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Joseph Menchen (Illinois, 1 April 1878–4 October 1940, Glendale? California, was an inventor, businessman, film producer, screenwriter and literary agent. He was the producer and co-director (with Michel Carré) of the the 1912 full-length, hand-coloured, black-and-white British feature film The Miracle.
Early life and career
He lived in Kansas City, Missouri also from at least July 1889, when he jointly filed his first patent (with one Louis Zweisler) for a spring-loaded weighing and measuring scoop.[p 1] His father (also named Joseph Menchen) ran the Joseph Menchen Electrical Works at 9-15, West 6th Street, Kansas City, Missouri in 1891 - 1892.[note 1]
Aged around 16, Menchen was boarding at the Grand Missouri Hotel as Jos. Menchen in 1894. In 1895 he was working as electrician at Abraham Judah's newly-rebuilt Ninth-Street Opera house in Kansas City (not to be confused with the Grand Opera House, also leased and run by Judah).[note 2] Menchen had a useful selection of his own theatrical lighting equipment and was looking for a position with another responsible company.[note 3] In November 1895 he took a contract to fit 450 electric lights in the new 1,200-seat Rohrbaugh Opera House, Ottawa, Kansas.[note 4] While working in Kansas City, Menchen met and was befriended by the theatre impresario Robert Grau, who continued to advise and encourage him.
Vaudeville and motion pictures
After the initial success of Edison's peephole Kinetoscope in 1894-5 and the swift development of the first film projectors, vaudeville theatres in New York began to include film shows. Edison's Vitascope was first exhibited at Koster & Bial's on Thursday 30 April 1896,[note 5] Lumiere's Cinematographe opened at Keith's Union Square Theatre on 6 July, and the Kineopticon at Pastor's's New Fourteenth Street Theatre on 31 August 1896.[note 6] The projectionist was Menchen with a kineopticon, an English film projector made by Birt Acres which had its London première on 21 March 1896. The press agent for the 'old' Bijou Theatre at 1239 Broadway, A. Curtis Bond, acquired the American rights to the kineopticon. An advertisement for 'Joseph Menchen's New Kineoptikon' included newspaper reports of the projector from 17 August 1896.
The early projectionists bought their own prints direct from the production companies at around 15 cents a foot; Menchen had his own stock of films including many of the Edison Manufacturing Company's early films such as the scandalous The Kiss,; Police Patrol, Morning Bath, Hurdle Race, Arrival and Departure of Tally-Ho, Whirlpool rapids at Niagara Falls, Mutoscope's Empire State Express (1896); three Edison films made in November 1896 directed by James H. White with cameraman William Heise, Going to the Fire, Fighting the Fire and Burning Building (featuring the Newark, NJ Fire Dept.) and the latest from Edison in January 1897, The First Sleigh-Ride
In 1897 Menchen was on tour with Pastor's company alongside such stars as the Newsboys Quintet and Helene Mora, "the world-famous lady baritone" who sang her own songs such as Kathleen and performed scenes from Shakespeare "en travesti", He was showing films with the Kineoptikon in Baltimore, MD in January, and in March at the Olympic Theatre, Chicago, with an address at 632 Madison Street.
He also provided arresting moving lighting effects for performances of other vaudeville acts, including the "clever serpentine dancer, Mlle. Winifred" and "Mlle Lotty". He designed and made specialised attachments for projectors such as the Stereopticon and the Skyopticon  These acts were probably inspired by the 'original' serpentine dancer, Loïe Fuller, a pioneer of modern dance and theatrical lighting techniques. She used stereopticons in her performances, and was managed by Robert Grau, who 'discovered' Menchen in Kansas City.
- The Lobsterscope
On May 22 1897 a film of the Corbett-Fitzsimmonds fight was released. That same week the vaudeville duo Weber & Fields performed their 'Lobsterscope' routine, which included a burlesque of the boxing match. The sketch made fun of "all animated picture machines (patent protected)" and was performed by the pair before a black curtain in the simulated flickering light of an early film projector. This effect was done with a stereopticon supplied by Menchen, who two years later would be involved in the attempted filming of another boxing match with Fitzsimmons, the Jeffries fight (see below).
The 'Lobsterscope' sketch ridicules the multitudinous names of moving picture machines making the rounds of the vaudeville theatres,  and combines it with a joking reference to the many high-society glittering 'lobster palace' restaurants on Broadway.
Weber and Fields later had a line in another of their routines about Diamond Jim Brady, a famous customer at Charles Rector's lobster restaurant: A chorus girl is asked if she ever found an pearl in an oyster. "No," comes the reply, "but I got a diamond from a lobster over at Rector's last night."
In her autobiography the stripper Gypsy Rose Lee describes one of the young dancers in her mother's vaudeville act: "he used a lobster-scope for that part, making him look as if he were dancing in slow motion . . . The lobster-scope, a metal disk that fitted over a spotlight, was his own, and on opening days, he would give it to the spotlight man himself. "Be careful of it," he would warn. "Anything happens to that lobster-scope and the whole act's a flop."
