User:JohnLloydScharf/Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA)

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"Ecce Homo"


Contents

Information Box[edit]

The Southern Levant encompasses roughly the southern half of the shaded area.
Haplogroup J1
Possible time of origin 18,200 Years Before Present[1]
Possible place of origin Southern Levant

[2]

Ancestor J
Descendants J1a, J1b, J1c[3]
Defining mutations M267[3]

Date and Place of Origin[edit]

Intro Edit[edit]

The lack of agreement of researchers cannot be denied with regard to the Date and Place of Origin of Haplotype J1. However, the usual suspect origin is from the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan)with two dispersion events toward North Africa and the Arabian Plate, regardless who does the research. [4] [5] The hypothesis of an origin out of Africa conflicts with the lack F or IJ for that origin, which are ancestral to the J Haplogroup.

Keep in mind the term Upper Paleolithic marks the period when Homo sapiens sapiens replaced the Neanderthals. [6] The Nazlet Khater skeleton was found in 1980 and dated in 1982 from nine samples ranging between 35,100 to 30,360 years. [7]This specimen is the only complete modern human skeleton from the earliest Late Stone Age in Africa.[8] That puts limits on the verifiable range of any "Out-Of-Africa" hypothesis being proven with physical evidence.The term Upper Paleolithic marks the period when Homo sapiens sapiens replaced the Neanderthals. [9]The Nazlet Khater skeleton was found in 1980 and dated in 1982 from nine samples ranging between 35,100 to 30,360 years. [10]This specimen is the only complete modern human skeleton from the earliest Late Stone Age in Africa.[11]

Assuming expansion, the age of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA)for the Y chromosome out of Africa is estimated at 59,000 years, with a 95% probability interval of 40,000–140,000 years . As the average number of mutations of all segments departing from the root is 59,000 years with the average time for adding a new mutation to the tree is approximately 6,900 years. This puts the age of M168, which marks the expansion of anatomically modern humans out of Africa, at approximately 44,000 years, in agreement with a previous estimate of 47,000 years with 95% probability intervals of 35,000–89,000.This concurs with archaeological and mtDNA data when a small subgroup of behaviorally modern humans left Africa and separated into several fairly isolated groups represented today by the major haplogroups.[12]The non-African haplogroup C is widely distributed in East Asia, Oceania, and North America; and a global distribution of another non-African cluster, haplogroup F-M89.[13]


Ancestors of Haplogroup J1[edit]

Haplogroup F[edit]

Haplogroup F* or F-M89 is the parent of IJ, which is the parent of Haplogroup J, which is the parent of Haplogroup J1. Haplogroup F, on the basis of a broad distribution—involving all social and linguistic categories in India—and relatively high diversification patterns, has been concluded to have ancestry indigenous to the Asian subcontinent. Haplogroup F is dated to 28.9±4.4 Kybp or 24,500 to 33,300 years before the present.[14]The precedent mutation (M89) defines the overarching superhaplogroup F, whose representatives span the entire non-African gene pool, likely predating the peopling of Europe.[15]Any claim of a North African origin needs to account for that ancestry to J* and J1.

Haplogroup I[edit]

Haplogroup I (Hg I), the only major clade of the Y phylogeny that is widespread over Europe but virtually absent elsewhere.The estimated age of Haplogroup I is 24.0±7.1 Kybp or 24,000 years before present with a range from to 31,100 years before the present. The more recent paper (Karafet et al, 2008, pg.7 of 8) with demography-independent age estimates puts the IJ, parent of J, with the age of 38,500 years(Range:30,500–46,200).That means you have to clip off that J claim to account for the lower ranges of IJ. which is the offspring of Haplogroup F* or F-M89. Haplogroup F has an origin in the Indian Subcontinent and is dated to 28.9±4.4 Kybc or 24,500 to 33,300 years before the present.
[16]

Haplogroup J[edit]

The J or J-12f2k Haplogroup is the grandparent of J1 and has an estimated age is 31.7±12.8 Kyr, or 31,700 years old with possible range of possible ages from 18,900 years to 44,500 years old, according to Semino et al. 2004, which would make it older than Haplogroup F*. [17]Di Gaetano et al, however, estimates of age of haplogroup J, J sub-haplogroups, and mutation rate at five STR loci, obtained with three independent methods for years before present[18]:

  • 1.YMRCA Softwar Program=19,300 with a st.dev. of 10,260 (Range:9,400-29,560),
  • 2.BATWING (subhaplogroups treated separately)32,200 (Range:11,010–69,090),
  • 3.BATWING (subhaplogroups and UEPs)22,200(Range:11,850–40,170)

In order to be reasonably consistant, remember that F* is 28.9±4.4 Kybp (Range:24,500-33,300) years before the present and only the first calculation of 19,300 (Range:9,400-29,560) fits within that range.

J1 Date and Place of Origin[edit]


The J or J-12f2k Haplogroup is the grandparent of J1 and has an estimated age is 31.7±12.8 Kyr, or 31,700 years old with possible range of possible ages from 18,900 years to 44,500 years old. The estimated age by Simeno of the J1/M267 subclade's age of origin setting is "24.1±9.4 Kyr" which translates from researcher jargon to 24,100 years before present, plus or minus 9,400 years. That means the J1 age range of 14,700 to 33,500 overlaps both of the parent ranges of I*, J*, and F*. That is an inconsistancy. [19]

To Be Edited or Deleted[edit]

In this study dating J1 to 14,700 to 33,500 years old, only included 93 individuals classified as J-12f2k that were not J2. The most common ancestor of the J-M267 branch 93 chromosomes out of a population of 257 males,typed 275 men from five populations in Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt with a set of 119 binary markers and 15 microsatellites from the Y chromosome. They state, "...we have analyzed the results together with published data from Moroccan populations found in both the Middle East and North Africa (and including our J* chromosomes).

To put that into perspective, 24,100 years ago was the last height when ice sheets were at their maximum extension. While humans were using tools, their teeth show they still used them as a tool and a spare hand in the Mesolithic Natufian culture from 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant.

To compare with 9,400 years, about 9,400 years ago was long before there was domestication of plants and animals. The land bridge between the British Isles was just beginning to fill in and there was no written language. The oldest written language is Sumerian from about 5,000 years ago (5.0 Kybp), so every event before that is "prehistoric."

The parent clade of J or M304, which is offspring of the J Haplogroup and parent of J1 and J1, is estimated to be 20,000 years before present, so, the 24.1 Kybp date of origin for the J1-M267 given lacks some verifiable authority. It is better set at 18,200 years before present(C. Cinniog˘ lu et al, 2003, Pg.131) or 18,000 years(Di Giacomo et al,2004, Table 3., Pg 364).

Another part of the problem is the data gives information in generations rather than years, but the researchers put years instead of generations in their papers. Some researchers us 25 years per generation and others 30 for their assumed time between generations. Some genealogists use 20 years as an assumed time for a generation. The time between generations has the factor of when the first and last children were born affecting the average outcomes. Those factors have been in flux over the last 9,000 years and have drastically changed in the last 400 years. The difference is similar to the difference between the old English (pound) versus the new metric (kilogram) systems.

