User:KC Panchal/Sandbox/Skeletal muscles

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Muscles of Upper limb[edit]



Vertebral column and thoracic walls[edit]

Vertebral column Thoracic wall
Latissimus dorsi muscle
Origin spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs
Insertion floor of intertubercular groove of the humerus
Artery subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery
Nerve thoracodorsal nerve (C6 - C8)
Actions pulls the forelimb dorsally and caudally
Antagonist deltoid, trapezius
Anatomical terms of muscle
Trapezius
Origin arises, down the midline, from the external occipital protuberance, the nuchal ligament, the medial part of the superior nuchal line, and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7-T12
Insertion at the shoulders, into the lateral third of the clavicle, the acromion process, and into the spine of the scapula
Artery transverse cervical artery
Nerve major nerve supply is the cranial nerve XI. Cervical nerves C3 and C4 receive information about pain in this muscle
Actions retraction of scapula
Antagonist Serratus anterior muscle, Latissimus Dorsi
Anatomical terms of muscle
Rhomboid major muscle
Origin spinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebrae
Insertion medial border of the scapula, inferior to the insertion of rhomboid minor muscle
Artery dorsal scapular artery
Nerve dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5)
Actions Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall.
Antagonist Serratus anterior muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Rhomboid minor muscle
Origin nuchal ligaments and spinous processes of C7 to T1 vertebrae
Insertion medial border of the scapula, superior to the insertion of rhomboid major muscle
Artery dorsal scapular artery
Nerve dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5)
Actions Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall.
Antagonist Serratus anterior muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Levator scapulae muscle
Origin Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae
Insertion Superior part of medial border of scapula
Artery dorsal scapular artery
Nerve cervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
Actions Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
Anatomical terms of muscle
Pectoralis major muscle
Origin Kank: anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle.
Sternocostal head: anterior surface of the sternum, the superior six costal cartilages, and the
Insertion intertubercular groove of the humerus
Artery pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk
Nerve lateral pectoral nerve and medial pectoral nerve
Clavicular head: C5 and C6
Sternocostal head: C7, C8 and T1
Actions Clavicular head: flexes the humerus
Sternocostal head: extends the humerus
As a whole, adducts and medially rotates the humerus. It also draws the scapula anteriorly and inferiorly.
Anatomical terms of muscle
Pectoralis minor muscle
Origin medial border and superior surface of the coracoid process of the scapula
Insertion 3rd to 5th ribs, near their costal cartilages
Artery Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk
Nerve Medial pectoral nerves (C8, T1)
Actions It stabilizes the scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall.
Anatomical terms of muscle
Subclavius muscle
Origin first rib
Insertion subclavian groove of clavicle
Artery thoracoacromial artery, clavicular branch
Nerve nerve to subclavius
Actions depression of clavicle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Serratus anterior (boxer muscle)
Origin fleshy slips from the outer surface of upper 8 or 9 ribs
Insertion costal aspect of medial margin of the scapula
Artery lateral thoracic artery (upper part), thoracodorsal artery (lower part)
Nerve long thoracic nerve (from roots of brachial plexus C5, 6, 7)
Actions protracts and stabilizes scapula, assists in upward rotation.
Antagonist Rhomboid major, Rhomboid minor, Trapezius
Anatomical terms of muscle

Shoulder with rotator cuff[edit]

Shoulder Rotator cuff
Deltoid muscle
Origin clavicle, acromion, spine of the scapula
Insertion deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Artery primarily posterior circumflex humeral artery
Nerve Axillary nerve
Actions shoulder abduction, flexion and extension
Antagonist Latissimus dorsi
Anatomical terms of muscle
Teres major muscle
Origin posterior aspect of the inferior angle of the scapula
Insertion medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
Artery Subscapular and circumflex scapular arteries
Nerve Lower subscapular nerve (segmental levels C5 and C6)
Actions Internal rotation of the humerus
Anatomical terms of muscle
Supraspinatus muscle
Origin supraspinous fossa of scapula
Insertion superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Artery suprascapular artery
Nerve suprascapular nerve
Actions abduction of arm and stabilizes humerus
Anatomical terms of muscle
Infraspinatus muscle
Origin infraspinous fossa of the scapula
Insertion middle facet of greater tubercle of the humerus
Artery suprascapular and circumflex scapular arteries
Nerve suprascapular nerve
Actions Lateral rotation of arm & Abduction of arm and stabilizes humerus
Anatomical terms of muscle
Teres minor muscle
Origin lateral border of the scapula
Insertion inferior facet of greater tubercle of the humerus
Artery lateral circumflex humeral artery and the circumflex scapular artery
Nerve axillary nerve
Actions laterally rotates and adducts the arm
Anatomical terms of muscle
Subscapularis muscle
Origin subscapular fossa
Insertion lesser tubercle of humerus
Artery transverse cervical artery, subscapular artery
Nerve upper subscapular nerve, lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Actions rotates medially humerus; stabilizes shoulder
Anatomical terms of muscle

Arm[edit]