A modern professional version of the Lobsterscope using the original design concept was still in production in 2013.
- Fitzsimmons-Jeffries fight
The first motion picture to be filmed with the aid of electric lighting was made in 1899 by Vitagraph in the Manhattan Theatre, New York City, using "arc lights of enormous amperage, furnished by Joe Menchen." The cameraman was Albert E. Smith. The tests were made to see if it was possible to make a film of a boxing match at night time.
As a result of this experiment the theatre owner and promoter William A. Brady contracted for $5,000 with Vitagraph to film the boxing fight between James J. Jeffries and Bob Fitzsimmons at the Coney Island Sporting Club on 9 June 1899. Menchen's lights with a combined 2,400,000 candlepower hung above the ring from a "platform from which huge cylinders like bottomless hot tubes glowered down", emitting "a great beam of blinding white light [...] like a thousand calciums." Unfortunately only the first minute of the fight was captured on camera. According to the cameraman Albert E. Smith (later president of Vitagraph), the reason for the failure was that the cylinder head of the engine which powered the electrical plant blew out, and 12 of the 24 lights failed. The failure seems not to have been noticed in blow-by-blow accounts of the fight, and not until a fortnight later did a New York Times article claim that a "wobbly old generator and beer-barrel rheostats brought the cinematographers confusion."
Although not the whole fight was captured, a still from the minute-long film hung over William T. Rock's desk at the Vitagraph offices,, and Menchen's later 1906 catalogue of theatrical lighting equipment lists his achievement at the fight along with his other successes.[note 9]
Sam T Jack died on April 27 1899.
However, Menchen was out of Pastor's after Vitagraph gained a contract there from 17 June 1899, presenting their own exclusive films of the boxer James Jeffries in training and the celebrations in October for Admiral Dewey's victory. By August, Menchen was managing "Mlle. Stella" on the books of the Sam T. Jack Company.
Whereas vaudeville was firmly aimed at a family audience, Sam T. Jack's burlesque shows were usually the bawdiest to be found. Stella was at the Palace Theatre, Boston, on 21 October 1899. Menchen continued to improve the kineoptikon, fitting it with a patent lens box.[p 3]
He continued with his lighting business, selling or hiring his equipment and working as lighting designer on Broadway shows, for example The Princess Chic at the Casino Theatre (Broadway) from 12 February - 3 March 1900 In September 1901 a court judgement for debt was delivered against Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. for $50.62 in connection with a property of Menchen's.
Joseph Menchen Company
On 21 March 1903 the Joseph Menchen Company was incorporated with a capital stock of $10,000, to sell and install theatrical lighting equipment and complete systems, in addition to the Stereopticon and his other patented inventions. Having seen the effects of several theatre fires in Kansas City and Ottawa, Kansas where he had installed electrical lighting to replace old carbide lights, his equipment was manufactured to high electrical safety standards and endorsed by the New York Fire Department and the Board of Fire Underwriters. His electrical plug connectors were later installed in all New York high schools.
- Luna Park & St. Louis
Later in 1903 that year his Stereopticon effects[p 4] were in use at Luna Park, Coney Island, projecting simulated motion such as snowstorms and butterflies, or the Aurora Borealis.[p 5] Luna Park was owned by the impresarios and theatre owners Thomson & Dundy, who often used Menchen's services.
On 30 December 1903 in Chicago, the brand-new Iroquois Theatre caught fire at a matinee performance. Over 600 people were crushed, asphyxiated or burned to death in the deadliest theatre fire and the deadliest single-building fire in United States history. In the aftermath the mayor ordered all theaters in Chicago closed for six weeks for inspection and refitting to new fire regulations. Menchen's electrical lighting equipment, always designed to the highest standards, was the only approved equipment allowed to be used in the city theatres.
Menchen's success at Luna Park with the versatile Stereopticon led to a huge opportunity at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, where he used thirty-eight of them, sixty inches in diameter, to create spectacular effects in "Under and Over the Sea", one of the rides on the mile-long 'Pike' crammed with amusements and attractions. The profit from this attraction was $86,432. Menchen's electrical projection equipment was used in many other rides, including "Creation", (profit $347,747), "Hereafter", ($116,301) "Great Siberian Railway", ($85,310) and "The Haunted Castle". The fair opened on 30 April 1904, and closed 1 December 1904.
Proctor's 125th Street Theatre (not the one he worked at) caught fire on 6 May 1904 and was burned to the ground, although quick and decisive action by staff and police meant that the house was evacuated within three minutes, and the were no injuries at all. Although Menchen was in court later that May over a debt for $129 to one M. J. Boyce, by June he was doing well enough financially (probably thanks to profits from the World's Fair) to take out a 5-year lease for $1,800 on 354, 50th W St., where the Joseph Menchen Electrical Company's new premises opened on 17 September 1904.[note 10]
He continued to design the lighting for Broadway shows during 1904, designing the effects for the new musical Piff! Paff!! Pouf!!! (music by Jean Schwartz, lyrics by William Jerome) which ran from 2 April to 19 November 1904 at the Casino Theatre, and at the Majestic Theatre (Broadway) from Dec 26, 1904 for a further eight performances; and as lighting designer for Girls Will Be Girls at Haverly's 14th Street Theatre, N.Y.