The J1 haplogroup is distinctly defined by the presence of the single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP mutation M267. New binary polymorphisms were reshaped and the resolution of the J1 haplogroup tree was increased in 2002. The Y Chromosome Consortium published a single parsimony tree showing M267 among 153 haplogroups based on 243 binary markers (SNPs) and devised a standardized nomenclature system to name lineages nested within this tree. "[3]

J1 Haplogroup Geographic Origins Timeline[edit]

J1 arrived from Anatolia among the South Arabian populations.[20] :

Overview map of the ancient Near East



  • Turkish J1, 15,400 years[20]
  • Saudi Arabia 11,600 Years[21]
  • Yemen J1, 9,700 years[20]
  • Qatar J1, 7,400 years[20]
  • Egyptian J1, 6,400 years[20]
  • UAE J1, 6,400 years[20]
  • Oman J1, 2,300 years[20]

Arabia has served as a strategic crossroads for human disseminations, providing a natural connection between the distant populations of China and India in the east to the western civilizations along the Mediterranean. To explore this region's critical role in the migratory episodes leaving Africa to Eurasia and back, high-resolution Y-chromosome analysis of males from the United Arab Emirates (164), Qatar (72) and Yemen (62) was performed. The role of the Levant in the Neolithic dispersal of the E3b1-M35 sublineages is supported by the data, and the distribution and STR-based analyses of J1-M267 representatives points to their spread from the north, most likely during the Neolithic. With the exception of Yemen, southern Arabia, South Iran and South Pakistan display high diversity in their Y-haplogroup substructure possibly a result of gene flow along the coastal crescent-shaped corridor of the Gulf of Oman facilitating human dispersals. Elevated rates of consanguinity may have had an impact in Yemen and Qatar, which experience significant heterozygote deficiencies at various hypervariable autosomal STR loci.

Geography of Distribution[edit]

The original Near East;The Levant
  The modern archaeological and historical context of the Near East and Iran
  Wider West Asia


J1/J-M267 is typical of Near East populations of the North Caucasus, Arabian peninsula, Mesopotamia, and the Levant in the predominantly Semitic-speaking populations of North Africa and Northeast Africa, with a moderate distribution throughout Western Asia.In human genetics, J1 or J-M267, is a sub-haplogroup of Haplogroup J, along with its sibling clade Haplogroup J2. It is one of the most commonly shared ancient paternal lineages found in many parts of the Near East, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa.

Levant[edit]

The earliest in situ bedding exposed on a brush hut floor wa found at the previously submerged, excellently preserved 23,000-year-old fisher-hunter-gatherers' camp of Ohalo II, situated in Israel on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. There are 45 radiocarbon dates from the archaeological layer as well as from earlier and later sedimentological strata. The average age of 25 relevant 14C dates (all obtained from charcoal samples) is 19,470 years B.P., which is ≈23,000 years after calibrations. No material remains belonging to other archaeological cultures were found. Charred seeds and fruit were common in all parts of the camp. A sample of 90,000 specimens was studied, mostly from huts 1 and 3.It includes over 100 species, of which wild cereals (such as wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum) are very common.[22]

Syria[edit]

The earliest evidence of domesticated plants were Neolithic founder crops known from Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates River basin, of Syria, dated from about 13,300 to 12,100 cal BP. Since approximately 10 000 BC Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture (PPNA) where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period (PPNB) is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic people used vessels made of stone, gypsum and burnt lime (White Ware). Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations.

Lebanon[edit]

Haber [23]

Israel[edit]

Jordan[edit]

Caucasus[edit]

North Caucasus[edit]

J1 is frequent in the Dagestan with 98.5% among the Kubachi, 84.8% among the Kaitak, 69.3% among the Dargins, and 58.3% among the Avars of Daghestan[24]

South Caucasus[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Azerbaijan (including disputed Nagorno-Karabakh)[edit]

Georgia (including disputed Abkhazia and South Ossetia)[edit]

Minor parts of Turkey and Iran[edit]

Western Asia[edit]

Turkey/Turkish J1, 15,400 years in Turkey[20][1][edit]

Einkorn wheat was one of the earliest cultivated forms of wheat, alongside emmer wheat (T. dicoccum). Grains of wild einkorn have been found in Epi-Paleolithic sites of the Fertile Crescent. It was first domesticated approximately 7500 BCE (7050 BCE ≈ 9000 BP), in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) or B (PPNB) periods.[25] Evidence from DNA finger-printing suggests einkorn was domesticated near Karaca Dağ in southeast Turkey, an area in which a number of PPNB farming villages have been found.[26] Its cultivation decreased in the Bronze Age, and today it is a relict crop that is rarely planted. It remains as a local crop, often for bulgur (cracked wheat) or as animal feed, in mountainous areas of France, Morocco, the former Yugoslavia, Turkey and other countries. It often survives on poor soils where other species of wheat fail.[27]

Sheep and goat domestication played an important role in the phenomenon of neolithization occurring in the late prehistory of the Near and Middle East, during the climatic optimum (between 9000 and 5000 BC), giving rise to a sedentary way of life. Perrot (2000) states that the spread of the Neolithic process found its strength in the fusion of two complementary food production strategies developed independently, cereal growing and small livestock rearing, centred respectively on the Levant and the Taurus–Zagros zone, which merged during the second half of the eighth millennium BC. Numerous Neolithic settlements have been discovered in the Near East, some spanning three millennia (from 9000 BC onwards), where data on faunal remains support their general consideration as among the oldest animal domestication centres and as the primary centre of sheep and goat origin.

Archaeological data from Early Neolithic human settlements distant from one another throughout the Near East support the occurrence of independent domestication events in this area. The first region of importance, with the oldest human settlements in the Near East (Nevali Cori and Çayönü Tepesi), is dated about 8500 BC and located in the upper Euphrates valley in eastern Turkey, near the northern arc of the so-called Fertile Crescent (Peters et al. 1999). The Zagros region of modern day Iran and Iraq is also recognized as a primary centre of sheep domestication (Zeder 1999).

Proc Biol Sci. 2005 October 22; 272(1577): 2211–2217. Published online 2005 September 1. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2005.3204 PMCID: PMC1559946 Copyright © 2005 The Royal Society Evidence of three maternal lineages in near eastern sheep supporting multiple domestication events Susana Pedrosa,1 Metehan Uzun,2 Juan-José Arranz,1 Beatriz Gutiérrez-Gil,1 Fermín San Primitivo,1 and Yolanda Bayón1 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1559946/

Perrot J. Réflexions sur l'état des recherches concernant la Préhistoire récente du Proche et du Moyen-Orient. Paléorient. 2000;26:5–28.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 8; 98(10): 5927–5932. doi: 10.1073/pnas.091591198 PMCID: PMC33315 Copyright © 2001, The National Academy of Sciences Population Biology From the Cover Multiple maternal origins and weak phylogeographic structure in domestic goats Gordon Luikart,*† Ludovic Gielly,* Laurent Excoffier,‡§ Jean-Denis Vigne,¶ Jean Bouvet,* and Pierre Taberlet http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC33315/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC33315/pdf/pq005927.pdf

Iraq[edit]

Sumer was first settled between 4500 and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic people who did not speak the Sumerian language.[28] These people are now called proto-Euphrateans or Ubaidians,[29] and had evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia.[30][31][32][33] The Ubaidians were the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery.[34]

Iran[edit]

Discovery of human skeletons in the Huto and Kamarband Caves near the town of Behshahr in the Mazandaran Province, south of the Caspian Sea in Iran, suggest human habitation of the area as early as 75,000 years ago.[35] Evidence for Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic periods are known mainly from the Zagros region in the caves of Kermanshah and Khorramabad. Early agricultural communities such as Chogha Bonut in 8000 BC,[36][37] Susa (now a city still existing since 7000 BC)[38][39] and Chogha Mish dating back to 6800 BC.[40][41] started to form in the western Iran. Dozens of pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau point to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the 4th millennium BC,[41][42]

