User:Bloodmerchant/Fuqing dialect

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Fuqing dialect
Native to People's Republic of China
Region Fuqing, Pingtan, some parts of Changle, Yongtai, and Fuzhou city proper
Native speakers
At least 1 million  (date missing)[citation needed]
Chinese characters and Foochow Romanized
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Fuqing dialect (福清話, BUC: Hók-chiăng-uâ, IPA:[huʔ˥ tsʰiaŋ˥ ŋuɑ˦˨]) or Hokchia, is a Min Dong dialect. It is spoken in Fuqing county-level city in Fuzhou prefecture-level city. It is not completely mutually intelligible with Fuzhou dialect.


Fuqing dialect has fifteen initials, forty-six rimes, and seven tones.


Including null initials, Fuqing dialect has fifteen initials, excluding the phonemes [β] and [ʒ], which are used in spoken speech as mutations.

Chart of Fuqing dialect initials
  Bilabial Alveolar Dental Velar Glottal
Plosive Voiceless unaspirated [p]

邊 (b)


低 (d)


求 (g)


Voiceless aspirated [pʰ]

波 (p)


他 (t)


氣 (k)

Nasal [m]

蒙 (m)


日 (n)


語 (ng)

Fricative Voiceless [θ]

時 (s)


非/喜 (h)

Voiced [β] [ʒ]
Affricate Voiceless unaspirated [ts]

曾 (c)

Voiceless aspirated [tsʰ]

出 (ch)

Lateral Approximant [l]

柳 (l)

(The Chinese characters represent the sample characters taken from the Qī Lín Bāyīn (《戚林八音》, Foochow Romanized: Chék Lìng Báik-ĭng), while the Latin letters are from the orthography Foochow Romanized).

[θ] is a voiceless dental fricative, which some pronounce as [s].[1]

[ts], [tsʰ] and [s] palatalize to [tɕ], [tɕʰ], [ɕ] before finals that begin with /y/, the close front rounded vowel ([y], [yo/yɔ], [yoŋ/yɔŋ], [yoʔ/yɔʔ]). [2]


Including the syllabic nasal consonant [ŋ], the Fuqing dialect has forty-six rimes in total. Apart from [ŋ] and [iau], all rimes have a close/open distinction.

Chart of Fuqing dialect rimes
Yin rimes Yang Rimes Ru Rimes
Simple vowels Compound vowels Nasal coda /-ŋ/ Glottal coda /-ʔ/
Null medial [a/ɑ]

(a, ah[3])










(o̤, o̤h)








西 (a̤)















Medial /i/ [ia/iɑ]

(ia, iah)


-- (--)






(i/e, ih/eh)















Medial /u/ [u/o]









(ua, uah)






(uo, uoh)







Medial /y/ [y/ø]







(io, ioh)





The rime before the slash is the close or tense rime (緊韻、窄韻), while after the slash is the open or lax rime (鬆韻、寬韻). The Chinese characters represent the sample characters taken from the Qī Lín Bāyīn (《戚林八音》, Foochow Romanized: Chék Lìng Báik-ĭng. Within the Qī Lín Bāyīn, the ru rimes are assigned under the corresponding yang rimes; hence, the sample characters for yang and ru rimes are the same. The Latin letters are from the orthography Foochow Romanized).

The rime [iau] only has one syllable [ŋiau] , and is not found in the Qī Lín Bāyīn; furthermore, Foochow Romanized does not have a way to represent this syllable.

In the modern Rongcheng dialect, the rime [iu/ieu] has now merged into [ieu/iɐu] and is no longer distinguished. Also in the new Rongcheng dialect, the rime [ui/uoi] has merged into [uoi/uɐi]. The syllabic nasal [ŋ] in the modern Rongcheng dialect is read as [iŋ]; some sources have not yet listed this final in their charts. [4]


The Fuqing dialect has seven tones, with the Middle Chinese four tone categories of level/even (平), departing (去) and entering (入) all divided into dark (陰) and light (陽) categories. The names and the sequence of the seven tones are outlined below, as listed in the traditional rime dictionary Qī Lín Bāyīn:

Traditional nomeclature Upper level 上平 Rising tone 上聲 Upper departing 上去 Upper entering 上入 Lower level 下平 Lower departing 下去 Lower entering 下入
Standard nomenclature[5] Dark level
Rising tone
Dark departing
Dark entering
Light level
Light departing
Light entering
IPA pitches ˥˧ (53) ˧˨ (32) ˨˩ (21) ʔ˩˨ (ʔ12) ˥˥ (55) ˦˨ (42) ʔ˥ (ʔ5)
Foochow Romanized

(with a as example)

ă ā á ák à â ăk

The dark level (陰平 Ĭng-bìng) tone falls the most sharply; although the light departing (陽去 Iòng-ké̤ṳ) tone is also a high falling tone, its fall in pitch is not as dramatic.