By the end of 1904, however, the Joseph Menchen company was insolvent, and his Johnstown Flood electrical and scenic equipment was being advertised for sale by one J. T. Ebbets (possibly an interim administrator) at the company's 354 W 50th Street address. Menchen failed to pay his creditors, who filed a bankruptcy petition against him in July 1906. According to the New York Times report, materials had been stolen at various times, aggregating in a loss of $10,000. For example, Menchen's Stereopticons in use at the St. Louis World's Fair cost $500 each. Menchen continued to operate a business, opening an office at 1237 Broadway later described by Al. H. Woods as "a little electrical shop at the Bijou". This was not the 1920's Schubert Bijou, but the 'old' Bijou Theatre at 1237-1239 Broadway where A. Curtis Bond was the the press agent when Menchen bought or hired a Kineopticon from him in 1896. He continued to take out advertisements in the trade press throughout 1906 and 1907 as a constructor of electric and scenic shows.
His 1906 catalogue lists over 150 New York shows which used his equipment, with special mention of vaudeville theatres including the Brooklyn Orpheum, Keith's Union Square, Proctor's 23rd, 58th and 125th Street: and all the work at the vast, newly-opened New York Hippodrome for Thompson & Dundy (owners of Luna Park).
- Trips to Europe
He travelled to Europe in 1908, seeking to expand his business interests. In February 1908 he opened a London branch of Joseph Menchen's Electrical Company at 341 Walworth Road, which was also the address of an Electric Theatre cinema owned by Joseph Jay Bamberger, previously a New York stockbroker.[note 11] The former chapel served as the Electric Theatre cinema from February 1904 until at least 1915.
He returned to the USA on 2 Jan 1909 on board the recently-built RMS Lusitania, with his new wife Madge, and by 1910 he was advertising his company (now at 360 West 50th St, NY) as the "largest manufacturers of electrical stage appliances and effects in the world." Madge seems to have been a technically-minded person, as her entry in the 1910 New York City directory lists her occupation as electrician, 360 West 50th St. 
In December 1911 Menchen's ad in Billboard reads: Electric Scenic Effects and Stage Lighting Appliances Complete line of Cloud Effects, Snow, Rain, Fire, etc. Spot and Flood Lights, Stage Pockets, Plugging Boxes, Rheostats and everything used in connection with Electrical Stage Lighting. ??? bone, Lenses and Gelatins at low prices. Send 10c for catalogue. 
Europe and The Miracle
In 1912 Menchen left the USA for Europe, and settled in London with an address at 20 Frith Street. It seems very likely that he saw a performance of Max Reinhardt's production of The Miracle, a wordless pantomime by Karl Vollmoeller with music for chorus and large symphony orchestra by Engelbert Humperdinck, and designs by Ernst Stern. The production ran for 16 weeks at Olympia (London).
Menchen determined to make it into a film, obtaining the necessary rights to the music, play and production from the owners and made arrangements to make the film on location in Austria, including production design, permission to film, and travel and catering arrangements for 800 cast. Shooting for the film of The Miracle began on location in October 1912 near Vienna, immediately after Reinhardt's next production of the play at the Rotunda, using the many of the actors and costumes from the stage production.
The film was hand-coloured in Paris, and the première of The Miracle took place at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden on 21 December 1912, with full symphony orchestra and chorus, live dancers and actors dressed as nuns. The film ran for a record-breaking three months in the UK, with 90 copies playing in 72 locations during Easter week (18 March).
- Studios Menchen
In 1913 he moved to France and formed the Société des Films Menchen with Michel Carré as its artistic director. He obtained the film rights from Maurice Leblanc for the greater majority of his books featuring Arsène Lupin (a French detective modelled after Sherlock Holmes) with the intention of producing them as films. By March Menchen had taken a lease on a former Jesuit house of retreat (Villa St-Joseph at 10 Rue du Mont) in the Paris suburb of Épinay-sur-Seine, where he had a 40 x 22m glasshouse studio built.  He had intended to release some 21 films, and by WHEN??? he had half-finished one.  Although in a trade press interview he claimed that the series of Arsène Lupin films were "practically ready for release", he seems have not to completed any films at all and by May 1914 he had disposed of the studios although he kept his main office in Paris. However, the First World War broke out in August 1914, and as the German army advanced towards Paris Menchen left in a hurry with his automobile full of film cans. He was evacuated on the USS Tennessee along with other US citizens and arrived back in Britain.