Arabian Plate[edit]

Sixth- to fourth-millennia BC shell fish-hooks are now documented along the coast of a vast geographical area: the south-eastern part of the Gulf, the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. Shell fish-hooks disappear locally when the first metal curved fish-hooks, made from small copper rods, appeared in the first phase of the Early Bronze Age (or Hafit period, c. 3000 BC). Arab. arch. epig. 2008: 19: 15–21 (2008) Printed in Singapore. All rights reserved First evidence of shell fish-hook technology in the Gulf http://www.adach.ae/cms/_data/global/files/1.pdf

Saudi Arabia[edit]

[43]

Kuwait[edit]

Yemen[edit]

Qatar[edit]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

The earliest known human habitation in the UAE dated from 5500 BCE. At this early stage, there is proof of interaction with the outside world, particularly with civilizations to the north in Persia. These contacts persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3000 BCE.[44]

North Africa[edit]

Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, and Libya together are also referred to as the Maghreb or Maghrib, while Egypt is a transcontinental country by virtue of the Sinai Peninsula, which is in Asia. In North Africa[45], J1 is found at the highest rates among the Sudanese of khartoum (74%) [46].The frequency of the Haplogroup J1(J-12f2(xJ2-M172)) in northern parts of Sudan is: Arabs (45%), Nubians (41%), Copts (39%), Beja (36%), and present with lower frequency in the region of Darfur (J-12f2(xJ2-M172)): Masalit (6%), Fur (6%).[47] It's frequency rates among Algerians is (15-35%) and Tunisians (15-34%).Haplogroup J1 may be found in as many as 20% of Egyptian males, [48] with the frequency of this haplogroup tending to be comparatively high in the south of the country. [49] J1 is also Observed among East Africans Amhara 36% , Arsi Ethiopians 26%, Oromo Ethiopians 2.56%.[50]

Algeria/J1=35%[edit]

Anthropozoologica 46(1):65-125. 2011 doi: 10.5252/az2011n1a4 Provoking lactation by the insufflation technique as documented by the rock images of the Sahara http://cnrs.academia.edu/JeanLo%C3%AFcLeQuellec/Papers/786122/Provoking_lactation_by_the_insufflation_technique_as_documented_by_the_rock_images_of_the_Sahara Striking differences in the allele distribution and gene diversity of Y-STR markers between haplogroups could be found. In particular, intermediate alleles at locus DYS458 specifically characterized the haplotypes of individuals carrying haplogroup J1. All the intermediate alleles shared a common repeat sequence structure, supporting the hypothesis that the variant originated from a single mutational event. Robino,C. et al 2008

Morocco[edit]

Tunisia[edit]

Mauritania[edit]

Libya[edit]

Egypt-J1;6,400 years[20][edit]

Horn of Africa[edit]

It is the eastern most projection of the African continent referred to in medieval times as Bilad al Barbar ("Land of the Berbers."),[51][52][53]

Comoro Islands[edit]

South Sudan[edit]

Eritrea[edit]

Djibouti[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]

Somalia[edit]



Haplogroup J (M267) appears to have arisen in the Middle East and spread into northern Africa while haplogroup E (M35) appears to have arisen in eastern Africa at the same time and to spread to the Middle East and Europe. [54]

Southern Europe[edit]

In general J1 has a very low frequency in Europe. However, higher frequencies has been reported in the central Adriatic regions of Italy Gargano (17.2%),[55] Pescara (15%),[55] in the Mediterranean Paola (11.1%),[55], Crete (8.3%),[56] Malta (7.8%), South Portugal (7%)[57], Cyprus (6.2%),[58] Greece (5.3%).[56] and Sicily(3.8%).[59]

Spain[edit]

Balearic Islands[edit]

Corsica[edit]

Liguria[edit]

Sardinia[edit]

Italian Peninsula[edit]

Sicily[edit]

Albania[edit]

Greece[edit]

Slovenia[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Bosnia[edit]

Herzegovina[edit]

Montenegro[edit]

Progression of J1 Haplogroup[edit]

Aurignacian culture[edit]

Antelian culture[edit]

Kebaran[edit]

  • The Kebaran or Kebarian culture was an archaeological culture in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. 18,000 to 10,000 BC), named after its type site, Kebara Cave south of Haifa. The Kebaran were a highly mobile nomadic population, composed of hunters and gatherers in the Levant and Sinai areas who utilized microlithic tools.The Kebaran is the last Upper Paleolithic phase of the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine). The Kebarans were characterized by small, geometric microliths, and were thought to lack the specialized grinders and pounders found in later Near Eastern cultures. The Kebaran is preceded by the Athlitian phase of the Antelian and followed by the proto-agrarian Natufian culture of the Mesolithic. The Kebaran is also characterised by the earliest collecting of wild cereals, known due to the uncovering of grain grinding tools. It was the first step towards the Neolithic Revolution. The Kebaran people are believed to have practice dispersal to upland environments in the summer, and aggregation in caves and rockshelters near lowland lakes in the winter. This diversity of environments may be the reason for the variety of tools found in their toolkits. Situated in the Terminal Pleistocene, the Kebaran is classified as an Epipalaeolithic society. They are generally thought to have been ancestral to the later Natufian culture that occupied much of the same range.[63]

Natufian[edit]

  • The spread of Natufian culture
    The Natufian culture was a Mesolithic culture that existed from 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean. It was unusual in that it was sedentary, or semi-sedentary, before the introduction of agriculture.The Natufian communities are possibly the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region, which may have been the earliest in the world.[64] There is some evidence for the deliberate cultivation of cereals, specifically rye, by the Natufian culture, at the Tell Abu Hureyra site, the site for earliest evidence of agriculture in the world.[65] Generally, though, Natufians made use of wild cereals. [66] Animals hunted include gazelles.[67]
  • The term "Natufian" was coined by Dorothy Garrod who studied the Shuqba cave in Wadi an-Natuf, Israel, about halfway between Tel Aviv and Ramallah.Radiocarbon dating places this culture from the terminal Pleistocene to the very beginning of the Holocene, from 12,500 to 9,500 BC.[68]The period is commonly split into two subperiods: Early Natufian (12,500–10,800 BC) and Late Natufian (10,800–9500 BC). The Late Natufian most likely occurred in tandem with the Younger Dryas (10,800 to 9500 BC). In the Levant, there are more than a hundred kinds of cereals, fruits, nuts and other edible parts of plants, and the flora of the Levant during the Natufian period was not the dry, barren, and thorny landscape of today, but parkland and woodland.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B[edit]

  • The Pre-Pottery Neolithic B is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the southern Levant region.Sites from this period found in the Levant utilizing rectangular floor plans and plastered floor techniques were found at Ain Ghazal, Yiftahel (western Galilee), and Abu Hureyra (Upper Euphrates).[69] The period is dated to between ca. 10700 and ca. 8000 BP or 8700 - 6000 BCE.

Khiamian[edit]

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A[edit]

  • The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA for short) denotes the first stage in early Levantine Neolithic culture, dating around 9500 to 8500 BC[71]. Archaelogical remains are located in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. The culture is characterized by small circular mud brick dwellings, the cultivation of crops, the hunting of wild game, and unique burial customs in which bodies were buried below the floors of dwellings.[72] The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and the following Pre-Pottery Neolithic B were originally defined by Kathleen Kenyon in the type site of Jericho (Palestine). During this time, pottery was yet unknown. They precede the ceramic Neolithic (Yarmukian). PPNA succeeds the Natufian culture of the Epipaleolithic (Mesolithic).

