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Drafts for eventual publication in Wikipedia
I found the term Pterocarpus Marsupium in an article on Kodagu in South India. The term was highlighted in red. As the author of the article felt that there should be a page on it, and no page on it existed yet, I thought of creating such a page as I know a little about the uses of the plant. (The plant Pterocarpus Indicus is also referred to in an article on Padauk. But I am not aware that the Indicus species is used in herbal medicine, as the Marsupium species is.)
Latin Name : Pterocarpus marsupium
English Name : Indian Kino Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name : Bijaka
Pterocarpus marsupium is a large deciduous tree.
Sawhney, P.L. and Seshadri, T.R. 1956. Special chemical components of commercial woods and related plant materials: Part IV - Phenolic components of some Pterocarpus species. Journal of Science in India, Res. 15C, 154.
Pterocarpus Marsupium has a high reputation in the traditional system of Indian medicine (including folklore) and therefore is one of the drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus by Ayurvedic physicians in different parts of India.
Dravya Gund Vigyan (Baidyanath Prakashan); Gaon Ki Aushadhi Ratna (Kalida) Part I and II, Bhavprakash Nighantu.
Consequently, pharmacological studies have concentrated on the hypoglycaemic activity of Pterocarpus Marsupium.
Saifi, A.Q., Shinde, S., Kavishwar, W.K., and Gupta, S.R. 1971. Some aspects of phtyochemistry and hypoglycaemic actions of Pterocarpus Marsupium (Papilionaceare). Journal of Research in Indian Medicine 6(2), page 205.
Shah, D.S. 1967. A preliminary study of the hypoglycaemic action of heartwood of Pterocarpus Marsupium Roxb. Indian Journal of Medicine Res 55, 166.
Dharmadhikari and associates (1984) (2), while confirming the hypoglycaemic action of P. marsupium thought that this action may be partly due to stimulation of insulin secretion from the B-cells of the pancreas and partly due to decreased absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract.
Use in Treatment of Diabetes
Pterocarpus Marsupium is one of the drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus by Ayurvedic physicians in India. An aqueous infusion of the heartwood has been found to reduce glucose-absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and improve insulin and pro-insulin levels.
It is effective in beta cell regeneration (stimulates the Beta-cells of the Islets of Langerhans to create more insulin, thus enabling the pancreas to function at its normal and optimum capacity) and has also been found to have a hypocholesteremic effect (that is, reducing hypercholesterolemia.
It has been found to reduce FBS (fasting blood sugar), PBS (post-prandial blood sugar, that is, blood sugar level 2 hours after a meal), and Glycosylated Hemoglobin levels. (For information on what the normal level of blood sugar should be, aee hyperglycemia.)
It prevents development of long-term complications of diabetes. It is well documented in clinical trials. See list (below) of documents detailing clinical trials conducted in regard to the effect of Pterocarpus Marsupium on diabetes mellitus.
Pterocarpus Marsupium is believed to be non-toxic and completely safe (there are no "side effects"). It must be pointed out that this statement is based on a few very limited studies. As with all drugs, important side effects may not be recognized until lagre numbers of patients are closely monitored. Patients with diabetes should discuss this with their physician before contemplating a switch from their existing drug to this one.
The patient is advised by the ayurvedic physician to reduce gradually the allopathic or homeopathic drugs on observation of lowered sugar level in blood and urine. Allopoathis or homoeopathic drugs can sometimes be completely withdrawn after definite indication of return of normal level of sugar in blood and urine, as shown by blood and urine testing. However it is unclear whether switching from Allopathic drugs to this drug offers any proven advantage.
A preliminary clinical trial on the extract of P. marsupium heartwood showed encouraging hypoglycaemic effects in 14 diabetic patients (Sepaha & Bose, 1956). (8)
Sepaha. G.C. and Bose, S.N. 1956. Clinical observations on the antidiabetic properties of Pterocarpus marsupium and Eugenia Jambolana. J Indian Med Assoc 27, 388.
A multi-centric double blind clinical trial has been recently initiated by the ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research, a body conducting modern scientific studies on new drugs, and other scientific issues) on a few plants claimed to be useful in diabetes mellitus patients. Pterocarpus marsupium is one such plant. The clinical trials were successful, as this news item, from the Times of India, Friday October 8, 2004, shows.
Pandey and Sharma (1975) (6), administered a decoction of P. marsupium to 22 diabetic patients in different doses. There was an improvement in glucose tolerance in 12 patients after 7 days treatment.
Pandey, M.C. and Shanna, P.V- 1976. Hypoglycaemic effect of bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. on alloxan induced diabetes. Med Surg 16(7), 9.
In another open clinical study on 35 patients (21 male and 14 female, in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs) of diabetes mellitus, the ghanasatva of P. marsupium heartwood (extract after boiling with water) was used in the form of capsules (250 mg each). Encouraging results were reported with ragard to reduction in the sugar levels in blood and urine (Rajasekharan & Tuli, 1976).(7)
Rajasekharan, S. and Tuli. S.N. 1976, Pterocarpus marsupium, in the ireatmeni of madhumeha (diabetes mellitus)—A clinical trial. J. Res Indian Med Yoga Homoeop 11(2), 9.
In a semi-controlled clinical trial carried out on 20 patients of maturity onset diabetes, P. marsupium heartwood powder (granules) was administered to 10 patients in a dose of 5gm t.d.s. The control group (10 patients) had earlier received chlorpropamide, tolbutamide or phenphormin and after 10 days, these antidiabetic drugs were withdrawn and substituted with P. marsupium granules. Both the groups showed significant lowering of blood sugar (Ojha et a]., 1978). (5)
Ojha, J.K., Bajpai, H.s. and Shanna. P.V. 1978. Hypoglycaemic effect of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homoeop 13(4), 12.