The studio was taken over by the Lux production company, and later by the French branch of Tobis. By 1930 it was one of only two studios in France to have been equipped with sound-on-film recording apparatus (Tobis-Klang) after the arrival of the 'talkies'
- London film business - see London Project
- 1915 - Designs a heavy flamethrower for the British Army. It was too cumbersome to be carried easily in the trenches, and was experimentally installed in a tank with a large fuel reservoir. However, the British High Command wasn't particularly keen on flamethrowers and tanks conventionally armed with guns were more popular. However, it was adapted into a battery.
- 1917 - Returns to USA on the SS Kroonland, still married to Madge. Possibly more development of flamethrower in US???? Possibly unlikely, since the US had banned their use during the war. But US forces used them in the Pacific war.
- 1918/9 - Law suits re. Arsene Lupin v. Vitagraph Co. of America
- Jan 1920 Forms the Celebrated Authors' Society, Ltd., for dramatic scripts for film rights.
- April 1920 - sells Arsene Lupin stories for $360,000
- September 1920: He and a friend were in the close vicinity of the Wall Street bombing, and were one of the first on the scene to try to identify the explosive used.
- 1920s More inventions
- 1926 Copyright tussle over novels of Laura Jean Libby
- 1927 Al H. Woods planned to make a new film of The Miracle, possibly with Lady Diana Manners?? or Carmi??: but a court case established that JM had definitely sold the entire film rights to Woods.
- 1930s Various literary efforts including Nellie McClung,, more inventions
- At some point he and Madge divorced, in Dade, Florida. (County records...)
- 1940 - working on aerial torpedo or gas bomb
- Died in California, 9 October 1940 - buried in Glendale.
Arsène Lupin films
- 1913: Formed Société des Films Menchen - gained film rights from Maurice Leblanc for the greater majority of his books featuring Arsène Lupin, a French detective modelled after Sherlock Holmes.
- 1913: Opened Studios Menchen at Épinay-sur-Seine, possibly prompted by Georges Lordier's success.
- 1915 Arsene Lupin (B&W., UK, 1915) with Gerald Ames prod. company London Films Co. Ltd (not to be confused with London Films of Alexander Korda)
- In 1916 Menchen obtained the rights for the remaining Lupin book by Leblanc, the original Arsène Lupin.
- In 1918 and 1919 Menchen brought two court cases against Vitagraph over the Arsene Lupin film rights.
- In 1920 Menchen sold the film rights for the Lupin novels to Robertson-Cole for $360,000 (anywhere between $3m and $60m in 2012, according to various indicators).
- The next Arsene Lupin film to be made was 813 (B&W., US, 1920) with Wedgewood Newel.
Theatrical Mechanical Association
Jos. Menchen (the name is constructed like Al. Woods) belonged to the Theatrical Mechanical Association (TMA), a US labor union for theatre stage hands. In addition to protecting the interests of theatrical employees such as working conditions and pay, the Association also provided welfare such as relief and housing for distressed members, distributing tokens which could be exchanged for goods etc. in shops where they were accepted.
In 1863 the first stage employees' organization was named the Theatrical Workman's Council (TMC), one of several craft unions which grew up in the wake of Abraham Lincoln's election with the aid of the working-class vote. The TMC became the Theatrical Mechanical Association in 1865 when it incorporated under New York State law. On 26 April 1886, many TMA members met at 187 Bowery, New York, to draw up a new constitution, marking the beginning of Theatrical Protective Union Number One (Local One). The National Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (NATSE) was founded on 17 July 1893 by TMA representatives of ten cities assembled at Elks Hall in New York, to join with their Broadway brothers.
For examples of TMA notices in the trade press, see The New York Clipper, October 3 1910 OR 1911, p. 847.) The TMA, like many labour unions, adopted terms similar to those used in Freemasonry like 'lodge', 'hall' and 'brother'; but there otherwise is no link with masonry (although Menchen in his 1906 catalogue Menchen 1906, p. 3? says that his firm can provide all sorts of deceptive illusions for Masonic rituals).
As the motion picture industry continued to grow during the 1910s, many serious theatres adopted a format similar to to the one Menchen had helped to pioneer in 1896 and which Al Woods and Frank Godsoll exported to France and Germany as 'Kinovaudeville', consisting typically of six acts of vaudeville, a feature photoplay, a comedy and a newsreel.
In an 1987 interview, Richard Walsh (who joined IATSE Local No. 4 as an apprentice at the Fifth Avenue Theatre, New York in 1917 and was first elected President of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees in 1942) recalled his experiences in vaudeville which cannot have been very dissimilar to Joseph Menchen's:
“Well, I came in because of a change in the theaters. When the theatres started to change from legitimate to vaudeville and pictures that’s when I came in. Because the stage hands of the days before me didn’t think Vaudeville was worth working. So we young fellows were taken in to rush out and hang the sign on and to run back and run the switchboard and to run over there and push the piano out. We’d have four or five men in a house, but with legitimate theatre, you’d have fifty, sixty men sometimes and maybe more.You maintained the electrical equipment, you maintained the seats in a theatre, you changed the attraction signs, you repaired the lines when they got worn out or weren’t safe anymore, you knew it was, you done everything in theatre that was necessary to keep the theatre working.”