Additionally, the Fuqing dialect contains the neutral tone in colloquial speech, which in tone sandhi produces a new tone contour, one that rises ([˧˥ (35)]). [6][7]

Close-open rimes[edit]

The phenomenon of close and open rime alternation (also known as tense and lax rimes; in Chinese "寬窄韻現象", "鬆、緊韻現象" or "本韻、變韻現象")[8] is one found throughout the dialects of cities and villages in the traditional Fuzhou area (the ten towns of Fuzhou, 福州十邑). But it is not found in, for example, the dialects of Gutian (古田) and Luoyuan (羅源). The dialect of Fuqing, along with that of the urban area of Fuzhou, exhibits this phenomenon.

According to the original listing of the rimes in the Qī Lín Bāyīn, the medial vowel did not change with the tones. But in the Fuqing dialect, when the rime is in either one of the departing tones or in the dark entering tone, the medial vowel changes to another, the rime being called the open rime. When in either of the two level tones, in the rising tone, or in the light entering tone, the rime this time does not change; this rime is called the close rime. In the Fuqing dialect, with the exception of [ŋ] and [iau], all rimes exhibit this close-open alternation.

As an example, the rime from "春" in the Qī Lín Bāyīn, lists the two rimes: [uŋ] and [uk]. In the Gutian dialect, the same vowel is preserved in the rime [u], regardless of tone. But in the Fuqing dialect, the rime [uŋ] in the dark departing (陰去) and light departing (陽去) tones changes to [oŋ], where the vowel in the final [u] has become [o]. Similarly, [uʔ] in the upper departing (上入) tone becomes the open rime [oʔ], where the vowel has again changed.

Tone name Dark level
Rising tone
Dark departing
Dark entering
Light level
Light departing
Light entering
Chinese character
Fuqing dialect [tuŋ] [tuŋ] [toŋ] [toʔ] [tuŋ] [toŋ] [tuʔ]
Gutian dialect [tuŋ] [tuŋ] [tuŋ] [tuk] [tuŋ] [tuŋ] [tuk]

Within the Fuqing dialect, the open rime's vowel is always more open (alias 'lower') by a degree than the close rime. For example, 知 is read [ti] as a close rime, with the close vowel [i]. Listed as the same rime but in a different tone (i.e. light departing 陽去) is 地, which is instead read as [te], an open rime with the half-close vowel [e]. This is more open than [i] by one degree. All close rimes becomes their corresponding open rimes according to this rule.

Illustration of the phonetics of the close-open alternation
Close rime Open rime
[θy] [θø]
[te] [tɛ]
[tøŋ] [tœŋ]
[kɛŋ] [kæŋ]
[hu] [ho]
[to] [tɔ]
[pa] [pɑ]

Sound changes[edit]

The Fuqing dialect has a particularly rich set of phonetic changes. The pronunciation of a particular Chinese character under certain circumstances can undergo changes in its initial, its rime, and its tone. For example, the word 兄弟哥 (brother, Standard Mandarin: 兄弟):

兄弟哥 hiaŋ˥˥ nie˥˥ o˥˧

Within the word 兄弟哥, the first syllable 兄 has undergone tone sandhi and has changed tone; the last syllable 哥 has lost its initial consonant; and the rime of the middle syllable 弟 has changed in both vowel and tone. Within lexical or semantic items, the three features of initial, rime and tone are subject to sandhi phenomena. In colloquial Fuqing speech, this type of change is very frequently encountered, but is rare in Chinese as a whole.

Initial assimilation[edit]

In colloquial Fuqing speech, the initial consonants of Chinese characters or syllables are subject to change under specific circumstances within lexical items. The first work to examine the phonology of the Fuzhou dialect in recent times, the Mǐnyīn Yánjiū (閩音研究) used the term "initial assimilation" when introducing this phenomenon; it has come to be the preferred term up to present[9][10]. The Fuqing dialect contains two voiced initial consonants that only appear through initial assimilation.

The phenomenon of initial assimilation in the Fuqing dialect occurs in polysyllabic lexemes (i.e. lexical items or words of two or more syllables or Chinese characters) and semantic groups. Usually, within the lexico-semantic groups, all syllables apart from the first undergo initial assimilation. But if the initial of the following syllable is a nasal or [l] , then no initial assimilation occurs.

The syllable that undergoes initial assimilation is the "latter character"; that which precedes it is the "former character". Initial assimilation in the Fuqing dialect consists of three types: voicing, nasalisation/nasal assimilation and suppression. The rime of the former character determines the assimilation of the latter character's initial.

