User:Lecen/sandbox

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Articles to rewrite/improve[edit]

Articles to do[edit]

Miscellanea[edit]

At the time of his birth his mother was married to another man. She had been long separated from her husband, who lived in Portugal.

Its most well-known Brazilian advocate portrayed the Paraguayan War "as a genocide deliberately perpetrated against the Paraguayan people and Brazil's slave and Afro-Brazilian populations."[1] Historians Hendrik Kraay and Thomas Whigham called the claim an "improbable assertion".[1]

Lastly, "no evidence that Brazilian commanders deliberately used black men as cannon fodder has come to light, and the number of slaves forced into the army and navy was quite small (about seven thousand)".[1]


President of the Council and the cabinet[edit]

"The viceregal palace which gave the largo its name was the residence of the last viceroys and was the first residence of the Portuguese royal family in exile (1808-1821). After independence (1822), the first emperor made it the official palace of the monarchy, but resided at his father's villa, the Quinta da Boa Vista (Villa of the Good View) in São Cristóvão parish. Hence, the old palace was referred to as the City Palace (Paço da Cidade) to distinguis it from the imperial residence out of town, which was often called the Paço de São Cristóvão."[2]

"The various imperial ministers had their offices scattered across scattered across the city, often in old mansions first built for the richest mercants or Crown officials of the late colonial era at what were still the old city's edges. Some moved often and are hard to locate; others would apparently be temporalily housed in the homes of the minister of the day. For example, the Ministry of Justice was first situated..."[3]

Juan Manuel de Rosas[edit]

"Rosas was a skillfull manipulator. He manipulated the lower sectors, as has been seen, but he did not represent them and did not not enfranchise them."[4]

"What he advocated... was not social reform but propaganda and constraint. Rosas himself had an instinct for manipulating the discontents of the mases and turning them againt his enemies in such a way that they not damage the basic structure of society. By a misture of demagogy and nationalism, he was able skillfully to give an illusion of popular participation... But his federalism had little social content. In fact, Rosas destroyed the traditional division between federalists and unitarians and made these categories virtually meaningless. He substitued rosismo and antirosimo."[5]

[A]

One of his secretariats said: "The dictator is not stupid: he knows the people hate him; he goes in constant fear... He has a horse ready saddled at the door of his office day and night..."[6]

Antecessors[edit]

Rodrigo de Sousa Coutinho... [in the 1790s] stressed, "to the most essential of our overseas dominions, which are without question the provinces of America, known under the generic name of Brazil."[7]

"...traditional role of supplying the Crown with a constant source of revenue and serving as a tied marketing for exports from Portugal. In the telling phrase of D. João IV, who founded the Bragança dynasty in 1640, the American colonies were "the milch cow" of Portugal."[8]

"The existing Estado do Brasil (State of Brazil) was composed of the fourteen captaincies of southern, central, and northeastern Portuguese America. The state was headed by a viceroy, or royal delegate, who resided first at Salvador and then, from 1763, at Rio de Janeiro."[9]

"The four captaincies of the far north had originally been grouped together as the Estado do Maranhão, which as in 1751 reorganized as the Estado do Grão Pará e Maranhão, with its capital at Belém. Although the Estado was dissolved in 1772, its constituent territories continued totally separate from the Estado do Brasil, being ruled more directly from Lisbon than had previously been the case."[10]

"...there is no evidence...to support claim that the captaincies of the dissolved Estado were after 1774 "integrated into an enlarged Estado do Brasil"[11]

"The vicreoy's high-sounding title and dignities of office could not disguise the fact that he had long been little more than governor of the most important captaincy in the Estado do Brasil. After 1763, when the viceroy moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro, he also had real authority over Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, the two frontier captaincies in the far south. Over the remaining captaincies of the Estado the viceroy possessed what is best termed oversight. Although the governors were in theory his subordinates, he could rebuke and cajole but not order and control. Only in time of conflict, as during the war with Spain in 1777, did the viceroy assume a central role in directing military operations and organizing supplies. Even then, his effectiveness was limited by royal orders prohibiting him from being absent from the viceregal capital."[9]

Title and styles[edit]

Constitutional role[edit]

Moderating branch[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Succession[edit]

Eligibility[edit]

Regency[edit]

Daily life[edit]

Attire[edit]

Family[edit]

Residences[edit]

Personal guard[edit]

Imperial Guard of Halberdiers[edit]

Captain (first from left to right) and soldier (second) of the Royal Guard of Halberdiers, 1815. Soldier (third) and captain (fourth) of the Imperial Guard of Halberdiers, 1825