Yarmukian[edit]

  • Yarmukian pottery vessel, Sha'ar HaGolan.
    The Yarmukian Culture is a Neolithic culture of the ancient Levant. It was the first culture in Prehistoric Israel and one of the oldest in the Levant to make use of pottery. The Yarmukian derives its name from the Yarmouk River which flows near its type site at Sha'ar HaGolan, a kibbutz at the foot of the Golan Heights. The first Yarmukian settlement was unearthed at Megiddo during the 1930s, but was not identified as a distinct Neolithic culture at the time. At Sha'ar HaGolan, in 1949, Prof. Moshe Stekelis first identified the Yarmukian Culture, a Pottery Neolithic culture that inhabited parts of Israel and Jordan.[73] The site, dated to ca. 6400–6000 BC (calibrated), is located in the central Jordan Valley, on the northern bank of the Yarmouk River. Its size is circa 20 hectares, making it one of the largest settlements in the world at that time. Although other Yarmukian sites have been identified since, Sha'ar HaGolan is the largest, probably indicating its role as the Yarmukian center.[74]

Halaf[edit]

  • The geographic location of the Chalcolithic Halaf culture in relation to the contemporaneous Hassuna culture.
    Halaf culture, is a prehistoric culture which developed from Neolithic III at Tell Halaf without any strong break. The Tell Halaf site flourished from about 6100 to 5400 BCE, a period of time that is referred to as the Halaf period. The Halaf culture was succeeded in northern Mesopotamia by the Ubaid culture. The site was then abandoned for a long period.Dryland farming was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi people of Arizona. Emmer wheat, two-rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats.


Distribution Data[edit]

The studies used are:
[edit]

Abu-Amero et al*,"Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions" [43]

Arredi Et Al*,"A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa" [45]

Balanovsky et al,"Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region" [75]

Behar et al(2004),"Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European populations" [76]

Cadenas et al(2008)*,"Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman" [77]

Chiaroni et al(2010)*,"The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations" [78]

Di Gaetano Et Al(2009),"Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome" [18]

El-Sibai et al.(2009),Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast [79]

Flores et al. (2005)*,"Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan" [80]

Fregel et al.(2009)*,"Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European" [81]

Gonc¸alves et al. 2005*,"Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira, and A¸cores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry" [82]

Haber, M. et al.2010*,"Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon[83]

King,R.J. et al.2008*,"Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic" [84]

Kujanová,M et al 2009,"Near Eastern Neolithic genetic input in a small oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert" [85]

Msaidie,S. et al. 2011*,"Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean" [86]

Nogueiro, I, et al 2010,"Phylogeographic analysis of paternal lineages in NE Portuguese Jewish communities" [87]

Onofri,V. et al 2008*,"Y-chromosome markers distribution in Northern Africa: High-resolution SNP and STR analysis in Tunisia and Morocco populations" [88]

Regueiro Et Al(2006),"Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration" [89]

Robino et al(2008),"Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample" [90]

Semino; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A.; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; MacCioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas et al. (2004), "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area", American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1023–1034, doi:10.1086/386295, PMC 1181965, PMID 15069642 

Zalloua, P.A. et al.2008,"Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events" [91]

Note:

  1. Data from Tertiary sources have been used with frequency in the reporting of several populations where you see a single reference as their source. [[2]]
  2. Those known to have used the M267, or its subclade P58, binary marker (SNP) will be noted with a "*" and those that do not used either a J*, J(xJ2) denotation meaning they did the p12f2 testing to establish a Haplogroup J without the sub-haplogroup J1. [92]
The original Near East; that is, the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of "the eastern question." The term is only meaningful as a contrast to Far East. Much of the original extent is south; moreover, countries such as Greece disavow any association with the east as a matter of cultural pride. They are in part founders of "western" civilization. The Republic of Turkey prides itself on its "westernization."


Matrix of M267[edit]

The following gives a summary of studies after 2004, some of which tested for the M267 SNP and some of which do not, where the distribution is greater than 1%.

Country/Region Sampling N J1 Source
Albania 56 3.6 Semino et al. 2004
Algeria Oran 102 22.5 Robino et al(2008)*[90]
Canary Islands Modern Native Peoples 30 16.7 Fregel et al. 2009*
Canary Islands Ancient DNA,Aboriginal 42 11.9 Fregel et al. 2009*
Caucasus 1525 23.2 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Avars 115 58.3 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Dargins 101 69.3 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Kubachi 65 98.5 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Kaitak 33 84.8 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Lezghins 81 44.4 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Chechens 330 20.9 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Circassians 142 4.9 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Ingush 143 2.8 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Caucasus Ossets 357 2.2 Balanovsky et al(2011)[75]
Central Asia 184 9.7 Semino et al. 2004
Comoros Islands Modern Native Peoples 381 5.6 Msaidie,S. et al. 2011*
Cyprus 164 12.9 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Egypt 147 19.7 Flores et al. (2005)
Egypt Western Desert (el-Hayez) 35 31.4 Kujanová et al. (2009)
Ethiopia Amhara 48 33.3 Semino et al. 2004
Ethiopia Oromo 78 2.6 Semino et al. 2004
Europe Ashkenazim Jewish 442 19 Behar et al(2004)[76]
Europe Ashkenazim Jewish 82 14.6 Semino et al. 2004
Europe Sephardim Jewish 42 11.9 Semino et al. 2004
Georgia 45 6.6 Semino et al. 2004
Greece 92 2.2 Semino et al. 2004
Greece 442 2.5 Flores et al. (2005)
Greece Nea Nikomedeia 57 10.5 King et al. (2008)
Greece Sesklo/Dimini 57 3.5 King et al. (2008)
Greece Lerna/Franchthi 57 1.8 King et al. (2008)
Greece Crete 193 8.3 King et al. (2008)
Greece Macedonia 56 1.8 Semino et al. 2004
Iberia 655 2.1 Fregel et al. (2009)
Iran North 33 9.09 Regueiro Et Al(2006)"[89]
Iran South 117 11.97 Regueiro Et Al(2006)"[89]
Iran 324 8.02 Haber et al. El-Sibari
Iraq 156 28.2 Semino et al. 2004
Iraq 203 31 Flores et al. (2005)
Israel Palestinians 143 38.4 Semino et al. 2004
Israel Bedouin 32 62.5 Semino et al. 2004
Italy Calabria 57 1.8 Semino et al. 2004
Italy Apulia 86 2.3 Semino et al. 2004
Italy Sicily 42 7.1 Semino et al. 2004
Italy Sicily 236 3.81 Di Gaetano Et Al(2009)[18]
Italy Sicily-Ragusa 28 10.71 Di Gaetano Et Al(2009)[18]
Italy Sardinia 144 2.8 Semino et al. 2004
Jordan Amman & Dead Sea areas 101 40.6 Flores et al. (2005)*
Jordania 273 31.9 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Kuwait 42 33.3 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Lebanon 40 12.5 Semino et al. 2004
Lebanon 914 20.1 Zalloua et al. (2008)
Lebanon 104 16.3 Flores et al. (2005)
Lebanon Maronites 518 17.95 Haber et al. El-Sibari
Lebanon Greek Orthodox 116 18.1 Haber et al. El-Sibari
Lebanon Muslims 568 21.3 HHaber et al. El-Sibari
Malta 90 7.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Morocco Arab 49 10.2 Semino et al. 2004
Morocco Arab 44 13.6 Semino et al. 2004
Morocco Berber 64 6.3 Semino et al. 2004
Morocco Berber 103 7.8 Semino et al. 2004
Morocco Residents in Italy 51 19.6 Onofri et al. (2008)*
Morocco Bosh et al 2001 221 5 Fregel et al. (2009)
North Africa Saharawish 29 17.2 Semino et al. 2004
North Africa Saharawish 89 20.3 Fregel et al. (2009)
North Africa Algeria, Tunisia 202 29.2 Fregel et al. (2009)
Oman 121 37.2 Flores et al. (2005)
Pakistan Hunza 38 2.6 Semino et al. 2004
Pakistan-India 88 7.9 Semino et al. 2004
Pakistan 718 4.9 Flores et al. (2005)
Portugal North, Center, South 303 4.3 Gonc¸alves et al.2005*
Portugal North 101 1 Gonc¸alves et al. (2005)'*'*
Portugal Center 102 4.9 Gonc¸alves et al. 2005*
Portugal South 100 7 Gonc¸alves et al. 2005*
Portugal Tras-os-Montes (Jews) 57 12.3 Nogueiro et al. (2010)
Qatar 72 58.3 Cadenas et al. 2008*[77]
Saudi Arabia 157 40.1 Abu-Amero Et Al(2009[43]
Somali 201 2.5 Flores et al. (2005)
Spain Andalusia 93 1.1 Semino et al. 2004
Spain Canary Islands 652 3.53 Fregel et al. (2009)
Sudan Khartoum 35 74 Chiaroni el al(2010)[78]
Syria 111 32.4 Flores et al. (2005)
Syria 554 33.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Syria 518 33.78 Haber, M. et al.2010*
Tunisia 73 30.1 Semino et al. 2004
Tunisia 52 34.6 Onofri et al. (2008)*
Turkey Muslim Kurd 95 11.6 Semino et al. 2004
Turkey Muslim Kurd 251 11.2 Flores et al. (2005)
Turkey Istanbul 73 6.9 Semino et al. 2004
Turkey Konya 129 3.9 Semino et al. 2004
Turkey 523 9.2 Flores et al. (2005)
UAE 164 35 Abu-Amero Et Al(2009[43]
Yemen 62 72.7 Cadenas et al. 2008*[77]

