User:JWB

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American expansion and division period[edit]

Republic of Texas Texas Annexation Wilmot Proviso

Missouri Compromise Line

Mexican-American War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexican Cession

History of New Mexico

U.S. provisional government of New Mexico ‎ Territorial evolution of New Mexico

Proposed state of New Mexico, 1850

Constitutional Convention (California)

Proposals for Texas northwestern boundary, 1850

Compromise of 1850 Gadsden Purchase

Gadsden Purchase Southern Pacific.jpg

Crittenden Compromise

Other geography[edit]

Southern California - enlarged county names and cleaned up
8 Islands of Ancient Japan
Provinces of South Africa - converted to SVG and added captions

Language[edit]

Comparative linguistics[edit]

Linguistic typology Eurasiatic languages Borean languages

Standard Average European

Writing systems[edit]

Predominant scripts at the national level, with selected regional and minority scripts.
Alphabet Latin Cyrillic&Latin Greek Georgian Armenian Logographic+Syllabic Hanzi (L) Kana (2S)+Kanji(L) Hangul(Featural-alphabetic S)+limited Hanja(L)
Abjad Arabic&Latin Hebrew Abugida N, S Indic Ethiopic Thaana Canadian Syllabic

Writing system Determinative Radical (Chinese character) South_Arabian_alphabet#Sign_inventory History of the Arabic alphabet

East Asia[edit]

Standard Chinese Varieties of Chinese Mandarin Chinese Mandarin dialects Xiang Chinese Ported more detailed dialect map from Chinese Wikipedia Yue Chinese Tuhua

Anthropology[edit]

Wallacea is the group of islands within red area. Weber Line in blue. - Added red area defined by splines

Multiregional origin of modern humans Wallace Line Wallacea

Astronomy[edit]

Late Heavy Bombardment Nice model


Mathematics[edit]

Root system

Integrality of root systems - expanded with much additional data

E8 E8 lattice

Nuclear[edit]

Arms control[edit]

List of states with nuclear weapons Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone

Nuclear weapons states (red) and Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (green)
Nuclear weapons states (red) and Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (blue)
Southern Hemisphere areas outside Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones

Reactor technology[edit]

Template:Nuclear technology

Types[edit]

Fast-neutron reactor Integral Fast Reactor UHTREX

Components[edit]

Nuclear reactor coolant Neutron moderator

Fission products[edit]

Fission product Fission products (by element) Fission product yield Fluoride volatility

Long-lived
fission products
Prop:
Unit:
t½
Ma
Yield
%
Q *
KeV
βγ
*
99Tc 0.211 6.1385 294 β
126Sn 0.230 0.1084 4050 βγ
79Se 0.327 0.0447 151 β
93Zr 1.53 5.4575 91 βγ
135Cs 2.3  6.9110 269 β
107Pd 6.5  1.2499 33 β
129I 15.7  0.8410 194 βγ
Hover underlined: more info
Medium-lived
fission products
Prop:
Unit:
t½
(a)
Yield
(%)
Q *
(keV)
βγ *
155Eu 4.76 0.0803 252 βγ
85Kr 10.76 0.2180 687 βγ
113mCd 14.1 0.0008 316 β
90Sr 28.9 4.505 2826 β
137Cs 30.23 6.337 1176 βγ
121mSn 43.9 0.00005 390 βγ
151Sm 96.6 0.5314 77 β
Actinides and fission products by half-life
Actinides[1] by decay chain Half-life
range (a)
Fission products by yield[2]
4n 4n+1 4n+2 4n+3
4.5–7% 0.04–1.25% <0.001%
228Ra 4–6 155Euþ
244Cm 241Puƒ 250Cf 227Ac 10–29 90Sr 85Kr 113mCdþ
232Uƒ 238Pu 243Cmƒ 29–97 137Cs 151Smþ 121mSn
248Bk[3] 249Cfƒ 242mAmƒ 141–351

No fission products
have a half-life
in the range of
100–210k years…

241Am 251Cfƒ[4] 430–900
226Ra 247Bk 1.3k–1.6k
240Pu 229Th 246Cm 243Am 4.7k–7.4k
245Cmƒ 250Cm 8.3k–8.5k
239Puƒ 24.1k
230Th 231Pa 32k–76k
236Npƒ 233Uƒ 234U 150k–250k 99Tc 126Sn
248Cm 242Pu 327k–375k 79Se
1.53M 93Zr
237Np 2.1M–6.5M 135Cs 107Pd
236U 247Cmƒ 15M–24M 129I
244Pu 80M

...nor beyond 15.7M[5]

232Th 238U 235Uƒ№ 0.7G–14.1G

Legend for superscript symbols
₡  has thermal neutron capture cross section in the range of 8–50 barns
ƒ  fissile
metastable isomer
№  naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM)
þ  neutron poison (thermal neutron capture cross section greater than 3k barns)
†  range 4a–97a: Medium-lived fission product
‡  over 200ka: Long-lived fission product

Actinides[edit]

Transmutation in the thorium fuel cycle
230Th 231Th 232Th 233Th (White actinides: t½<27d)
231Pa 232Pa 233Pa 234Pa (Colored : t½>68y)
231U 232U 233U 234U 235U 236U 237U
(Fission products with t½<90y or t½>200ky) 237Np

in Thorium fuel cycle

Transmutation in light water reactor

Weapons-grade

Isotopes[edit]

Table of nuclides Isotope Tritium


Beta-decay stable isobars

  1. ^ Plus radium (element 88). While actually a sub-actinide, it immediately precedes actinium (89) and follows a three element gap of instability after polonium (84) where no isotopes have half-lives of at least four years (the longest-lived isotope in the gap is radon-222 with a half life of less than four days). Radium's longest lived isotope, at a notable 1600 years, thus merits the element's inclusion here.
  2. ^ Specifically from thermal neutron fission of U-235, e.g. in a typical nuclear reactor.
  3. ^ Milsted, J.; Friedman, A. M.; Stevens, C. M. (1965). "The alpha half-life of berkelium-247; a new long-lived isomer of berkelium-248". Nuclear Physics 71 (2): 299. doi:10.1016/0029-5582(65)90719-4.  edit
    "The isotopic analyses disclosed a species of mass 248 in constant abundance in three samples analysed over a period of about 10 months. This was ascribed to an isomer of Bk248 with a half-life greater than 9 y. No growth of Cf248 was detected, and a lower limit for the β half-life can be set at about 104 y. No alpha activity attributable to the new isomer has been detected; the alpha half-life is probably greater than 300 y."
  4. ^ This is the heaviest isotope with a half-life of at least four years before the "Sea of Instability".
  5. ^ Excluding those "classically stable" isotopes with half-lives significantly in excess of 232Th, e.g. while 113mCd has a half-life of only fourteen years, that of 113Cd is nearly eight quadrillion.