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User:LeftAire/Pre-Colonial Africa



Action of September 1565
Part of French colonial conflicts
French Florida 1562.gif
Image of French settlement in Florida in 1562.
Date 4 September 1565 - October 12 1565
Location Fort Caroline, Florida; Matanzas Inlet
Result Spanish victory
Spain New Spain Croix huguenote.svg Huguenots
Commanders and leaders
Spain Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Spain Flores de Valdés
Croix huguenote.svg Jean Ribault 
Croix huguenote.svg René Goulaine de Laudonnière
49 ships (including merchant ships) 33 ships
Casualties and losses
1 admiral, 700 men

Action of September 1565 encompasses a series of events involving the Spanish launching an attack upon French Huguenot-settled Fort Caroline on the 4 of September in 1565, until the 12 of October in 1565.

French explorer Jean Ribault had recently returned from England to acquire supplies for the settlement known as Fort Caroline.

Background: First Two Expeditions[edit]

In February 1562, Gaspard de Coligny commissioned two ships to sail from Le Havre to the cape of Florida, and then sail north, in order to find a safe haven for French Protestants. The expedition was led by Jean Ribault and René de Laudonnière with three ships and 150 members that were mainly Norman. By May 1, they had reached present day St. John's River (which was named Rivière de Mai, and by the 17th of the same month, the expedition made landfall at Port Royal Sound (which was also named by the crew) and erected Charlesfort. A volunteer of 26 troops stationed under Captain Albert de la Pierria volunteered to stay at Charlesfort while the remaining crew sailed back towards France. The crew had failed to return due to civil war erupting in France, and that Ribault had been arrested after reneging on an agreement with Queen Elizabeth on funding an expedition towards capturing Florida for England. As a result, the garrison stationed had resorted to inner skirmishes, murder (including de la Pierria), and defection to Natives. A crude boat built by the remaining members led by Barrè set sail for England in late 1562, and had taken part in cannibalism before eventually found by an English ship. Some were able to return to France. Charlesfort was later destroyed by Spanish lead forces, and captured the only Frenchman remaining with the natives.

The Peace of Amboise in 1563 placed Coligny back in power, and while Ribault was in prison, he appointed his second-in-command Laudonnière to establish a new settlement for the Huguenots, and the expedition left Le Havre by April of 1564. By late June of 1564, Laudonnière and his expedition of 300 colonists in three ships to the southern bank of St. John's River, and establishes Fort Caroline. A cordial rapport had developed among the French settlers and the natives.