List of patents
- * US patent 421221, Menchen, Joseph & Zweisler, Louis, "Weighing and measuring scoop", issued 1890-02-11
- * US patent 574926, Menchen, Joseph, "Ceiling-mounted knife switch", issued 1897-01-12
- * US patent 761977, Menchen, Joseph, "Lens Box", issued 1904-06-07
- * US patent 744778, Menchen, Joseph, "Object projector", issued 1903-11-24 (see JLM Electrical Catalogue for name)
- * US patent 770766, Menchen, Joseph, "Method of projecting imitations of the Aurora Borealis", issued 1904-09-27
- Entries from various editions of Hoye's Directory of Kansas City, Missouri. The entries for 1885 & 1887 may refer to someone else.
- 1885 - Menchen Joseph, wks. (works) A. F. Co. bds. (boards) [at] Eldorado House (p. 399)
- 1887 - Menchen Joseph, mattress mkr. (maker) Sammons & Holman, r. (resides) 1610 w. 9th (p. 456)
- Menchen Anna, domestic Washington, ne. (north east) cor. (corner) 12th
- 1891 - Menchen Joseph, electric supplies, 11 w 6th street (p. 441)
- 1892 - Menchen Joseph, propr Joseph Menchen's electrical works r.(esides) 1712 e 8th (p. 401)
- MENCHEN'S JOSEPH ELECTRICAL WORKS 9 to 15 w 6th Joseph Menchen propr.
- 1894 - Menchen Jos. b. (boards) [at] Grand Mo (Missouri) Hotel (p. 401)
Retrieved 06/2012 from www.fold3.com (Registration and credit card number required, payment due after 7 days unless cancelled.
- The ‘old’ Orpheum Theatre in Kansas City was on the corner of 9th Street and May Street, and opened on 23 September 1893 as the Ninth Street Opera House. Designed by architect Oscar Cobb and with a seating capacity of 2,000, the building replaced an earlier Ninth Street Theatre (also leased by Abraham Judah) which had burnt down. The Ninth Street Opera House was taken over by the Orpheum circuit in February 1898 and remained in their control until the building of the New Orpheum Theatre on Baltimore Avenue in 1914. "Orpheum Theatre" at CinemaTreasures.org
- MANAGERS' ATTENTION.
Theatrical electrician owning seven electric calciums; six olivette boxes; one 18 inch glass-lined reflector, for front light 6000 candle power strong: 65 gelatines; 40 frames; 3 lenses: right and left and main line switch boards ; rheostats for making lightning and electric scenic effects, and complete stage electrical lighting, wants position with some responsible company : electric scenic effects a specialty.
Address Joseph Menchen, No. 211 West 6th St., Kansas City, Mo.
Member of N.A.T.S.E. (National Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees) and T.M.A. (Theatrical Mechanical Association). See #Theatrical Mechanical Association section above. New York Dramatic Mirror, 16 November 1895, p. 16
- The old Ottawa Auditorium had burned down on 3 March 1895. The foundation stone of the new Opera House was laid 9 July 1895, and the opening dedication ceremony took place 31 January 1896. The new manager was Charles H. Ridgway, later state Senator. See The Rohrbaugh Theater at Louisreed.net
- The Vitascope was originally invented by Francis Jenkins in 1893 and named the Phantascope. The US rights were handled by Thomas Armat and licensed to Edison in 1895.
- Vitagraph certainly didn't appear at Tony Pastor's New Fourteenth Street Theatre on March 23, 1896 as claimed at this article. See Page 19, vaudeville stage
- Johnson & Dean were stunningly well-dressed Afro-American dance partners. See Johnson & Dean at Streetswing.
- The number of US patent #574926, patented 12 January 1897, appears on a drawing of a switch on p. 64 of Menchen's September 1906 catalogue (#4), tho' it is not for the same device shown the patent documentation. Maybe uncle Joe pulled a fast one...
- The first complete fight to be filmed with electric lights was the Jeffries-Sharkey bout on 3 November 1899, by the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company.(Miller 2006, p. 316) Although the film is thought to be lost, a few seconds survive of Vitascope's bootleg film made by Smith and James French on the night. Source: The History of the Discovery of Cinematography, Chapter 15 Accessed 2012-12-28. This film was shown to at the Empire Theater in Rochester, NY, in December, 1899, "an eager audience [...] was affronted by a fly-by-night New York company's bootleg account of the Jeffries-Sharkey fight secured on a small camera smuggled into the crowd on the evening of the fight. Except for three or four wretchedly-focused rounds, the exhibition was faked. "That is, it was merely a repetition of the same rounds run through slower or faster as the operator saw fit.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 17 September 1904, p. 8 JOSEPH MENCHEN CO. is now located at 354 W. 50th St. We will be pleased to show you our new four-story building, where you will find our Photographic, Chemistry, Electrical and Mechanical Departments, the most complete establishment of their kind, combined under one roof, occupying a floor space of 12,000 square feet.