Water stored overnight in a tumbler made of P. marsupium heartwood is believed by traditional medicine practicioners to have an antidiabetic effect. Hence a clinical trial was undertaken on 10 patients of proven diabetes mellitus who were given the wood water (200 ml b.i.d.) for a month. The wood water showed encouraging hypoglycaemic activity from the second week of treatment and maintained the blood sugar at normal levels till the drug was withdrawn (Kedar & Chakrabarti, 1981).(3) As per Ayurvedic Texts, Heartwood of Pterocarpus Marsupiummust be of minimum 10 years of age to getting optimum sugar lowering properties.
Kedar, P. and Chakrabarti, C.H, 1981. Blood sugar, blood urea and serum lipids as influenced by Gurmar preparation, Pterocarpus marsupium and Tamarindus indiaca in diabetes mellitus. Maharashtra Med J 28, 165.
Use in Treatment of Other Conditions
It helps in reducing and overcoming obesity, and relieves and "cures" joint pain.
The aquaeous infusion of Pterocarpus Marsupium dissolves extra fat from the body'' and also prevents deposition of fat in the body. To reduce excess weight, the infusion should be drunk twice a day. It goes without saying that the patient is also advised to eat a diet low in carbohydrates. The advice of a competent dietician is important.
Arthritic pain is due to the deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints. The aquaeous infusion of Pterocarpus Marsupium helps in removing the uric acid crystals from the joints and so relieves joint pain.
In addition to the above, this herbal infusion is also used to treat skin diseases, digestive disorders, high blood pressure and to improve eyesight. It acts as a liver tonic.
Methods of preparing aqueous infusion
Water is kept overnight in wooden tumblers made of the heartwood of the tree. Alternatively, a piece of the heartwood of the tree of standard dimensions is placed in the glass or plastic tumbler at night; the tumbler is filled with water and covered for protection against night insects; and the water with the wood in it, is kept till the morning. The water changes color to a "rainbow effect" immediately on contact with the wood, and within a few hours changes gradually to a brown color with a light blue tint. The water extract is slightly bitter to the taste. It is drunk a half hour before breakfast.
For twice a day use in cases of higher levels of blood sugar (or obesity or joint pain), the same procedure as above is followed after the aqueous infusion has been drunk in the morning. The water with the same piece of wood it is kept till the evening and drunk half an hour after dinner. for convenience of users, the tribals use to make tumbler from the heartwood of pterocarpus Marsupium and water filled in this herbal tumbler kept overnite to make infusion. Now-a-days..a tumbler made from Pterocarpus Marsupium is being sold in Indian market by many companies.
References referred to above
(1) Dravya Gund Vigyan (Baidyanath Prakashan), Gaon Ki Aushadhi Ratna (Kalida) Part 1 & II, Bhavprakash Nighantu.
(2) Dharmadhikari, S.D., Patki, V.P. and Dashputra, P.O. 1984. Study of mechanism of hypoglycaemia due to Pterocarpus marsupium. Abstr of paper presenled of XVIth Ann Conf.. Indian Pharmacol Soc., Ajmer, Dec. 28-30, 1983. Indian J Pharmacol 16, 61.
(3) Kedar, P. and Chakrabarti, C.H, 1981. Blood sugar, blood urea and serum lipids as influenced by Gurmar preparation, Pterocarpus marsupium and Tamarindus indiaca in diabetes mellitus. Maharashtra Med J 28, 165.
(4) Maheshwari, J.K., Singh. K.K. and Saha, S. 1980. Ethno medicinal uses of plants by the Tharus of Kheri district. LI.P. Bull Med Ethnobot Res 1,318.
(5) Ojha, J.K., Bajpai, H.s. and Shanna. P.V. 1978. Hypoglycaemic effect of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homoeop 13(4), 12.
(6) Pandey, M.C. and Shanna, P.V- 1976. Hypoglycaemic effect of bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. on alloxan induced diabetes. Med Surg 16(7), 9.
(7) Rajasekharan, S. and Tuli. S.N. 1976, Pterocarpus marsupium, in the ireatmeni of madhumeha (diabetes mellitus)—A clinical trial. J. Res Indian Med Yoga Homoeop 11(2), 9.
(8) Sepaha. G.C- and Bose, S.N. 1956. Clinical observations on the antidiabetic properties of Pferoctirpus marsupium and Eugenia Jamboiana. J Indian Med Assoc 27, 388.
(9) Sawhney, P.L. and Seshadri. T.R. 1956. Special chemical components of commercial woods and related plant materials :Part IV—Phenolic components of some Pterocarpus species. J Sci Ind Res 15C, 154.
(10) Saifi, A.Q., Shinde, S.. Kavishwar, W.K. and Gupia, S.R. 1971.Some aspects of phytochemistry and hypogiycaemic actions of Pterocarpus nmrsupium (Papilionaceae). J Res Indian Med 6(2), 205.
(11) Shah, D.S. 1967. A preliminary study of the hypogiycaemic action of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Indian J Med Res 55, 166.
Naturopathic Medicine - there is a scientific practice of naturopathic medicine, but in areas where this is not well regulated, a number of unscientific and unscrupulous individuals claim to practice it.
Allopathic Medicine - a term coined - and incorrectly used - by homoeopaths to refer to conventional medicine
--Cosmo 04:14, 20 Sep 2004 (UTC)