Former character's rime type Latter character's initial type Example
"Checked rime" / Rime ending in a glottal stop No change hoʔ tsʰiaŋ > huʔ tsʰiaŋ (福清, Fuqing)
Yang rime / Rime ending in a nasal Nasalisation / Nasal assimilation hiaŋ tiɛ > hiaŋ n (兄弟, brother)
Yin rime / Rime ending in a vowel Voicing or suppression θɛ pœʔ > θɛ βœʔ (西北, northwest)

ŋo kæŋ > ŋu æŋ (五縣, five counties)

Which voiced consonant or nasal consonant or whether the consonant is suppressed depends on the place of articulation of the latter syllable's initial.

Initial's place of articulation Initial Example character Nasalisation / Nasal assimilation Voicing Suppression
Labial p, pʰ [piɛ] kieŋ m


tsʰiu β


Velar k, kʰ, h, ʔ [hoʔ] θoŋ ŋ


-- θu oʔ


Dental (Type A) t, tʰ, θ [tʰau] tsieŋ nau


ŋia lau


Dental (Type B) ts, tsʰ [tsiɑ] kaŋ n


huʔ tsiu ʒ



Type A dentals after voicing assimilation do not become the standard [l] , but are slightly flapped [ / retroflexed (?)] [11]

Tone sandhi[edit]

As with the majority of southern varieties of Chinese, the Fuqing dialect exhibits tone sandhi. The phenomenon of tone sandhi in the Fuqing dialect contains a whole set of rules to be followed, but it is still rather complex: one tone can undergo different changes depending on what tone follows it. For example, the light entering (陽入) tone in front of the dark departing (陰去) tone becomes ˩˩ (11), but in front of a rising tone (上聲) it becomes ˥˥ (55); and in front of the dark entering (陰入) tone it becomes ˨˩ (21).

Chart of tone sandhi with 實, a syllable in the light entering tone (陽入調)
Original syllable (IPA) Tone of the following syllable Tone value after sandhi Example word
/θiʔ˥/ Dark departing 陰去 ˩˩ (11) [θiʔ˩˩ tsiɛ˨˩] (實際)
/θiʔ˥/ Rising tone 上聲 ˥˥ (55) [θiʔ˥˥ tsieŋ˧˨] (實踐)
/θiʔ˥/ Dark entering 陰入 ˨˩ (21) [θiʔ˨˩ tseʔ˩˨] (實質)

In many local dialects of the Fuzhou area (within the Min Dong family), the last syllable of a word does not undergo tone sandhi. However, in the Fuqing dialect, the last syllable's tone does change under certain circumstances.

小禮:θieu˨˩ lɛ˥˧
綠色:luo˨˩ θæʔ˨˩

Aside from words composed of two syllables (or binomes), those composed of three syllables also undergo tone sandhi.

福清話:huʔ˥ tsʰiaŋ˥˥ ŋuɑ˦˨



首字 中字 末字 詞彙
福清音 h (福) tsʰiaŋ (清) kæŋ (縣) h tsʰiaŋ ŋæŋ
古田音 huk (福) tsʰiaŋ (清) keiŋ (縣) huk tsʰiaŋ ŋeiŋ






蘇州音 [bã] [dɤ] [dʑin] [ziəʔ] [ɦoŋ] [ɡɑ]
福清音 [pɛŋ] [tɑu] [køŋ] [tsuoʔ] [huŋ] [kɛ]


古漢語中的疑母字在今日多數漢語中都沒有完整的保存下來。在普通話中,聲母 [ŋ] 全部脫落,個別字還混入聲母 [n] 中(例如:牛、虐、擬等字)。在吳語、粵語和客家話中,聲母 [ŋ] 拼細音時,或是脫落(和影母相混)或是變為其它聲母。但在福清話中,疑母字不論拼細音還是拼洪音,聲母均是 [ŋ],僅有個別字變讀為 [m]。在部分北方漢語以及粵語中,洪音的影母字會自動增加一個聲母 [ŋ](例如安讀為 [ŋan] ),但在福清話中,影母均讀零聲母。

福清音 ŋa ŋɑi ŋɔ ŋoʔ ŋua ŋuɔ ŋi ŋiʔ ŋy ŋyoʔ ŋyŋ muɑ
廣州音 ŋa ŋɔi ŋɔ ŋɔk ŋɔ ŋ̍ ji jik jy jœk ŋɐn ŋa

古漢語非組字在福清話中不讀 [f],而讀 [p][pʰ][h]。例如:「發」讀 [puɔʔ]、「蜂」讀 [pʰuŋ]、「非」讀 [hi]

古漢語知組字在福清話讀 [t][tʰ],不讀捲舌音。例如:「知」讀 [ti]、「竹」讀 [tøʔ]、「重」讀 [tʰyŋ]

古漢語的三套鼻韻尾在福清話中已全部併入鼻韻尾 [ŋ]。古漢語的三套入聲韻尾在福清話也併入舌根塞韻尾 [k],繼而弱化成喉塞韻尾 [ʔ][14]