In 1763 Viceroy Antônio Álvares da Cunha, Count of Cunha organized in Rio de Janeiro city the 1st Cavalry Company of the Viceroys Guard (1ª Companhia de Cavalaria da Guarda dos Vice-Reis), with the purpose of serving as his personal guard.[12] His successor António Rolim de Moura Tavares, Count of Azambuja created a 2nd company, which along with the 1st company became the 1st Squadron of the Viceroys Guard (1º Esquadrão da Guarda dos Vice-Reis).[12] The 1st Squadron was renamed Light Cavalry Squadron of the Guard of the Most Illustrious and Most Excellent Viceroy of State (Esquadrão de Cavalaria Ligeira da Guarda do Ilm e Exm Sr. Vice-Rei de Estado).[12] On 13 May 1808 the squadron was renamed by Prince Regent Dom João (later King Dom João VI) 1st Army Cavalry Regiment (1º Regimento de Cavalaria do Exército) and served as his personal guard.[13]

A company of 1st Army Cavalry Regiment was sent to quell the Pernambucan Revolt 1817, but the rebellion was already over when the unit arrived.[14] In January 1822 the regiment remained loyal to Prince Regent Dom Pedro (later Emperor Dom Pedro I) during the crisis when Portuguese troops under lieutenant general Jorge Avilez (later Count of Avilez) mutinied.[15] With the creation of the Imperial Guard of Honor in late December, the 1st Army Cavalry Regiment lost its position as personal guard. The regiment fought against rebels during the Confederation of the Equator in 1824.[16] It later took part in the Cisplatine War, including in the Battle of Ituzaingó.[17] In 1830 the unit was renamed 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry (1º Regimento de Cavalaria Ligeira).[18] It was among the army units that mutinied in April 1831, leading to Pedro I's abdication.[19]

A few years after Dom Pedro II was declared of age in 1840 the 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry became the Emperor's personal guard. Charged of protecting and escorting the monarch, the regiment was not deployed in the Platine War nor in the Paraguayan War.[20] The officers of the regiment were key members of the conspiracy that overthrew Pedro II on 15 November.[21] The soldiers seem to have shared a different view, however, as they were part of the failed rebellion that tried to restore the monarchy on 14 January 1890.[22] The present-day Independence Dragoons (Dragões da Independência) or 1st Cavalry Regiment of Guards (1º Regimento de Cavalaria de Guardas), that serves as the personal guard of the Brazilian president, is a direct descendant of the 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry. However, the uniforms worn by its soldiers and officers are based on the ones worn by the Imperial Guard of Honor, albeit of far poorer quality.[23]

Imperial Guard of Honor[edit]

Guard (left) and captain (right) of the Imperial Guard of Honor, 1822–29

In 1763 Viceroy Antônio Álvares da Cunha, Count of Cunha organized in Rio de Janeiro city the 1st Cavalry Company of the Viceroys Guard (1ª Companhia de Cavalaria da Guarda dos Vice-Reis), with the purpose of serving as his personal guard.[12] His successor António Rolim de Moura Tavares, Count of Azambuja created a 2nd company, which along with the 1st company became the 1st Squadron of the Viceroys Guard (1º Esquadrão da Guarda dos Vice-Reis).[12] The 1st Squadron was renamed Light Cavalry Squadron of the Guard of the Most Illustrious and Most Excellent Viceroy of State (Esquadrão de Cavalaria Ligeira da Guarda do Ilm e Exm Sr. Vice-Rei de Estado).[12] On 13 May 1808 the squadron was renamed by Prince Regent Dom João (later King Dom João VI) 1st Army Cavalry Regiment (1º Regimento de Cavalaria do Exército) and served as his personal guard.[13]

A company of 1st Army Cavalry Regiment was sent to quell the Pernambucan Revolt 1817, but the rebellion was already over when the unit arrived.[14] In January 1822 the regiment remained loyal to Prince Regent Dom Pedro (later Emperor Dom Pedro I) during the crisis when Portuguese troops under lieutenant general Jorge Avilez (later Count of Avilez) mutinied.[15] With the creation of the Imperial Guard of Honor in late December, the 1st Army Cavalry Regiment lost its position as personal guard. The regiment fought against rebels during the Confederation of the Equator in 1824.[16] It later took part in the Cisplatine War, including in the Battle of Ituzaingó.[17] In 1830 the unit was renamed 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry (1º Regimento de Cavalaria Ligeira).[18] It was among the army units that mutinied in April 1831, leading to Pedro I's abdication.[19]

A few years after Dom Pedro II was declared of age in 1840 the 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry became the Emperor's personal guard. Charged of protecting and escorting the monarch, the regiment was not deployed in the Platine War nor in the Paraguayan War.[20] The officers of the regiment were key members of the conspiracy that overthrew Pedro II on 15 November.[21] The soldiers seem to have shared a different view, however, as they were part of the failed rebellion that tried to restore the monarchy on 14 January 1890.[22] The present-day Independence Dragoons (Dragões da Independência) or 1st Cavalry Regiment of Guards (1º Regimento de Cavalaria de Guardas), that serves as the personal guard of the Brazilian president, is a direct descendant of the 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry. However, the uniforms worn by its soldiers and officers are based on the ones worn by the Imperial Guard of Honor, albeit of far poorer quality.[23]

1st Regiment of Light Cavalry[edit]

From left to right: captain (in grand uniform), lieutenant, alferes (second lieutenant), 1st sergeant (in grand uniform) and 1st sergeant of the 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry, 1852