Subclades[edit]

The P58 marker which defines subgroup J1c3 was first identified by Karafet et al. in 2008 [3]. From early commercial testing, it appears that its associated Y-STR haplotype range spans most of the haplotypes associated with haplogroup J1, and that most members of haplogroup J1 (with the exception of some stray results) will in fact belong to this subgroup. However these are only early indications, and as of yet no systematic academic geographical testing has included this marker. One group which appears to systematically test negative for P58 are individuals with marker DYS388=13, indicating that this subset appears to be descended from a group that were negative for P58. According to Yunusbayev et al. 2006: "...mountain inhabitants of Dagestan are closely related to Anatolian and Cyprus Turks..." [93]The overall conclusion of the study was that that J1c3 spread with pastoral nomads who would migrate based on rainfall patterns from the Zagros and Taurus mountains to the Levant, with the first such migrations occurring during the neolithic period. [94]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on Karafet et al, 2008[3]and subsequent published research.

  • J1 (L255, L321, M267) Typical of populations of the Arabian peninsula, Dagestan, Mesopotamia, the Levant and Semitic-speaking populations of North Africa and Northeast Africa, with a moderate distribution throughout Western Asia'
    • J1* -
    • J1a (M62) Found at a low frequency in Britain
    • J1b (M365.1)
    • J1c (L136)
      • J1c1 (M390) - formerly J1c
      • J1c2 (P56) - formerly J1d
      • J1c3 (P58/PAGES00008) - formerly J1e
        • J1c3* -
        • J1c3a (M367.1, M368.1) - formerly J1e1
        • J1c3b (M369) - formerly J1e2
        • J1c3c (L92, L93)
        • J1c3d (L147.1)
          • J1c3d* -
          • J1c3d1 (L174.1)
          • J1c3d2 (L222.2)
            • J1c3d2* -
              • J1c3d2a (L65.2/S159.2)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Table 2 Y-chromosome haplogroup variance and expansion times based on ten STR loci,J1-M267 n=47 Variance=0.51 T(kyr)aContinuous growth=18.2 Beta and percent quantiles (kyr) b Mean=39.6 Median=15.4 2.5%=0.4 97.5%=604.8Initial effective population size per 1,000 individuals=0.366 (0.061–1.895)Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia Cinnioğlu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoğlu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Lillie, Anita S.; Roseman, Charles C. et al. (2004), "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia" (PDF), Hum Genet 114 (2): 127, doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4, PMID 14586639  http://ychrom.invint.net/upload/iblock/129/Cinnioglu%202003%20Excavating%20Y-chromosome%20haplotype%20strata%20in%20Anatolia.pdf Cengiz Cinnioglu, Ph.D. ccinniogluATyahoo.com
  2. ^ Luis et al (March 2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (May 2008), "New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree", Genome Research 18 (5): 830, doi:10.1101/gr.7172008, PMC 2336805, PMID 18385274  Published online April 2, 2008. See also Supplementary Material. http://www.genome.org/cgi/content/abstract/gr.7172008v1 Abstract New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree,http://genome.cshlp.org/content/18/5/830.full or http://genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2008/04/02/gr.7172008.full.pdf
  4. ^ Cinnioğlu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoglu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Lillie, Anita S.; Roseman, Charles C. et al. (2004), "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia" (PDF), Hum Genet 114 (2): 127, doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4, PMID 14586639 
  5. ^ Luis, JR; Rowold, DJ; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, Ersi; Cinnioğlu, Sevil; Roseman, C.; Underhill, PA; Roseman, C.; Cavalli-Sforza, LL; Herrera, RJ. (2004), "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations." (PDF), Am J Hum Genet, 74(3) (2): 532–44, doi:10.1086/382286, PMID 14586639 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707618709
  6. ^ Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2002. 31:363–93 doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.31.040402.085416 First published online as a Review in Advance on June 14, 2002 THE UPPER PALEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Ofer Bar-Yosef Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138; email: obaryosATfas.harvard.edu http://www.cameronmsmith.com/courses/EuropeanPrehistory2007/TheUpperPalaeolithicRevolution.pdf
  7. ^ http://anthropology.osu.edu/DAA/back%20issues/DA_12_2-3.pdf
  8. ^ L. Bouchneba and I. Crevecoeur,The inner ear of Nazlet Khater 2 (Upper Paleolithic, Egypt)Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 56, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 257-262 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004724840800242X
  9. ^ Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2002. 31:363–93 doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.31.040402.085416 First published online as a Review in Advance on June 14, 2002 THE UPPER PALEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Ofer Bar-Yosef Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138; email: obaryosATfas.harvard.edu http://www.cameronmsmith.com/courses/EuropeanPrehistory2007/TheUpperPalaeolithicRevolution.pdf
  10. ^ http://anthropology.osu.edu/DAA/back%20issues/DA_12_2-3.pdf
  11. ^ L. Bouchneba and I. Crevecoeur,The inner ear of Nazlet Khater 2 (Upper Paleolithic, Egypt)Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 56, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 257-262 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004724840800242X
  12. ^ Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA et al. (November 2000). "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations". Nat. Genet. 26 (3): 358–361. doi:10.1038/81685. PMID 11062480. 
  13. ^ Annu. Rev. Genet. 2007. 41:539–64, doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130407 http://old.dqb.fc.ul.pt/cup/441102/TPs/pdfs%20for%20TPs/underhill%202%20Y%20chromossome%20and%20mithocondrial%20DNA.pdf
  14. ^ On the basis of a broad distribution—involving all social and linguistic categories in India—and relatively high diversification patterns, it can be concluded that representatives of HGs C5-M356 H-M69*, F*, L1, and R2 have ancestry indigenous to the Asian subcontinent. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/table/TB11/ F*-M89 28.9±4.4=24.5-33.3 Am J Hum Genet. 2006 February; 78(2): 202–221. Published online 2005 December 16. PMCID: PMC1380230 Copyright © 2005 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists Sanghamitra Sengupta,1 Lev A. Zhivotovsky,2 Roy King,3 S. Q. Mehdi,4 Christopher A. Edmonds,3 Cheryl-Emiliane T. Chow,3 Alice A. Lin,3 Mitashree Mitra,5 Samir K. Sil,6 A. Ramesh,7 M. V. Usha Rani,8 Chitra M. Thakur,9 L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza,3 Partha P. Majumder,1 and Peter A. Underhill