韻尾 -m -n -ng -p -t -k
周寧音 [nan] [tin] [kiɛŋ] [tʰɛk] [θut] [pok]
寧德音 [nam] [tiŋ] [kiaŋ] [tʰɛp] [suk] [pok]
福清音 [naŋ] [tiɛŋ] [kiaŋ] [tʰæʔ] [θuɔʔ] [poʔ]

福清話只有一個上聲,即「陰上」。古音的全濁「陽上」已混入「陽去」,次濁陽上調的漢字文讀是「陰上」調,白讀是「陽上」調,[17]例如「老 [lo32 / lɑu42] 」、「雨 [y32 / huɔ42]」、「有 [iu32 / ou42]」等。


福清音(白讀) ua˥˧ kɑ˨˩ θɔ˨˩ ti˥˧ kʰuɔ˨˩ θyo˥˧ tia˥˧
福州音(白讀) uaʔ˥ kɑʔ˨˦ sɔʔ˨˦ tiʔ˥ kʰuɔʔ˨˦ suoʔ˥ tieʔ˥



聲母存在異讀:富([po˨˩] / [ho˨˩]
韻母存在異讀:清([tsʰiaŋ˥˧] / [tsʰiŋ˥˧]
聲調存在異讀:利([le˨˩] / [le˦˨]
聲母和韻母異讀:夫([puo˥˧] / [hu˥˧]
聲母和聲調異讀:遠([huɔŋ˦˨] / [uoŋ˧˨]
韻母和聲調異讀:兩([lɑŋ˦˨] / [lyoŋ˧˨]
聲韻調均異讀:網([mœŋ˦˨] / [uoŋ˧˨]

漢字若有文白兩類讀音,一般要用文音讀,而口語詞則要用白讀,兩者不能錯用。白讀主要集中在口語常用的字詞、主要姓氏、本地地名中。例如常用動詞「聽」在口語中唸作 [tʰiaŋ˥˧],姓氏「劉」唸做 [lau˦˦],「清」在福州十邑內的「閩清」和「福清」兩個地名中唸 [tsʰiaŋ˥˧],在十邑外的地名「清流縣」中讀文音。文音主要在讀書或詩詞時候使用,有些漢字的文音只用在詩詞中。另外,新詞一般也用文音來讀。


  1. ^ 馮愛珍:《福清方言研究》 Fuqing Fangyan Yanjiu, 1993, 社會科學文獻出版社, p.28. Because [θ] is a distinctive feature of the Fuqing dialect, and is the mainstream pronunciation, [s] is not listed on the chart.
  2. ^ Ibid.
  3. ^ 平話字韻尾拼為「h」的入聲字在福清話中已脫落韻尾,混入陰聲韻。
  4. ^ 福清市志編纂委員會:《福清市志》, 1994, 廈門大學出版社 (Xiamen University Press), 《卷三十.方言》 (Vol. 30: Topolects).
  5. ^ Standard nomenclature refers to names of the tones as used in modern Chinese academia, which is also used by Standard Mandarin. This article follows this convention.
  6. ^ 馮愛珍:《福清方言研究》, 1993, 社會科學文獻出版社, p.35
  7. ^ 福清市志編纂委員會:《福清市志》, 1994, 廈門大學出版社 (Xiamen University Press), 《卷三十.方言》 (Vol. 30: Topolects).
  8. ^ 王建華 etc.:連江縣國民小學鄉土語言教材-福州語 第一冊(教師手冊),連江縣政府,民國九十年:p.8. This article uses the terminology from this textbook.
  9. ^ 陳澤平:閩語新探索, Shanghai, Far East Publishing House, 2003: p.25.
  10. ^ 陶燠民:閩音研究, Beijing, Scientific Publishing House, 1956, p.15:「二字連語,而有文法上密切之關係,則發生類化現象,其變則隨上字韻母之陰陽,下字聲母之組別而異……。」
  11. ^ 袁家驊:漢語方言概要, Beijing, Language and Literature Publishing House, 2003: p.289.
  12. ^ 葉祥苓:《蘇州方言詞典》,南京,江蘇教育出版社,一九九三年。漢字蘇州音取自該詞典。
  13. ^ 漢字廣州音取自粵語審音配詞字庫
  14. ^ 李如龍、王昇魁:戚林八音校注,福州,福建人民出版社,2001年:前言 12頁。
  15. ^ 周寧縣地方志編委會,周寧縣志,北京,中國科技出版社,1993年:第三十四篇.方言。漢字周寧音取自該卷同音字表。
  16. ^ 沙平. 福建省寧德方言同音字彙. 方言. 1999年4期:282-295.
  17. ^ 馮愛珍:《福清方言研究》,1993年,社會科學文獻出版社。124頁