In 1763 Viceroy Antônio Álvares da Cunha, Count of Cunha organized in Rio de Janeiro city the 1st Cavalry Company of the Viceroys Guard (1ª Companhia de Cavalaria da Guarda dos Vice-Reis), with the purpose of serving as his personal guard.[12] His successor António Rolim de Moura Tavares, Count of Azambuja created a 2nd company, which along with the 1st company became the 1st Squadron of the Viceroys Guard (1º Esquadrão da Guarda dos Vice-Reis).[12] The 1st Squadron was renamed Light Cavalry Squadron of the Guard of the Most Illustrious and Most Excellent Viceroy of State (Esquadrão de Cavalaria Ligeira da Guarda do Ilm e Exm Sr. Vice-Rei de Estado).[12] On 13 May 1808 the squadron was renamed by Prince Regent Dom João (later King Dom João VI) 1st Army Cavalry Regiment (1º Regimento de Cavalaria do Exército) and served as his personal guard.[13]

A company of 1st Army Cavalry Regiment was sent to quell the Pernambucan Revolt 1817, but the rebellion was already over when the unit arrived.[14] In January 1822 the regiment remained loyal to Prince Regent Dom Pedro (later Emperor Dom Pedro I) during the crisis when Portuguese troops under lieutenant general Jorge Avilez (later Count of Avilez) mutinied.[15] With the creation of the Imperial Guard of Honor in late December, the 1st Army Cavalry Regiment lost its position as personal guard. The regiment fought against rebels during the Confederation of the Equator in 1824.[16] It later took part in the Cisplatine War, including in the Battle of Ituzaingó.[17] In 1830 the unit was renamed 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry (1º Regimento de Cavalaria Ligeira).[18] It was among the army units that mutinied in April 1831, leading to Pedro I's abdication.[19]

A few years after Dom Pedro II was declared of age in 1840 the 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry became the Emperor's personal guard. Charged of protecting and escorting the monarch, the regiment was not deployed in the Platine War nor in the Paraguayan War.[20] The officers of the regiment were key members of the conspiracy that overthrew Pedro II on 15 November.[21] The soldiers seem to have shared a different view, however, as they were part of the failed rebellion that tried to restore the monarchy on 14 January 1890.[22] The present-day Independence Dragoons (Dragões da Independência) or 1st Cavalry Regiment of Guards (1º Regimento de Cavalaria de Guardas), that serves as the personal guard of the Brazilian president, is a direct descendant of the 1st Regiment of Light Cavalry. However, the uniforms worn by its soldiers and officers are based on the ones worn by the Imperial Guard of Honor, albeit of far poorer quality.[23]

Death[edit]

Urquiza attempted to rehabilitate Rosas, and sought his return. Rosas said: "I must serve you in what way I can, as long as it is not to conspire against the government of my country, or against the persons who compose it, even though they are my enemies."[24]


"On a cold, damp day in March 1877 je went out on the farm, returned home feeling unwell, and quickly developed pneumonia... He died at 7 oçlock on the morning of 14 March 1877... Church of Southampton, and then he was buried privately in the town cemetery in the presence of a few relatives and friends."[25]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kraay & Whigham 2004, p. 18.
  2. ^ Needell 2006, p. 21.
  3. ^ Needell 2006, pp. 21–22.
  4. ^ Lynch 2001, p. 76.
  5. ^ Lynch 2001, p. 77.
  6. ^ Lynch 2001, p. 96.
  7. ^ Barman 1988, p. 11.
  8. ^ Barman 1988, p. 18.
  9. ^ a b Barman 1988, p. 21.
  10. ^ Barman & 1988 p21.
  11. ^ Barman 1988, p. 249.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Aquino Filho 1972, p. 21.
  13. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, p. 22.
  14. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, p. 43.
  15. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, pp. 44–45.
  16. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, p. 47.
  17. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, p. 48.
  18. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, p. 27.
  19. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, p. 51.
  20. ^ a b c Rodrigues 1953, p. 40.
  21. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, pp. 53–58.
  22. ^ a b c Topik 2009, pp. 126, 410.
  23. ^ a b c Aquino Filho 1972, pp. 95–96.
  24. ^ Lynch 1981, p. 342.
  25. ^ Lynch 1981, p. 358.

References[edit]

  • (Portuguese) Aquino Filho, Alcides Tomaz de (1972). Dragões da independência: tradição e história. Brasília: Brasileira. 
  • (Portuguese) Barroso, Gustavo (1922). Uniformes do exército brasileiro: obra commemorativa do centenario da independencia do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro/Paris: [Ministério da Guerra]. 
  • (Portuguese) Rodrigues, José Wasth (1953). Fardas do Reino Unido do Império. Petrópolis: Ministério da Educação e Saúde/Museu Imperial. 
  • (Portuguese) Topik, Steven C. (2009). Comércio e canhoneiras: Brasil e Estados Unidos na Era dos Impérios (1889–97). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras. ISBN 978-85-359-1522-8. 


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