User:CorrectKnowledge/Hindu philosophy table

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Biography[edit]

Jnanadeva was born in 13th century Maharashtra where the Yadava dynasty had just ascended to power, foreign invasions had not yet started, and arts and sciences prospered under the patronage of kings. However, this period also witnessed religious degeneration, superstitions, and rituals which involved animal sacrifices and worship of many deities. In this era, Jnandeva emerged as among the first original philosophers who wrote in Marathi language. Some of his works were critical of the notions of asceticism and deity worship prevalent in the age.

Biographical details of Jnanadeva's life are preserved in the writings of Namdeva, sacchinanda,... The various traditions give conflicting accounts of details of Jnanadeva's life. The date of composition of his work Jnaneshwari (1290 CE), however is undisputed. The more accepted tradition on Jnandeva's life gives his year of birth as 1275 CE. He was born to Vitthalapant and Rakhumabai in Apegaon on the banks of river Godavari in Maharashtra into a Kulkarni family of the Deshasta Brahmin caste. Before Jnanadeva's birth, Vitthalapant had renounced his worldy life in disgust and left for Benares to become a monk. He was initiated into Sannyasa by his spiritual teacher Ramashrama (Sripad). When Ramashrama discovered that Vitthalapant had left his family behind he instructed Vitthalapant to go back to his wife and perform his duties as a householder. Vitthalapant and Rakhumabai gave birth to four children— Nivrittinath (1273 CE),... Orthodox Brahmins of the day saw this as a heresy and Vitthalapant and his family were persecuted because of this. They eventually left the town for Nasik where one day while performing his daily rituals Vitthalapant came face to face with a tiger. Vitthalapant along with his three children ... were able to escape, but Nivrittnath got separated from his family and hid in a cave in Brahmangiri. In the cave, he met Gahainath, a disciple of the yogi Gorakhnath, from whom Niverittinath acquired spiritual wisdom.

When Vitthalapant asked the Brahmins for a method to atone for his sins so that he could return to his town they suggested giving up his life as means. Vitthalapant and his wife gave up their lives within an year of each other by jumping in the river. After the death of his parents, Nivrittnath initiated Jnanadeva into the Nath tradition. The orthodox Brahmins of the town still refused to accept the children as pure and suggested that they obtain a certification of atonement from Brhamins of Paithana. The Brahmins of Paithana were struck by the spiritual learning and intellect of children and awarded them the certificate. While returning to Alandi from the journey they halted at Nevasi where Jnanadeva composed Jnaneshwari, a commentary on Bhagavd Gita. His words were recorded by Sacchidananda who became his disciple. Nivrittinath was not satisfied with a commentary and asked Jnandeva to write an independent work. This work later came ot be known as Amritanubhava. The four siblings then visited Pandharpur where they met Namdev. Jnanadeva and Namadeva embarked on a pilgrimage to various holy centres across India where they initiated many people into the Varkari sect. Jnanadeva died on 13th day of the ... month which he spent singing devotional songs. The collection later came to be knwon as Abhagas.

Jnanadeva's brother Sopandeva left his own collection of devotional songs in the Abhagas. His sister Muktabai accepted yogi Changdev as a disciple.

References[edit]