Anterior compartment of the arm Posterior compartment of the arm
Coracobrachialis muscle
Origin coracoid process of scapula
Insertion medial humerus
Artery brachial artery
Nerve musculocutaneous nerve
Actions adducts humerus
Anatomical terms of muscle
Biceps brachii muscle
Origin short head: coracoid process of the scapula. long head: supraglenoid tubercle
Insertion radial tuberosity
Artery brachial artery
Nerve Musculocutaneous nerve (C5–C7)
Actions flexes elbow and supinates forearm
Antagonist Triceps brachii muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Brachialis muscle
Origin anterior surface of the humerus, particularly the distal half of this bone
Insertion coronoid process and the tuberosity of the ulna
Artery radial recurrent artery
Nerve musculocutaneous nerve
Actions flexion at elbow joint
Anatomical terms of muscle
Triceps brachii muscle
Origin long head: scapula
lateral head: posterior humerus
medial head: posterior humerus
Insertion olecranon process of ulna
Artery deep brachial artery
Nerve radial nerve
Actions extends forearm, caput longum adducts shoulder
Antagonist Biceps brachii muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Anconeus muscle
Origin lateral epicondyle of the humerus proximally
Insertion lateral surface of the olecranon process and the superior part of the posterior ulna distally
Artery deep brachial artery, recurrent interosseous artery
Nerve radial nerve (C7, C8, and T1)
Actions It is partly blended in with the triceps, which it assists in extension of the forearm. It also stabilises the elbow and abducts the ulna during pronation.
Anatomical terms of muscle

Forearm[edit]

Anterior compartment of the forearm[edit]

Superficial Deep
Pronator teres muscle
Origin humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
ulnar head: coronoid process of ulna
Insertion radius
Artery ulnar artery and radial artery
Nerve median nerve
Actions pronation of forearm, flexes elbow
Antagonist Supinator muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Palmaris longus muscle
Origin medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
Insertion palmar aponeurosis
Artery ulnar artery
Nerve median nerve
Actions wrist flexor
Antagonist Extensor carpi radialis brevis, Extensor carpi radialis longus, Extensor carpi ulnaris
Anatomical terms of muscle
Flexor carpi radialis muscle
Origin medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
Insertion Bases of second and third metacarpal bones
Artery ulnar artery
Nerve Median nerve
Actions Flexion and abduction at wrist
Antagonist Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle
Origin medial epicondyle (common flexor tendon)
Insertion pisiform
Artery ulnar artery
Nerve muscular branches of ulnar nerve
Actions flexion of wrist
Antagonist Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle
Origin median epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon) as well as parts of the radius and ulna.
Insertion phalanges
Artery ulnar artery
Nerve median nerve
Actions flexor of fingers (primarily at proximal interphalangeal joints)
Antagonist Extensor digitorum muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Pronator quadratus muscle
Origin medial, anterior surface of the ulna
Insertion lateral, anterior surface of the radius
Artery anterior interosseous artery
Nerve median nerve (anterior interosseous nerve)
Actions pronates the forearm
Antagonist Supinator muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Flexor digitorum profundus muscle
Origin ulna
Insertion distal phalanges
Artery anterior interosseous artery
Nerve median (anterior interosseous), muscular branches of ulnar
Actions flex hand, interphalangeal joints
Antagonist Extensor digitorum muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Flexor pollicis longus muscle
Origin The middle 2/4 of the volar surface of the radius and the adjacent interosseus membrane. (Also occasionally a small origin slightly on the medial epicondyle of the ulna.)
Insertion The base of the distal phalanx of the thumb
Artery Anterior interosseus artery
Nerve Anterior interosseous nerve (branch of median nerve) (C8, T1)
Actions Flexion of the thumb.
Antagonist Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle

Posterior compartment of the forearm[edit]

Posterior compartment of the forearm—Superficial[edit]

Superficial Superficial—mobile wad
Extensor digitorum muscle
Origin lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon)
Insertion 2nd and 3rd phalanges
Nerve posterior interosseous nerve
Actions extension of hand and fingers
Antagonist Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Extensor digiti minimi muscle
Origin the anterior portion of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus (common extensor tendon)
Insertion at the extensor expansion, located at the base of the proximal phalanx of the finger on the dorsal side
Artery the posterior interosseous artery which originates from the common interosseous artery and more proximally, the ulnar artery
Nerve posterior interosseous nerve (C7, 8)
Actions extends the little finger at all joints
Antagonist Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Anatomical terms of muscle
Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle
Origin Common extensor tendon (lateral epicondyle), ulna
Insertion 5th metacarpal
Artery ulnar artery
Nerve the posterior interosseus nerve, a branch of the radial nerve
Actions extends and adducts the wrist
Antagonist Flexor carpi ulnaris
Anatomical terms of muscle
Brachioradialis muscle
Origin Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus
Insertion Distal radius (Radial styloid process)
Artery radial recurrent artery
Nerve radial nerve
Actions Flexion of forearm
Anatomical terms of muscle
Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
Origin lateral supracondylar ridge
Insertion 2nd metacarpal
Artery radial artery
Nerve radial nerve
Actions extensor at the wrist joint, abducts the hand at the wrist
Antagonist Flexor carpi radialis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle
Origin humerus at the anterior of lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon)
Insertion base of the 3rd metacarpal
Artery radial artery
Nerve deep branch of the radial nerve
Actions extensor and abductor of the hand at the wrist joint
Antagonist Flexor carpi radialis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle

