave me the listing to sell their properties. Pretty good, wouldn't you say? I even had one instance where I was paid 3 (that's correct 3) FULL cash commissions and I was the one that ultimately wound up with the property with no money out of my pocket. I later sold it for a $50,000 profit. Keep in mind now, these numbers are of the 1980's. Don't know what these would be today, but it would be a BUNCH more. I am now retired. FYI: Took a lot of Club Med trips. Even took one trip to the South Pacific for 5 weeks. That was my 3rd time to Tahiti.

Presently I am working on cracking the Da Vinci Code. Now the others that are watching this conversation will have a lot to say about this. That's good! I am having way too much fun. Am I allowed to have this much fun? I think so, I earned it (the old fashion way). What that does is put "fire" under me. I am then "fired" up to keep going. I have already found out MANY of the pieces to the Da Vinci Code, so I am well on my way. Can't hardly wait to see what others will say about this. Way too much "fun", don't you think. This is what I call FUN. Watch what they will have to say on this. It will be very interesting. Wouldn't you like to have "fun" like this? Then all you have to do then is take the advice of an Elder. Now this is the way I look at it: I cann't help it that they didn't find it FIRST. That's because they were NOT applying common sense and being 100% honest. Morality plays a LARGE factor here, so be honest in whatever you do. Would you be interested in helping me crack the Da Vinci Code? Its a lot of "fun", but also a LOT of work. However nobody else has cracked it yet. But I have...... --Doug 11:35, 30 December 2006 (UTC)

The question was not a medical one per se, but the questioner might be well advised to find a psychologist and discuss these concerns with him. A person who is "pretty smart" who is not getting what he wants out of life might have some degree of perfectionism, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, or Clinical depression leading to Procrastination, and might benefit from medication, which a psychiatrist or in some cases his regular doctor could prescribe after evaluating him. Persons who are more comfortable interacting with others via Wikipedia rather than real life might find the article Asperger's Syndrome interesting. I have read biographies of famous scientists or inventors wherein the biographer said that when he was interacting with the great one, he could keep pace with the overachiever on an hour by hour basis, working beside him in the lab or theorizing in the office, but was amazed by what the great one achieved on a day by day, year by year basis. Part of it was time on task: they just kept at it persistently and did not stop. There was also the ability to not be stopped by an obstacle: instead they would renew an attack on the problem from a different direction, or they would attack it from several directions at once. Many people get into paralysis by analysis in that they try to devise the perfect plan rather than trying a reasonable approach, and if it fails try a different reasonable approach. The opposite type of person, sometimes called "A to B' just says "What are the requirements, and get out of my way," then sets off on an attack on the problem. Thomas Edison was an example of day to day year to year tireless productivity, and every field of science or industry has countless similar examples. Of course, the focus on the main interprise often meant they neglected their family or friends, so balance is necessary. The case most in need of counseling or medical management is someone who lacks family and friends and also has no business or career or fun. Life should be more than a waiting room. Edison 16:04, 30 December 2006 (UTC)

I do believe Mr. Edison has some EXCELLENT advice for the original questioner. I would like to also throw in the name Leonardo Da Vinci, whom also was an example of day to day year to year tireless productivity. He was a self motivator. He also had hobbies. He liked to tinker with inventions. As we all know he came up with some inventions that were way ahead of their time. He is called the "Renaissance man". Now another less known figure about 100 years before him that also was an example of day to day year to year tireless productivity was the Italian scholar Francesco Petrarch. He ALSO had hobbies. One of his hobbies was the collection of ancient and crumbling Latin manuscripts or anything classical in the way of old books or Codexs. He did this during his extensive travels throughout Europe in the Fourteenth Century. He also was a tireless writer. He wrote in Latin some of the most famous poems ever written. In fact, Petrarch is considered the "Father of the Renaissance". Presently this is the person I am studing much, because he came up with some great ideas and innovations that originally came from Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle. He then reintroduced their ideas and this is called the Renaissance, which means "rebirth". Check out Petrarch's section on "Philosophy" which I believe you will find most interesting. His hobby of writing was so extensive that to this day we have only translated a part of what he wrote about. One of his books he wrote is called "Book Without A Name" (Latin: Liber Sine Nomine) which is a book written in Code. This is the reason for the title "....without a name" because he left out the names of the people he was writing about. He also wrote other Codexes and manuscripts using codes. This Code I call The Petrarch Code since it was invented by Francesco Petrarch and it is definitely a type of code. His other works have NOT yet been decoded yet since MOST scholars are not aware it is in fact a code. I have found many elements to this code already. Would you be interested in helping me crack The Petrarch Code? It will take a LOT of work and MUCH concentration, however it is a lot of "fun". One of the reasons it is so much "fun" is that (as far I know) there is no other scholars that have discovered this. Does it sound interesting and "fun" or does it sound like too much work. Be for warned that MANY people will criticize you, so be prepared for this. If you can NOT take criticism, then I would recommend that you NOT work on cracking The Petrarch Code..... --Doug 17:29, 30 December 2006 (UTC)

Huntington's disease[edit]

I have read the article Huntington's disease. Some of the symptoms are Depression and Anxiety.

Another symptom is Chorea. Chorea is cused by overactivity of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in depression.

The treatments for Chorea are antipshycotics, which are antagonists of dopamine.

