User:Darkslime/Shinjuku-ku

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Shinjuku
新宿
Special ward
新宿区 · Shinjuku City
Skyscrapers of Shinjuku
Skyscrapers of Shinjuku
Flag of Shinjuku
Flag
Location of Shinjuku in  Tokyo
Location of Shinjuku in Tokyo
Country Japan
Region Kantō
Prefecture Tokyo
Government
 • Mayor Hiroko Nakayama
Area
 • Total 18.23 km2 (7.04 sq mi)
Population (November 2009)
 • Total 318,270
 • Density 17,460/km2 (45,200/sq mi)
Time zone Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
- Tree Zelkova serrata
- Flower Azalea
Phone number 03-3209-1111
Website Shinjuku

Shinjuku (新宿区 Shinjuku-ku?) is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It is a major commercial and administrative center, housing the busiest train station in the world (Shinjuku Station) and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, the administration center for the government of Tokyo.

As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 312,418 and a density of 17,140 persons per km². The total area is 18.23 km².[1]

Shinjuku has the highest numbers of registered foreign nationals of any community in Tokyo. As of October 1, 2005, 29,353 non-Japanese with 107 different nationalities were registered in Shinjuku.

Geography[edit]

Surrounding Shinjuku are six other wards: Chiyoda to the east; Bunkyo and Toshima to the north; Nakano to the west, and Shibuya and Minato to the south. In addition, Nerima is only a hundred meters away. The highest point in Shinjuku is Hakoneyama (箱根山?) in Toyama Park at 44.6 m. The lowest point is 4.2 m near Iidabashi.

Neighborhoods[edit]

Street level in Shinjuku

Although the area immediately surrounding Shinjuku Station is home to hotels, department stores, specialist electronic and camera shops, cinemas, restaurants, and bars, the rest of the city is a mix of residential with commercial areas concentrated around railway stations.

Notable areas of Shinjuku include:

History[edit]

Shinjuku at night.

In 1634, during the Edo period, as the outer moat of the Edo Castle was built, a number of temples and shrines moved to the Yotsuya area on the western edge of Shinjuku. In 1698, Naitō Shinjuku had developed as a new (shin) station (shuku or juku) on the Kōshū Kaidō, one of the major highways of that era. Naitō was a daimyo whose mansion stood in the area; his land is now a public park, the Shinjuku Gyoen.

Shinjuku began to develop into its current form after the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, since the seismically stable area largely escaped the devastation. Consequently, West Shinjuku is one of the few areas in Tokyo with many skyscrapers.

The Tokyo air raids from May to August 1945 destroyed almost 90% of the buildings in the area in and around Shinjuku Station.[2] The pre-war form of Shinjuku, and the rest of Tokyo, for that matter, was retained after the war because the roads and rails, damaged as they were, remained, and these formed the heart of the Shinjuku in the post-war construction. Only in Kabuki-cho was a grand reconstruction plan put into action.[3]

The present ward was established on March 15, 1947 with the merger of the former wards of Yotsuya, Ushigome, and Yodobashi.

In 1991, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government moved from the Marunouchi district of Chiyoda to the current building in Shinjuku. (The Tokyo International Forum stands on the former site vacated by the government.)

Economy[edit]

Many companies have their headquarters or Tokyo offices in Shinjuku.

In March 1990 the headquarters of Bandai Visual moved to the Shinjuku neighborhood in Shinjuku Ward. In August 1991 the headquarters moved to Taitō, Tokyo.[10]

Government and politics[edit]

Shinjuku City Office

Like the other wards of Tokyo, Shinjuku has a status equivalent to that of a city. The current mayor is Hiroko Nakayama. The ward council (区議会 kugikai?) consists of 38 elected members; the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeitō Party together currently hold a majority. The Democratic Party of Japan, Japanese Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party are also represented together with four independents. Shinjuku's city office (区役所 kuyakusho?) is located on the southeastern edge of Kabukichō.

Shinjuku is also the location of the metropolitan government of Tokyo. The governor's office, the metropolitan assembly chamber, and all administrative head offices are located in the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building.

Elections[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Further information: [[Transportation in Greater Tokyo]]

Shinjuku is a major urban transit hub. JR Shinjuku Station sees an estimated 3.64 million passengers pass through each day, making it the busiest station in the world. It houses interchanges to three subway lines and three privately owned commuter lines, as well as several JR lines.

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Schools[edit]

Public elementary and junior high schools in Shinjuku are operated by the Shinjuku City Board of Education. Public high schools are operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education.

Public institutions[edit]

Libraries[edit]

Shinjuku operates several public libraries, including the Central Library (with the Children's Library), the Yotsuya Library, the Tsurumaki Library, Tsunohazu Library, the Nishi-Ochiai Library, the Toyama Library, the Kita-Shinjuku Library, the Okubo Library, and the Nakamachi Library. In addition there is a branch library, Branch Library of Central Library in the City Office, located in the city office.[11]

Hospitals[edit]

There are several major hospitals located within the city limits.

  • Keio University Hospital
  • International Medical Center of Japan
  • Social Insurance Chūō General Hospital
  • Tokyo Medical University Hospital
  • Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital
  • Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation Ohkubo Hospital

Cultural centers[edit]

Museums[edit]

  • National Printing Bureau Banknote and Postage Stamp Museum
  • National Museum of Nature and Science, Shinjuku Branch
  • Shinjuku Historical Museum
  • Tokyo Fire Department Museum

Halls[edit]

Sightseeing[edit]

Shinjuku is home to many well-known sights and tourist attractions.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shinjuku City
  2. ^ History of Shinjuku
  3. ^ Ichikawa, 2003
  4. ^ "Head Office & Japanese Facilities." Seiko Epson. Retrieved on January 13, 2009.
  5. ^ "Contact Us." Atlus. Retrieved on February 13, 2009.
  6. ^ "Company Profile." Nissin Foods. Retrieved on August 15, 2009.
  7. ^ "会社概要." Airtransse. Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
  8. ^ "会社概要." Yoshinoya. Retrieved on February 25, 2010.
  9. ^ "Company Info." H.I.S. Retrieved on March 11, 2010.
  10. ^ "History." Bandai Visual. Retrieved on March 16, 2010.
  11. ^ http://www.city.shinjuku.tokyo.jp/foreign/english/guide/shisetsu/shisetsu_2.html
  • Shinjuku Ward Office, History of Shinjuku
  • Hiroo Ichikawa "Reconstructing Tokyo: The Attempt to Transform a Metropolis" in C. Hein, J.M. Diefendorf, and I. Yorifusa (Eds.) (2003). Building Urban Japan after 1945. New York: Palgrave.