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For easy reference[edit]






Food for thought[edit]

If only, ppl would love themselves
If only, ppl would be sincere to themselves
If only, ppl would forgive themselves

The Truth just Is. Excellence discovers & uncovers the Truth. Business interests can hide the Truth through consensus.

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  • Cassiterite is derived from the term “Cassiterides” which was applied 'islands off the western coast of Europe' in pre-Roman times (britisch and the irish islands, Phoenician language). (
  • The Silk Roads connect Chang'an (now called Xi'an) to Constantinople. They did not know the existence of each other.
  • The frankincense came from Oman to the Mediterranean Sea through Saba (Incense Route). Nobody knew that it is a resin from a Boswellia tree, but they were told that incense is Dragon's tears.
  • Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli (before 1884, while writting his main work about inheritance) became known as the man who discouraged Augustinian priest Gregor Mendel from further work on genetics. Carl Erich Correns published Mendel's reference (from 1866) January 25, 1900.
    • Mendel, J.G. (1866). Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, Bd. IV für das Jahr, 1865 Abhandlungen:3–47. For the English translation, see: Druery, C.T and William Bateson (1901). "Experiments in plant hybridization". Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 26: 1–32. Retrieved 2009-10-09. .
    • Fisher, R. A. (1936). "Has Mendel's work been rediscovered?". Annals of Science 1: 115–137. 
    • Hartl, Daniel L.; Fairbanks, Daniel J. (1 March 2007). "Mud Sticks: On the Alleged Falsification of Mendel's Data". Genetics 175 (3): 975–979. PMC 1840063. PMID 17384156. Retrieved 2008-08-08. "[The] allegation of deliberate falsification can finally be put to rest, because on closer analysis it has proved to be unsupported by convincing evidence"  .
  • Consensus can be wrong. Alfred Lothar Wegener's theorie (1 November 1880 – November 1930) of continental drift (1912) could have failed 1939, if Alfred Rittmann (IAVCEI President 1954-1963) did not defend the theorie with his observation, raising doubts. Orogenic volcanism is dominated by calc-alkaline igneous rocks, lacking sodic alkali-basaltic magmas; whereas the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (extension) has mainly alkali-basaltic magmas. Still, only 1968 did the Earth Siences paradigm changed; gravity anomaly survey, sonar survey and geomagnetic survey were needed to nail it.
    • Carey, S. W. (1958), "The tectonic approach to continental drift", in Carey, S. W., Continental Drift—A symposium, Hobart: Univ. of Tasmania, pp. 177–363 ; Expanding Earth, 311-349.
    • Wegener, Alfred (6 January 1912). "Die Herausbildung der Grossformen der Erdrinde (Kontinente und Ozeane), auf geophysikalischer Grundlage". Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 63: 185–195, 253–256, 305–309. doi:10.1007/BF02202896. .
    • Rittmann, Alfred (1939). "Bemerkungen zur 'Atlantis-Tagung' in Frankfurt im Januar 1939". Geologische Rundschau 30: 284. doi:10.1007/BF01804845. .
    • F. Ippolito and G. Marinelli (September 1981). "Alfred Rittmann". Bulletin of Volcanology 44 (3): 217–221. doi:10.1007/BF02600560. .
    • Frankel, H. (1987). "The Continental Drift Debate". In H.T. Engelhardt Jr and A.L. Caplan. Scientific Controversies: Case Solutions in the resolution and closure of disputes in science and technology. Cambridge University Press. 
    • Wegener had a PhD in Astronomy, what did not help. Wegener did not take enough time for his paper, probably. He did it in the second half of 1905, just, he wanted to join an expedition to Greenland. His main interest was meteorology, and he didn't see the controversy storm coming.
    • The geologists agree with his data on Geography, Glaciology, Paleontology and old Orogeny. The Geophysicists had problems with no driving force and a deformable/ movable crust in such a large scale. By hindsight, all had wrong concepts, but were right in a way too: the drifters, the anti-drifters, the fixists, the permanentists, the contracting Earth supporters, and the expanding Earth supporters (the continents are passive, the seafloor spreading is active).
  • The unifying theory of Einstein's general relativity and Planck's quantum mechanics needs more dimensions than energy, volume and time. But the human in vitro fertilisation is not checking the offspring.
  • Edwin Hubble
  • Missoula Floods
    • The Geological Society of Washington, D.C, January 12, 1927 - controversy goes the next 40 years...
    • Geologists J Harlen Bretz and Joseph T. Pardee vs. the U.S. geological establishment (it smacked of Catastrophism). Uniformitarianism was the prevailing view in the U.S.
    • Paul L. Weis and William L. Newman (1976). The Channeled Scablands of Eastern Washington: The Geologic Story of the Spokane Flood. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
    • Norman B. Smyers and Roy M. Breckenridge (2003). "Glacial Lake Missoula, Clark Fork ice dam, and the floods outburst area: Northern Idaho and western Montana". In T. W. Swanson. Western Cordillera and adjacent areas. Geological Society of America Field Guide 4. "Bretz's ideas for such large-scale flooding were viewed as a challenge to the uniformitarian principles then ruling the science of geology (p. 2)" 
    • Wiki quote: "It would be oversimplifying it to say that this was because the geology establishment held uniformitarian views. The geology establishment was resistant to such a sweeping theory for the origin of a broad landscape for a variety of reasons, including lack of familiarity with the remote areas of the interior Pacific Northwest where the research was based, and the lack of status and reputation of Bretz in the eyes of the largely Ivy League-based geology establishment".