  15. ^ Am J Hum Genet. 2004 July; 75(1): 128–137. Published online 2004 May 25. PMCID: PMC1181996 Copyright © 2004 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe Siiri Rootsi,1,* Chiara Magri,2* Toomas Kivisild,1 Giorgia Benuzzi,2 Hela Help,1 Marina Bermisheva,1,3 Ildus Kutuev,1,3 Lovorka Barać,1,4 Marijana Peričić,1,4 Oleg Balanovsky,1,5 Andrey Pshenichnov,1,5 Daniel Dion,1,7 Monica Grobei,1,8 Lev A. Zhivotovsky,6 Vincenza Battaglia,2 Alessandro Achilli,2 Nadia Al-Zahery,2 Jüri Parik,1 Roy King,9 Cengiz Cinnioğlu,9 Elsa Khusnutdinova,3 Pavao Rudan,4 Elena Balanovska,5 Wolfgang Scheffrahn,7 Maya Simonescu,8 Antonio Brehm,10 Rita Goncalves,10 Alexandra Rosa,1,10 Jean-Paul Moisan,11 Andre Chaventre,11 Vladimir Ferak,12 Sandor Füredi,13 Peter J. Oefner,14 Peidong Shen,14 Lars Beckman,15 Ilia Mikerezi,16 Rifet Terzić,17 Dragan Primorac,18,19 Anne Cambon-Thomsen,20 Astrida Krumina,21 Antonio Torroni,2 Peter A. Underhill,9 A. Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti,2 Richard Villems,1 and Ornella Semino http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181996/pdf/AJHGv75p128.pdf
  16. ^ On the basis of a broad distribution—involving all social and linguistic categories in India—and relatively high diversification patterns, it can be concluded that representatives of HGs C5-M356 H-M69*, F*, L1, and R2 have ancestry indigenous to the Asian subcontinent. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/table/TB11/ F*-M89 28.9±4.4=24.5-33.3 Am J Hum Genet. 2006 February; 78(2): 202–221. Published online 2005 December 16. PMCID: PMC1380230 Copyright © 2005 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists Sanghamitra Sengupta,1 Lev A. Zhivotovsky,2 Roy King,3 S. Q. Mehdi,4 Christopher A. Edmonds,3 Cheryl-Emiliane T. Chow,3 Alice A. Lin,3 Mitashree Mitra,5 Samir K. Sil,6 A. Ramesh,7 M. V. Usha Rani,8 Chitra M. Thakur,9 L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza,3 Partha P. Majumder,1 and Peter A. Underhill
  17. ^ 24.0±7.1 8Am J Hum Genet. 2004 July; 75(1): 128–137. Published online 2004 May 25. PMCID: PMC1181996 Copyright © 2004 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe Siiri Rootsi,1,* Chiara Magri,2* Toomas Kivisild,1 Giorgia Benuzzi,2 Hela Help,1 Marina Bermisheva,1,3 Ildus Kutuev,1,3 Lovorka Barać,1,4 Marijana Peričić,1,4 Oleg Balanovsky,1,5 Andrey Pshenichnov,1,5 Daniel Dion,1,7 Monica Grobei,1,8 Lev A. Zhivotovsky,6 Vincenza Battaglia,2 Alessandro Achilli,2 Nadia Al-Zahery,2 Jüri Parik,1 Roy King,9 Cengiz Cinnioğlu,9 Elsa Khusnutdinova,3 Pavao Rudan,4 Elena Balanovska,5 Wolfgang Scheffrahn,7 Maya Simonescu,8 Antonio Brehm,10 Rita Goncalves,10 Alexandra Rosa,1,10 Jean-Paul Moisan,11 Andre Chaventre,11 Vladimir Ferak,12 Sandor Füredi,13 Peter J. Oefner,14 Peidong Shen,14 Lars Beckman,15 Ilia Mikerezi,16 Rifet Terzić,17 Dragan Primorac,18,19 Anne Cambon-Thomsen,20 Astrida Krumina,21 Antonio Torroni,2 Peter A. Underhill,9 A. Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti,2 Richard Villems,1 and Ornella Semino Table 3, Age of STR variation 24.0±7.1 Time since population divergence 23.0±7.7 The times, in thousands of years, when the subclades I1a, I1b*, and I1c diverged from I*, as well as when I1b2 diverged from I1b*, were estimated by using the TD estimator: (Zhivotovsky et al. TD 1 0 p (D ± 2V )/2w 2001, 2004). Here, D1 is the average squared difference between two alleles sampled from two populations; V0 is the within-population variance in the number of repeats in the ancestral population prior to its subdivision, estimated as a half square difference between the allele repeat scores at the founder haplotypes; and w is the effective mutation rate of 0.00069 per locus per 25 years (Zhivotovsky et al. 2004). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181996/pdf/AJHGv75p128.pdf
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  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i NOTE: Median BATWING expansion times based on Y-STR data for the Omani (2.3 ky; 95% CI: 0.6–29.2) J1-M267 chromosomes4 indicate a more recent arrival to the South Arabian populations as compared to the older expansion times obtained for the Egyptian (6.4 ky; 95% CI: 0.6–278.5)4 and Turkish (15.4 ky; 95% CI: 0.4–604.8)12 representatives of this haplogroup. Conversely, in the present study, Y-STR age estimates based on the method described by Zhivotovsky et al46 generated much older values for the J1-M267 haplogroup in Yemen, Qatar and UAE (9.7±2.4, 7.4±2.3 and 6.4±1.4 ky, respectively) than seen in the Omani,4 consistent with an earlier arrival to the region during the Neolithic. The data suggest expansion from the north during the Neolithic (or perhaps more recently), which is also reflected in the lower STR variances in southern Arabia (0.14 for Qatar, 0.15 for UAE, 0.20 for Yemen and 0.27 for Oman4 versus 0.31 in Egypt4 and 0.51 in Turkey12). Subsequently, a series of recent demographic events may account for the high haplogroup frequency of J1-M267 in the populations from the present study. Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman
  21. ^ Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions-Khaled K Abu-Amero1 , Ali Hellani2 , Ana M González3 , Jose M Larruga3 , Vicente M Cabrera3 and Peter A Underhill4 Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions
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  24. ^ 'Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region,Mol Biol Evol (2011)doi: 10.1093/molbev/msr126 First published online: May 13, 2011 NOTE:Use of J1-M267 binary marker not mentioned in Abstract,Corresponding author: Oleg Balanovsky balanovsky[at]inbox.ru, http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/05/13/molbev.msr126
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  43. ^ a b c d Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter, "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions", BMC GENETICS 10, doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59 
  44. ^ "Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS)". Adias-uae.com. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  45. ^ a b Arredi, B; Poloni, E; Paracchini, S; Zerjal, T; Fathallah, D; Makrelouf, M; Pascali, V; Novelletto, A et al. (2004), "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa", American Journal of Human Genetics 75 (2): 338–345, doi:10.1086/423147, PMC 1216069, PMID 15202071  More than one of |first1= and |first= specified (help); http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759955/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759955/pdf/1471-2156-10-59.pdf
  46. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987219/
  47. ^ Hisham Y. Hassan et al., "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History," American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2008). J-12f2(xJ2-M172) in 46/102 Sudanese Arabs of the Gaalien, Meseria, and Arakien tribes, 16/39 Nubians, 13/33 Copts, 15/42 Beja, 2/32 Masalit, and 2/32 Fur.
  48. ^ Luis et al (March 2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781. 
  49. ^ Arredi, B; Poloni, E; Paracchini, S; Zerjal, T; Fathallah, D; Makrelouf, M; Pascali, V; Novelletto, A et al. (2004), "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa", American Journal of Human Genetics 75 (2): 338–345, doi:10.1086/423147, PMC 1216069, PMID 15202071  More than one of |first1= and |first= specified (help); J1 also present in high frequency rates among Algerians is (15-35%) and Tunisians (15-34%).In Morocco it is (20%). Haplogroup J-12f2(xJ2-M172) in 4/44 = 9.1% of a sample of Egyptians from the vicinity of Mansoura in northern Egypt, and 6/29 = 40.7% of a sample of Egyptians from the vicinity of Luxor in southern Egypt.