--Jones2 23:59, 8 January 2007 (UTC)

You won't like my answer but, you'd have to ask a doctor;). I'm not one, but I do know that when the label says tell your doctor if you are on any of this other medication, they MEAN IT! Drugs can have surprising and NON intuitive side effects when taken with other drugs. brain chemistry is very complex, a normal person taking the medication of a schizophrenic may get completely different effects from the medication. For example, Antagonising OVERACTIVE dopamine to treat chorea may simply bring it to normal levels, not causing further depression at all. A doctor's job is to determine and weigh up all the positives and negatives of the treatments, there may be alternative treatments to chorea, partly why most people believe medical advice shouldn't be given out over the internet. Vespine 02:52, 9 January 2007 (UTC)
  • I don't have Huntington's disease. My question is of scientific interest. I don't understand. --Jones2 05:31, 9 January 2007 (UTC)
  • It's not the best of sources, but according to a 1990s-2000s fiction television show there is no cure for Huntington's. That means you need medication to treat the symptoms and suppress the progression of the disease. That would require at least 2 different meds. - Mgm|(talk) 11:24, 9 January 2007 (UTC)
I didn't assume you had Huntington's, but your question is still asking for something that could vary greatly depending on each individual case and could only be answered by a doctor who has evaluated the individual. If someone gave you an answer, even if it was well educated, someone else could come across this site and read the answer to be more authoritative then it could possibly be. Vespine 21:43, 9 January 2007 (UTC)
One further thing, the article states it is a genetic disorder so there is no cure, we can't currently cure genetic disorders. It also states There are treatments available to help control the chorea, although these may have the side effect of aggravating bradykinesia or dystonia. So the mechanism is known at least to some degree. On the chorea article it further states There is no standard course of treatment for chorea so I think you are barking up the wrong tree. A doctor would take all that into account, including if depression or any other conditions are a concern and would tailor treatments and controls suitable for the individual. A doctor should not give you medication for one affliction if the side effects outweigh the benefits..Vespine 21:50, 9 January 2007 (UTC)
Q1: There is no treatment for the underlying cause of HD, but there are good treatments for relieving symptoms. Q2: An antidepressant may or may not cause problems, there is no "scientific" answer, only individualised therapy. Without going into details, the principles would be: Initially choose medications that have been shown to help the specific symptom, and then watch the person for side-effects. Then the choice is then to either treat the side-effect, or try a different drug. There are numerous ways of treating the symptoms of depression, conventional anti-depressants not necessarily being the best, or giving better results. Whatever the doctor chooses, it is really just a matter of accurate follow-up and changing medicines appropriately. It is a matter of individualised poly-pharmacy, and not working straight from a textbook about normal people, and the doctor knowing what she is doing, and the patient (or family) learning to observe and report positive and negative effects, and it being a mutual responsibility (doctor, therapist, patient and family) to find ways of improving the situation - there is no "theoretically right treatment". Clear goals and honest communication is the only way to go. --Seejyb 01:26, 10 January 2007 (UTC)

  • I read the article Tardive dyskinesia. Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements. Tardive dyskinesia most commonly occurs in patients with psychiatric conditions who are treated with antipsychotic medications for many years.
  • I have read the article Chorea. Chorea is characterized by brief, irregular contractions that are not repetitive or rhythmic, but appear to flow from one muscle to the next, it also adds twisting and writhing movements. Chorea is caused by overactivity of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine.
  • Now Chorea is caused by excess Dopamine.
  • I am sure you can infer my above question now. --Jones2 06:31, 10 January 2007 (UTC)
I'm not an expert at all, and this is not a definative answer, but perhaps a pointer towards an explanation. Yesterday I had the pleasure of meeting Paul Greengard, a Nobel Prize winner for work on dopamine mediated signal transduction in the nervous system. He talked at some length about his work and, what I learned from him, was how a multitude of neuro-stimuli including antipsychotic drugs, alcohol, caffiene, LSD, PCP, cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines, ritalin and prozac - many of which produce contrasting physiological effects and act through different transductions pathways - all converge at a common protein called DARPP-32. It at first seems impossible to imagine how a single protein can mediate such different neurochemical effects. But - and I couldn't do the complexity or elegance of the system justice here - an incredibly sophisticated network of positive and negative feedback loops via kinases and phosphatases interact to give the protein a remarkable scope of action. Indeed DARPP-32 itself can be phosphorylated on up to seven different serine sites. Combinations of phosphorylation at least four of them are known to regulate its activity, and thus the proteins that DARPP-32 itself phosphorylates.
Now here is how this is related your your query: these sites are phosphorylated independently by downstream cascades of different dopamine receptor classes (D1-like or D2-like receptors). Moreover, other neurotransmitter signalling pathways have a huge, and differential, influence on DARPP-32 phosphorylaytion downstream of, and at the level of, both receptors. In other words, the same "dose" of dopamine at synapse can give very different responses via DARPP-32, depending on the receptor it signals through. And the local signaling environment for a given neuron - which can change from second to second - can effect both the type of dompamine receptor that is active and the effect of either receptor's signaling at DARPP-32.
So, while I don't have a specific answer for you, I believe Greengard's body of work - coupled with the consideration of signaling through different dopamine receptors - provides a mechanism that can explain why modulation of dopaminergic signaling can result in such seemingly paradoxical effects. Rockpocket 02:47, 12 January 2007 (UTC)
Though I thought the questioner was simply trolling in a rather unsophisticated way, I liked your answer, Rocketpocket, and envy the opportunity you had. It is wonderful to see how the basic scientists are working out why real life health problems, such as drug responses, are as tricky as are. --Seejyb 15:44, 12 January 2007 (UTC)
Thank you. I was very lucky. Greengard is a remarkable character (what he did with his Nobel Prize winnings speaks volumes about the man) and his work is incredibly inspiring. I heard today that I'm going to have the opportunity to have dinner with another Nobel winner, Sydney Brenner in a few weeks. So if anyone has any good RD questions on Caenorhabditis elegans or genomics I'll put them to him. I'm hopeful that if I meet enough of these people, some of their genius will rub off! ;) Rockpocket 19:02, 12 January 2007 (UTC)