We furnished all the electrical appliances for the St. Louis World's Fair, viz. "Under and Over the Sea", having thirty-eight stereopticons, sixty inches in diameter; also "Creation", "Hereafter", "Siberian Railway", and "The Haunted Castle". The "Johnstown Flood" at Coney Island, Atlantic City and Asbury Park — and all stereopticon effects in Luna Park.
We are patronized by all prominent managers, making big productions. Tel. 4577-4578 Columbus. P. S. - Our appliances are the only electrical appliances that are allowed used in the City of Chicago since the Iroquois fire. All are built in accordance with the National Board of Fire Underwriters' requirements. WHY TAKE CHANCES ON OTHERS? Protected by U. S., Canadian and Great Britain patents, Nos. 744.778, 1,576,103, 776,774, 776,775 and 242,003 British patent. We warn managers not to use mica or glass fronts covered by our patent.
- The Electric Theatre, 341 Walworth Road, was situated at the junction with 1 Liverpool Grove, London, SE17 2HW. 'Electric Theatres' were established in London by Joseph Jay Bamberger, a New York City stockbroker who had financed nickelodeon construction in that city through the Electric Theatre Company. The first two in London were in Shepherds Bush (capacity 415, opened Jan 1908) & at 341 Walworth Rd. (720 capacity, opened Feb 1908). McKernan 2006 The Shepherd's Bush venue was an existing business, and the Walworth Road address was previously the Congregational Sutherland Chapel. Source: Survey of London p. 102 Survey of London, p. 102
- Hoye's Directory of Kansas City, Missouri, 1881.
- Hoye's Directory of Kansas City, Missouri, 1894.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 16 November 1895, p. 22
- Grau 1910, pp. 155-156.
- Grau 1912, pp. xvi–xvii.
- Also find the other Grau book where he says it had been taken over by someone else.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 2 May 1896, p. 19.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 11 July 1896, p. 17 col. 2 "KEITH'S UNION SQUARE: Lumiere's Cinematographe created a decided sensation here last week. It was fully described in last week's MIRROR, and it is only necessary to add that the audiences were very enthusiastic over the new discovery."
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 29 August 1896, p. 17 col. 2
- The Proliferation of Motion Picture Companies and an Assessment of the Novelty Year - The Phantoscope and Other Projectors at encyclopedia.jrank.org
- New York Dramatic Mirror, Feb 6 1897, p. 20
- New York Dramatic Mirror 6 Feb 1897 p. 20 N.B. Was his Kineopticon his own design, or akin to Birt Acres' 1896 invention? The clue may be in the name, Menchen's was spelled with a 'k'.
- The Kiss on YouTube
- Police Patrol on YouTube.
- Musser 1991, p. 95.
- The First Sleigh-Ride on YouTube.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 14 Nov 1896, p. 17 "The Cinographoscope is a new moving picture machine which Mr. Pastor has just brought from Paris. It is shown this week for the first time."
- The Cinographoscope (in French) was a projector with a discontinuous movement, unlike the Kinetoscope. The film, projected at 15 frames/sec, but the image was still for 2/3 of the time, 2/45 sec - there may be some dodgy maths here. French review, August 1896. When did the kinetoscope return to Pastors?
- Mora, Helene (1894). Kathleen. New York: George Underhill.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 29 October 1898
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 20 January 1897, p. 20, col. 2
- The Chicago Tribune 1 Mar 1897, p. 5 registration needed
- The Olympic Theatre later became the Apollo Theatre (at CinemaTreasures.org)
- Mlle. Winifred, who was to have appeared, did not do so, owing to the fact that the electrician who is designing her new effects did not have his work finished in time. New York Dramatic Mirror, 9 Jan 1897, p.17, col. 2
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 2 Jan 1897, p. 17, col. 1
- TONY PASTOR'S.--Winifred, the pretty and graceful serpentine dancer, was one of the best features of a very good bill. She presented three dances, "Night," " Fire " and "The Lily." and all were rapturously applauded. The light effects were marvelously pretty especially in the fire dance, in which the performer seemed to be completely wrapped in lurid flames." New York NY Dramatic Mirror, 29 May 1897, p. 16?
- Menchen Catalogue 1906, pp. 48-49,52.
- Herbert, Stephen; McKernan, Luke. "Marie Louise Fuller,". Who's Who of Victorian Cinema.
- Streible 1997, p. 20.
- Menchen Catalogue 1906, pp. 10,12.
- In 1899 The New York Times printed a list of 50 names taken from advertisements in domestic and foreign papers, including the zoooptotrope, the phenakistoscope and the vitaletiscope. 'Topics of the Times', New York Times, 28 January 1898
- Frazier 2012, p. 36.
