User:CorrectKnowledge/Cārvāka

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Ref: [1][2] Dogras remained loyal to the British during the revolt of 1857 which challenged British rule in India. They refused to provide sanctuary to mutineers, but allowed English women and children to seek asylum in Kashmir and even sent Kashmiri troops to fight on behalf of the British. British in return for their assistance rewarded them by securing the succession of Dogras as rulers of Kashmir.

Sheikh Abdullah saw the under–representation of Muslims in the bureaucracy as a result of religious prejudices of the Hindu dominated bureaucracy in Dogra government. Abdullah formed AIJK Conference to agitate against the discrimination of the Dogra rule. In 193x, the party opened itself to Hindus and Sikhs and was rechristened NC. Abdullah himself was imprisoned many times during agitations between 193x–4x. Common socialist views, secular vision and Kashmiri ethnicity drew him and his party closer to Nehru. When Abdullah was imrisoned in ___ Nehru tried to join the agitation to free him. Hari Singh however prevented him form entering J&K. Between 1946–47, J&K was among three of the 500 princely states who did not sign accords of accession with either India or Pakistan. Independence suited the Dogras to who were antagonistic to the Congress and as a Hindu dynasty could not survive under Pakistan. Hari Singh offered to sign standstill agreements with India and Pakistan instead which would allow free movement of people and goods. Pakistan signed the agreement and the free movement across J&K–Pakistan border continued till relations deteriorated in 194x.

Patel initially was inclined to let the valley which had a Muslim majority accede to Pakistan. However, Jinnah's insistence on Junagarh's accession to Pakistan, which had a Hindu majority, changed his view. In month 1948, Nehru wrote a letter to Patel anticipating an infiltration and forced take over of Kashmir by Pakistan. Mountbatten was sent to Kashmir to convince Hari Singh to free Abdullah who was seen by both Gandhi and Nehru as a secular leader with an inclination towards the Indian Union. In month 194x, Abdullah was released from Prison. He was greeted by x(hundreds) of Kashmiris in the streets of Srinagar. Abdullah proclaimed _______ .

In 1930s, Poonch district, currently split between India and Pakistan, lost political autononmy as its control passed to direct Dogra rule from ___. New taxes were imposed on Poonch by the Dogras. Many muslims from the district had been a part of the British Army in the ____. They returned to their home politically enlightened and wanted Poonch to join Pakistan. On 14th August 1947, as Pakistan became independent, Pakistani flags were raised on various buildings in Poonch. The rebels set up a base camp in ____, Pakistan from where they acquired weapons and training. In ____, they started armed conflict with the army of the Dogras. On October 22 1947, hordes of Pathans from NWFP, a Pakistani province which bordered Kashmir, crossed the borders of Kashmir to enter Uri. Pathans were armed with rifles and grenades and moved in lorries. They were motivated by religious calls of Jihad and prospects of war booty. On 24th October, Prime Minister of Kashmir Mahajan flew to Delhi to discuss the invasion with Nehre, Patel, Abdullah and Mountbatten. All of them agreed that India would have to send its troops into the valley. Mountabtten suggested that Indians should get the Maharaja to sign an accord of accession first. On 2x October, after having destroyed Churches, shops and power stations in Poonch, the hordes entered Baramullah. Here they destroyed shops owned by Hindus and Sikhs and raped local Kashmiri muslim women. [Quote on Propaganda distater] On 2x October, the Maharaja signed the accession accord and on the night of 2x hundreds of military and private aeroplanes dropped soldiers and supplies in Srinagar and brought back the injured and refugees. Hindu, Muslim and Sikh volunteers of the NC cutting across religious lines helped run the administration in absence of local authorities which had fled Srinagar. By 2x October, Indian army had recaptured Uri, Poonch and Baramulla. Jinnah on hearing that India had intervened in Kashmir asked for Pakistan's army to cross over the J&K border to help the tribesmen. However, the British commander of Pakistan's army refused to follow this order and till November, when the war was suspended because of extreme Winters, Pakistan Army continued to operate only indirectly.

After the war Nehru persuaded the Maharaja to let Sheikh Abdullah take over the head of the state from Mahajan. Nehru wanted a urgent settlement of the Kashmir issue and in a letter to Hari Singh outlined plebiscite of the whole state, partition of the state on religious lines, independence of the states with its defence guaranteed by both India and Pakistan, and letting Poonch accede to Pakistan and rest of the State to India as possible solutions. On Mountbatten's suggestion, Nehru took the issue to United Nations on 1 January 1948. In United Nations both Britain and US saw Kashmir as a possible bulwark against communism and therefore were sympathetic to the Pakistani cause. [United nations Resolution] In March 1948, Sheikh Abdullah took over as the Prime Minister of the state and Hari Singh was made the titular head (sadr–e-riyasat) of the state.