  50. ^ http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v18/n3/abs/ejhg2009166a.html
  51. ^ J. D. Fage, Roland Oliver, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, (Cambridge University Press: 1977), p.190
  52. ^ George Wynn Brereton Huntingford, Agatharchides, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: With Some Extracts from Agatharkhidēs "On the Erythraean Sea", (Hakluyt Society: 1980), p.83
  53. ^ John I. Saeed, Somali - Volume 10 of London Oriental and African language library, (J. Benjamins: 1999), p. 250.
  54. ^ 'Working toward a synthesis of archaeological, linguistic, and genetic data for inferring African population history, PNAS | May 11, 2010 | vol. 107 | suppl. 2 | 8931–8938, Laura B. Scheinfeldt, Sameer Soi, and Sarah A. Tishkoffa, http://www.pnas.org/content/107/suppl.2/8931.full# or http://www.pnas.org/content/107/suppl.2/8931.full.
  55. ^ a b c http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/italy.pdf
  56. ^ a b King RJ, Ozcan SS, Carter T, et al. (March 2008). "Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic". Ann. Hum. Genet. 72 (Pt 2): 205–14. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x. PMID 18269686.  ,http://www.atlascom.gr/HELLENIC_DNA_PAPER.PDF,
    Crete 16 out of 193
    Greece 9 out of 171
  57. ^ 7/100,"Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira and A¸cores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry," Annals of Human Genetics (2005) 69,443–454, Goncalves et al. (2005) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00161.x/pdf
  58. ^ Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective, Capelli et al. 2005
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  61. ^ Kuhn, Steven; Stiner, MC; Reese, DS; Güleç, E (2001). "Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: New insights from the Levant". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (13): 7641. doi:10.1073/pnas.121590798. PMC 34721. PMID 11390976. 
  62. ^ Settlement Patterns and Intrasite Variability in the Central Negev, Israel† Anthony E. Marks Article first published online: 28 OCT 2009 DOI: 10.1525/aa.1971.73.5.02a00210 1971 American Anthropological Association http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1971.73.5.02a00210/pdf
  63. ^ Mellaart, James (1976), "Neolithic of the Near East" (MacMillan)
  64. ^ Barker G (2002) Transitions to farming and pastoralism in North Africa, in Bellwood P, Renfrew C (2002), Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis, pp 151–161.
  65. ^ Moore, Andrew M. T.; Hillman, Gordon C.; Legge, Anthony J. (2000). Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 019510806X. 
  66. ^ Bar-Yosef O (1987) Pleistocene connections between Africa and SouthWest Asia: an archaeological perspective. The African Archaeological Review; Chapter 5, pg 29-38
  67. ^ Kottak, Conrad P. (2005), Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Anthropology, Boston: McGraw-Hill, pp. 155–156, ISBN 0072890282 
  68. ^ Ofer Bar-Yosef, The Natufian culture and the Early Neolithic: Social and economic trends in Southwestern Asia, chapter 10 in Peter Bellwood and Colin Renfrew (eds.), Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis (2002), p.114.
  69. ^ Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible:10,000 - 586 BCE, Doubleday: New York, 1992, 45.
  70. ^ C. Calvet. 2007. Zivilisationen – wie die Kultur nach Sumer kam. Munich. p. 126.
  71. ^ Mithen, Steven (2006). After the ice : a global human history, 20,000-5000 BC (1st Harvard University Press pbk. ed. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0674019997. 
  72. ^ Mithen, Steven (2006). After the ice : a global human history, 20,000-5000 BC (1st Harvard University Press pbk. ed. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0674019997. 
  73. ^ Garfinkel Y. 1993.
  74. ^ Garfinkel, Y. 1999.
  75. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Balanovsky, Oleg; Dibirova, Khadizhat; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg; Frolova, Svetlana; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel; Schurr, Theodore; Haak, Wolfgang; Kuznetsova, Marina; Radzhabov, Magomed; Balaganskaya, Olga; Romanov, Tatiana; Zakharova; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Zalloua, Pierre; Koshel, Sergey; Ruhlen, Merritt; Renfrew, Colin; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2011), "Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region", Mol Biol Evol, doi:10.1093/molbev/msr126  Note:M267 and P58 tested. Corresponding author: Oleg Balanovsky balanovsky[at]inbox.ru
  76. ^ a b Behar et al., Doron; Thomas, Mark G.; Skorecki, Karl; Hammer, Michael F.; Bulygina, Ekaterina; Rosengarten, Dror; Jones, Abigail L.; Held, Karen et al. (October 2003), "Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73 (4): 768–779, doi:10.1086/378506, PMC 1180600, PMID 13680527  More than one of |last1= and |author= specified (help); Also at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/tcgapdf/Behar-AJHG-03.pdf and http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/400971.pdf
  77. ^ a b c Cadenas; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L.; Underhill, Peter A.; Herrera, Rene J. (2007), "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman", European Journal of Human Genetics 16 (3): 1–13, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934, PMID 17928816  NOTE:M267 is among the 76 binary markers used in this research. http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v16/n3/full/5201934a.html or http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v16/n3/pdf/5201934a.pdf
  78. ^ a b Chiaroni, Jacques; King, Roy J.; Myres, Natalie M.; Henn, Brenna M.; Mitchell, Michael J.; Boetsch, Gilles; Sheikha, Issa; Lin, Alice A.; Nik-Ahd, Mahnoosh; Ahmad, Jabeen; Lattanzi, Francesca; Herrera, Rene J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E.; Brody, Aaron; Semino, Ornella; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A. (2010). "The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations". European Journal of Human Genetics 18: 348–353. doi:10.1038 Check |doi= value (help). Retrieved August 15,2011.  NOTE:All samples designated as haplogroup J1 were determined to be derived at M267. Chromosomes labeled as J1* are J1(xJ1e) The subclade binary marker tested was P58. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987219/ or http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987219/pdf/ejhg2009166a.pdf
  79. ^ El-Sibai, Mirvat; Platt, Daniel E.; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Wells, R. Spencer; Izaabel, Hassan; Sanyoura, May F.; Harmanani, Haidar; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Behbehani, Jaafar; Hashwa, Fuad; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A. (2009), "Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast", Annals of Human Genetics 73: 568–581, doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x  Note 1.:(reported results from several studies : Di Giacomo et al. 2003, Al-Zahery et al. 2003, Flores et al.2004, Cinnioglu et al. 2004, Capelli et al.2005, Goncalves et al. 2005, Zalloua et al. 2008, Cadenas et al. NOTE 2.: Note some use M267 binary marker and some do not. It would be better to refer to the original works. 2008),http://www.lbem.icb.ufmg.br/pdf/elsibai09ahg-levantegenografico.pdf