- Kamp, David (30 December 2008). "Whether True or False, a Real Stretch". New York Times.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 1 December 1900 "Used this season by Johnson & Dean, previously used by Weber & Fields. The LOBSTERSCOPE complete and right to use the same by the week or season, can be obtained by applying to WEBER & FIELDS, New York. Any one using The Lobsterscope, or an Imitation of the same, without permission, will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law."
- Gypsy Rose Lee 1999, p. 138.
- Lobsterscope at Limelight Productions Inc.
- New York Times, July 26, 1905.
- MPW 1912b, p. 908 Vol 12, No 10 8 June 1912
- arc lights make link to Menchen re films
- Menchen Catalogue 1906, p. 10.
- Streible 2008, pp. 98-102.
- Fielding 1967, p. 30Statement by Albert E. Smith in 1925.
- This seems to be a personal attack on Menchen.
- Fielding 1967, pp. 36,40.
- Musser 1991, p. 141.
- New York Dramatic Mirror 26 August 1899, p. 16
- Cullen 2007, p. 557.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 21 October 1899 p. 22, col 1
- "Stella" was probably not Stella Gilmore, also of Sam T. Jack's company (Mrs. Mary C. Weaver), died Hollywood, CA, 21 September 1950. Billboard, 7 October 1950, p. 26
- Gardiakos, Soterios. Pre 1900 American made projectors.
- The Princess Chic at IBDB
- Index to The Record and Guide, Vol. LXVIII, 28 September 1901, p. 389.
- Menchen 1906, p. 10.
- Krefft, Bryan. "International Theatre". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- Advertisement, New York Times July 26, 1905
- Menchen Catalogue 1906, p. 77.
- Luna Park promotional brochure
- Brandt 2003, p. xvii-xviii.
- New York Dramatic Mirror, 17 September 1904, p. 8
- Gaskins III, Lee E. "Under and Over the Sea". At the Fair: The 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Gaskins III, Lee E. "Creation". At the Fair: The 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Gaskins III, Lee E. "Hereafter". At the Fair: The 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Gaskins III, Lee E. "Great Siberian Railway". At the Fair: The 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Rides at the World's Fair
- [http://www.circushistory.org/Pdf/Billboard14May1904.pdf Billboard, Cinicinatti, 14 May 1904, p. 1
- New York Times 13 May 1904
- Record and Guide, 25 June 1904, p. 1639 col. 2.
- 354 W 50th St. later became Dalton's Garage, where one of the mechanics was Wilma K. Russey, who in 1915 became New York's first woman taxi driver.
- MIDI sound files for the entire show of Piff! Paff!! Pouff!!! at halhkmusic.com: playback requires MIDI-compatible sound card and a soundfont such as 8MbGMSFX.sf2 This soundfount can be loaded directly by media players such as VLC player.
- Girls Will Be Girls at IBDB. It ran for only nine performances, 27 August - 03 September 1904.
- Billboard, 18 February 1904, p. 8 col. 3
- Among his creditors were E. B. Latham & Co (sold electric fan motors and electrical supplies), and International Brass & Electric Company (who made induction, resistance and spark coils).
- Cahn 1906, p. 90.
- Advertisement in The Billboard, 2 March 1907, p. 41 "We have on hand the large Johnstown Flood which has been at Nantasket Beach for the past two seasons. Also a small Johnstown Flood which was at Kansas City last season, and one Mt. Vesuvius in Eruption."
- For example, see advertisement in The Billboard, 2 November 1907
- McKernan 2006.
- "Managers, Attention! - We take pleasure in announcing that a Branch office of our New York Works has been established at 341 Walworth Road SE London, and that we are prepared to build and install in Europe, on percentage basis or outright sale. Park Amusement. Joseph Menchen Electrical Company, 360 W 50th Street, NY. Joseph Menchen, sole European Agent, 341 Walworth Road. Telegrams, "menchen, London" Cablegrams "menchen London" or New York. Source: The Era Almanack 1909 p.31
- [http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/34583 Electric Theatre, Walworth Road. Cinema Treasures, where else?
- Arrivals at Ellis Island Do a cite web thang!!
- The Billboard, 10 September 1910.
- New York City directory, 1910 (free registration for access, automatic card billing after 7 days)
- The Billboard, 23 December 1911, p. 87 approx. Find PDF!!!
- The New York Times 9 May, 1912
- 'The Stage' Year Book 1913, pp. 293–294.
- The copyright of the play and the music remained with Bote & Bock. See Frohlich & Schwab 1918, p. 640
- Federal Reporter (F) Vol. 251 1918, pp. 258-260.
- The Cinema News and Property Gazette, Vol. 2, March 1913, p. 3
- Patrimoine en Seine-Saint-Denis: les studios et laboratoires L'Eclair, pp. 3-4 (in French).