Posterior compartment of the forearm—Deep[edit]

Deep Deep—Anatomical snuff box
Supinator muscle
Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus, supinator crest of ulna, radial collateral ligament (elbow), annular ligament
Insertion Lateral proximal radial shaft
Artery radial recurrent artery
Nerve Posterior interosseus branch of radial nerve
Actions supinates forearm
Antagonist Pronator teres, Pronator quadratus
Anatomical terms of muscle
Extensor indicis proprius
Origin ulna
Insertion index finger (extensor hood)
Nerve posterior interosseous nerve
Actions extends index finger, wrist
Anatomical terms of muscle
Abductor pollicis longus muscle
Origin ulna, radial styloid process
Insertion first metacarpal
Nerve Posterior interosseous nerve
Actions abduction, extension of thumb
Antagonist Adductor pollicis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
Origin radius
Insertion thumb, proximal phalanx
Artery posterior interosseous artery
Nerve posterior interosseous
Actions extension of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint
Antagonist Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Extensor pollicis longus muscle
Origin ulna
Insertion thumb, distal phalanx
Nerve posterior interosseus nerve (branching from the radial nerve)
Actions extension of the thumb (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal)
Antagonist Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle

Muscles of the hand[edit]

Lateral volar and thenar eminence[edit]

Lateral volar Lateral volar—Thenar eminence
Adductor pollicis muscle
Origin Transverse head: anterior body of the third metacarpal
Oblique head: bases of the second and the third metacarpals and the adjacent trapezoid and capitate bones
Insertion medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb and the ulnar sesamoid
Nerve deep branch of the ulnar nerve (T1)
Actions adducts the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint
Antagonist Abductor pollicis longus muscle, Abductor pollicis brevis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Opponens pollicis muscle
Origin trapezium and transverse carpal ligament
Insertion metacarpal bone of the thumb on its radial side
Nerve median nerve
Anatomical terms of muscle
Flexor pollicis brevis muscle
Origin trapezoid, flexor retinaculum
Insertion thumb, proximal phalanx
Nerve median nerve, deep branch of ulnar nerve (medial head)
Actions Flexes the thumb at the first metacarpophalangeal joint
Antagonist Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Abductor pollicis brevis muscle
Origin Transverse carpal ligament, the scaphoid and trapezium
Insertion Radial base of proximal phalanx of thumb and the thumb extensors
Nerve Median nerve
Actions Abduction of the thumb by acting across the carpometacarpal joint and the metacarpophalangeal joint. It also assists in opposition and extension of the thumb.
Antagonist Adductor pollicis muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Opponens pollicis muscle
Origin trapezium and transverse carpal ligament
Insertion metacarpal bone of the thumb on its radial side
Nerve median nerve
Actions Flexion of the thumb's metacarpal at the first carpometacarpal joint, which aids in opposition of the thumb
Anatomical terms of muscle

Medial volar and hypothenar eminence[edit]

Meidal volar Meidal volar—Hypothenar eminence
Palmaris brevis muscle
Origin flexor retinaculum (medial), palmar aponeurosis
Insertion palm
Nerve superficial branch of ulnar nerve
Actions wrinkle skin of palm
Anatomical terms of muscle
Opponens digiti minimi muscle
Origin Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
Insertion Medial border of 5th metacarpal
Artery ulnar artery
Nerve deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1)
Actions Draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing little finger (5th digit) into opposition with thumb
Anatomical terms of muscle
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Origin hamate bone
Insertion little finger
Artery ulnar artery
Nerve deep branch of ulnar nerve
Actions flexes little finger
Antagonist Extensor digiti minimi muscle
Anatomical terms of muscle
Abductor minimi digiti muscle (hand)
Origin pisiform
Insertion base of the proximal phalanx of the 5th digit on the ulnar or medial side
Artery ulnar artery
Nerve deep branch of ulnar nerve
Anatomical terms of muscle

Intermediate volar and interossei[edit]

Intermediate volar Interossei
Lumbricals of the hand
Origin flexor digitorum profundus
Insertion extensor expansion
Artery superficial palmar arch, common palmar digital arteries, deep palmar arch, dorsal digital artery
Nerve deep branch of ulnar nerve, median nerve
Actions flex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints
Anatomical terms of muscle
Dorsal interossei of the hand
Origin metacarpals
Insertion proximal phalanges
Artery Dorsal metacarpal artery and palmar metacarpal artery
Nerve deep branch of ulnar nerve
Actions abduct finger
Antagonist Palmar interossei muscles
Anatomical terms of muscle
Palmar interossei muscles
Origin metacarpals
Insertion proximal phalange
Nerve deep branch of ulnar nerve
Actions adduction
Antagonist Dorsal interossei of the hand
Anatomical terms of muscle