  80. ^ Flores et al.; Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Larruga, Jose M.; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Karadsheh, Naif; Gonzalez, Ana M. (2005), "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan", J Hum Genet 50 (9): 435–441, doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0274-4, PMID 16142507  http://wysinger.homestead.com/jordan.pdf NOTE:M267 is tested only for the Jordanian populations in Amman and near the Dead Sea.It would be better to refer to the original work for all other populations.s.
  81. ^ 'Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European, Fregel et al. 2009,BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:181; Published:3 August 2009http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/9/181, NOTE:M267 is tested only for ancient and current populations of the Canary Islands. It would be better to refer to the original work for all other populations.s.http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/9/181 or http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-9-181.pdf
  82. ^ 'Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira, and A¸cores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry, Annals of Human Genetics (2005) 69,443–454, http://www3.uma.pt/abrehm/v1.1/docs/downloads/pdfs/Goncalves_Y_Portugal_AnnHumGenet2005.pdf
  83. ^ Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Badro, Daniel A.; Xue, Yali; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Bonab, Maziar Ashrafian; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Saade, Stephanie; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A. (2010), "Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon" (PDF), European Journal of Human Genetics 114 (2): 334–40, doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.177, PMC 3062011, PMID 21119711  More than one of |last1= and |author= specified (help) NOTE:Use of J1-M267 binary marker
  84. ^ 'Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic, R. J. King et al, Annals of Human Genetics (2008) 72,205–214, NOTE:Use of J1-M267 binary marker http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full or http://www.atlascom.gr/HELLENIC_DNA_PAPER.PDF
  85. ^ 'Near Eastern Neolithic genetic input in a small oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert,Kujanová, M., Pereira, L., Fernandes, V., Pereira, J. B. and Černý, V. (2009), Near Eastern Neolithic genetic input in a small oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 140: 336–346. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21078 NOTE: No mention of J-M267 in Abstract. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21078/abstract
  86. ^ 'Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean, European Journal of Human Genetics (2011) 19, 89–94 NOTE:M267 is among the 68 binary markers used in this research. http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v19/n1/full/ejhg2010128a.html or http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v19/n1/pdf/ejhg2010128a.pdf
  87. ^ Phylogeographic analysis of paternal lineages in NE Portuguese Jewish communities Nogueiro, Ines | Manco, Licinio | Gomes, Veronica | Amorim, Antonio | Gusmao, Leonor American Journal of Physical Anthropology [Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.]. Vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 373-381. Mar 2010. NOTE: 57 unrelated Jewish males, with a high-resolution Y-chromosome typing strategy, comprising 16 STRs and 23 SNPs. A high lineage diversity was found, at both haplotype and haplogroup levels (98.74 and 82.83%, respectively), demonstrating the absence of either strong drift or founder effects. A deeper and more detailed investigation is required to clarify how these communities avoided the expected inbreeding caused by over four centuries of religious repression. Concerning haplogroup lineages, we detected some admixture with the Western European non-Jewish populations (R1b1b2-M269, 28%), along with a strong ancestral component reflecting their origin in the Middle East [J1(xJ1a-M267), 12%; J2-M172, 25%; T-M70, 16%] and in consequence Tras-os-Montes Jews were found to be more closely related with other Jewish groups, rather than with the Portuguese non-Jewish population http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=12740547&q=&uid=789918829&setcookie=yes
  88. ^ Y-chromosome markers distribution in Northern Africa: High-resolution SNP and STR analysis in Tunisia and Morocco populations,Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series Volume 1, Issue 1, August 2008, Pages 235-236, Progress in Forensic Genetics 12 - Proceedings of the 22nd International ISFG Congress NOTE: 103 Tunisian and Moroccan healthy male donors were typed by 17 microsatellites extended haplotype and 41 Y-SNPs. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21078/abstract
  89. ^ a b c Regueiro Et Al, M.; Cadenas, A.M.; Gayden, T.; Herrera, R.J. (June 2006), "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration", Hum Hered, 61(3) (3): 132–143, doi:10.1159/000093774, PMID 16770078  More than one of |last1= and |author= specified (help)
  90. ^ a b Regueiro Et Al, C.; Crobu, F.; Di Gaetano, C.; Bekada, A.; Benhamamouch, S; Cerutti, N.; Piazza, A..; Inturri, S. et al. (May 2008), "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample", Int J Legal Med 122: 132–143, doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5, PMID 17909833  More than one of |last1= and |author= specified (help); Note:The distribution of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplogroups and short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes was determined in a sample of 102 unrelated men of Arab origin from northwestern Algeria (Oran area). A total of nine different haplogroups were identified by a panel of 22 binary markers. The most common haplogroups observed in the Algerian population were E3b2 (45.1%) and J1 (22.5%) q=cache:P0Plz8c7cNoJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=en&as_sdt=0,38 or http://www.icb.uncu.edu.ar/upload/analysis-of-y-chromosomal-snp-haplogroups-and-str.pdf
  91. ^ Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events, Zalloua, P.A. et al.2008, Am J Hum Genet. 2008 April 11; 82(4): 873–882. Published online 2008 April 4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020 NOTE:J1-M267 binary marker is not used. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2427286/ or http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2427286/pdf/main.pdf
  92. ^ SEE TALK SECTION, on "J1versusJ.28xJ2.29Distinction", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Haplogroup_J1_(Y-DNA)#J1versusJ.28xJ2.29Distinction
  93. ^ Yunusbayev B, Kutuev I, Khusainova R, Guseinov G, Khusnutdinova E (August 2006). "Genetic structure of Dagestan populations: a study of 11 Alu insertion polymorphisms". Hum. Biol. 78 (4): 465–76. doi:10.1353/hub.2006.0059. PMID 17278621. 
  94. ^ Chiaroni et al.; King, RJ; Myres, NM; Henn, BM; Ducourneau, A; Mitchell, MJ; Boetsch, G; Sheikha, I et al. (2010). "The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations". European Journal of Human Genetics 18 (3): 348. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.166. PMC 2987219. PMID 19826455. 

General listing[edit]

Empty citation (help) 

External links[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MPS X
MS P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.