Sister projects: commons - wikitionary - species - de.wikibooks

I use User on Internet Cafés and alikes...


  • Lv these mineral names ;) An engineer/ scientist always needs a library, a handbook, an encyclopedia and a database. An enginner/ scientist is never better than his database ;)
  • "I'm not an atheist and I don't think I can call myself a pantheist. We are in the position of a little child entering a huge library filled with books in many different languages. The child knows someone must have written those books. It does not know how. The child dimly suspects a mysterious order in the arrangement of the books but doesn't know what it is. That, it seems to me, is the attitude of even the most intelligent human being toward God. We see a universe marvelously arranged and obeying certain laws, but only dimly understand these laws", attributed to Albert Einstein.
  • "Our aim as scientists is objective truth; more truth, more interesting truth, more intelligible truth. We cannot reasonably aim at certainty. Once we realize that human knowledge is fallible, we realize also that we can never be completely certain that we have not made a mistake" Karl Popper
  • If a kid says that one and one doesn't give two, then the kid isn't allowed to begin the primary school. Our mind is a digital computer. So when we lie, then our diplomas are non valid. Chris.urs-o ;)
Hoba (60 tons)
Cape York (58.2 tons)
Willamette (14.15 tons)
Canyon Diablo (30 tons)
Campo del Cielo (100 tons)
Mundrabilla (24 tons)
Bacubirito (22 tons)
Mbozi (25 tons)
Gibeon (26 tons)
Chupaderos (14.1 tons)
Nantan meteorite (9.5 tons)
Allende (2 tons)


  • Edit summaries, abbreviations:
    • + (addition), c or my 2¢ (two cents contribution), cat (category), ce (copy/ edit), cite (cite book, cite journal, cite web templates), cn ({{cn}}, citation needed), coord (coordinates), dab (disambiguation), infobox (infobox ... template), r (reply), ref (reference), rmv or del (remove), rvv (remove vandalism), red (redlink), reflist (reflist, refbegin, refend templates), sort n move, sp or typo (spelling or space), wky (wikify, wikilink), moop (clean a bit), tag or WP
  • Know how:
    • Logan DW, Sandal M, Gardner PP, Manske M, Bateman A (September 30, 2010). "Ten Simple Rules for Editing Wikipedia". PLoS Comput Biol 6 (9). doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000941. PMC 2947980. PMID 20941386. 
    • It's possible to edit the lead section only, by opting on "...&action=edit&section=0"
    • Gadgets: HotCat, Cat-a-lot and CatScan (Commons) are wonderful tools; Manske's tools ( are limited to 30 times/User (24 hours), so learning by doing wouldn't be your best idea ('global contributions' and reference generator [1]).
Senior Editor


  • Counter: 5 years (24 December 2008)
  •  5 k contributions on en:wiki (9 April 2010)
  • 10 k live edits on en:wiki (31 August 2010)
  • 15 k live edits on en:wiki (4 January 2011)
  •  2 k unique pages edited on en:wiki (12 April 2011)
  • 20 k live edits on en:wiki (17 April 2011)
  • Global, end of 2011: 39.6 k, 23.7 k (en:), 1.1 k (pt:), 0.8 k (de:), 12.8 k (commons)
  • Global, 15 February 2012: 50.0 k, 23.8 k (en:), 1.1 k (pt:), 0.9 k (de:), 23.0 k (commons)
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  • Global, 15 May 2013: 90.0 k, 33.8 k (en:), 1.1 k (pt:), 2.7 k (de:), 46.4 k (commons), 4.3 k (data)
  • Global, 6 August 2013: 100.0 k, 34.6 k (en:), 1.1 k (pt:), 2.8 k (de:), 1.3 k (it:), 47.1 k (commons), 11.9 k (data)
  • Global, 6 December 2013: 113.3 k, 35.1 k (en:), 1.1 k (pt:), 2.9 k (de:), 1.3 k (it:), 50.0 k (commons), 21.7 k (data)
  • Global, 16 January 2014: 125.0 k, 35.1 k (en:), 1.1 k (pt:), 3.3 k (de:), 1.3 k (it:), 61.0 k (commons), 21.9 k (data)
  • Global, 15 March 2014: 129.7 k, 35.6 k (en:), 1.1 k (pt:), 3.4 k (de:), 1.5 k (it:), 61.7 k (commons), 25.0 k (data)
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