- MPW 1913c, p. 1382 Vol 17, July-September 1913
- MPW 1914c, p. 52 Vol. 21, No. 1, 4 July 1914.
- MPW 1914d, p. 38 Vol 22 No. 1, 3 October 1914.
- Good external link
- Abel 1998, p. 17.
- Dreaded imdb emtry...
- List of approx. 75 films made by London Films Co Ltd between 1914-1917
- Société des Films Menchen v, Vitagraph Co. of America et al., 1918
- De Croisset et al. v. Vitagraph Co. of America et al. (Circuit Court of Appeals, Second Circuit. December 10, 1919.) No. 79. Summary: Two separate parties tried to sue a single third party for different reasons (copyright, & film rights) - case disallowed.The Federal Reporter with Key-Number Annotations, Volume 262. Cases Argued and Determined in the Circuit Courts of Appeals and District Courts of the United States and the Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia, March-April, 1920, pp. 100-102
- page 1, page 2 & page 3 Scuzzy OCR...
- Nicer, but not copyable.
- (Wid's Daily 1920a, p. 809) (24 April 1920, XII:24, p. 1
- Seven Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount - 1774 to Present
- In a letter from Charles W. Schweitzer, First Grand Vice-President, Grand Lodge, TMA, to The Billboard in 1910 (in which he carefully spells out some wrong names for the T. M. A.) explains the the T.M.A.'s purpose in building a retirement home in Mt Clemens, Michigan, and advertises the Association's next session in Wheeling, West Virginia in 1911. The Billboard, 2 April 1910, p. 15, cols. 1-2.)
- Token by Theatrical Mechanical Association Labor Union at tokencatalog.com, accessed 01-December-2012
- Obverse: T.M.A. .*. Lodge .*. No. 50
- Reverse: Good for 5ç in trade.
- Token by Theatrical Mechanical Association Labor Union at tokencatalog.com, accessed 01-December-2012
- "History of IATSE Local One". Local One - IATSE. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "History of Local One at 125". Local One IATSE. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- A Short History of Theatrical Stage Employes Local No.4, IATSE, accessed 01 December 2012
- Abel, Richard (1998). The Ciné Goes to Town: French Cinema, 1896-1914. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520079366.
- Brandt, Nat (2003). Chicago Death Trap: The Iroquois Theatre Fire of 1903. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-8093-2490-3.
- Cahn, Julius, ed. (1906). Julius Cahn's Official Theater Guide. New York.
- Cullen, Frank (2007). Vaudeville, Old and New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America, Volume 1. Routledge. ISBN 9780415938532.
- The Federal Reporter (F) 251. St. Paul. Minn.: West Publishing Company. October 1918.
- Frazier, Nancy (2012). I, Lobster: A Crustacean Odyssey. UPNE. ISBN 9781584659624.
- Fielding, Raymond, ed. (1967). A Technological History of Motion Pictures and Television: An Anthology from the Pages of the Journal of the SMPTE. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520004115.
- Grau, Robert (1910). The business man in the amusement world. New York: Broadway Publishing Co. pp. 155–156.
- Grau, Robert (1912). The stage in the twentieth century, Volume 3. New York: Broadway Publishing Co. pp. xvi–xvii.
- Gypsy Rose Lee; Preminger, Erik (1999 ). Gypsy: Memoirs of America's Most Celebrated Stripper. Frog Books. ISBN 9781883319953. Check date values in:
- Menchen, Joseph (1906). Improved electrical theatrical appliances: Catalogue no. 4. September 1 1906 (PDF). New York: Joseph Menchen Electrical Company. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- Miller, Stuart (2006). The 100 Greatest Days in New York Sports. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780618574803.
- "The Moving Picture World, April to June 1912" XII. New York: Chalmers Publishing. 1912b.
- "The Moving Picture World, July-September 1913" XVII. New York: Chalmers Publishing. 1913c.
- "The Moving Picture World, July-September 1914" XXI. New York: Chalmers Publishing. 1914c.
- "The Moving Picture World, October-December 1914" XXII. New York: Chalmers Publishing. 1914d.
- McKernan, Luke (2006). "Electric Theatres (1908) Ltd. and the early film exhibition business in London" (PDF). Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Musser, Charles J. (1991). Before the Nikelodeon: Edwin S. Porter and the Edison Manufacturing Company. The UCLA Film and Television Archives: Studies in History, Criticism, and Theory (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 9780520069862.
- Streible, Dan (1997). "Female spectators and the Corbett-Fitzsimmonds fight film". In Baker, Aaron; Boyd, Todd. Out of Bounds: Sports, Media, and the Politics of Identity. Indiana University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780253332288.
- Streible, Dan (2008). Fight Pictures: A History of Boxing and Early Cinema. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520250758.
- "Wid's Daily (Volume 11-12) Jan-Jun 1920". XI-XII. New York: Wid's Film and Film Folks Inc. 1920.
List of publications at the Digital Cinema Library
- Persondata thang
- Categories - Category: Vaudeville performers