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Ubuntu
Ubuntu logo
Ubuntu 9.10.png
Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala)
Developer Canonical Ltd. / Ubuntu Foundation
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Free and open source software
Initial release 20 October 2004
Latest release 9.10 / October 29, 2009; 4 years ago (2009-10-29)[1]
Available in Multilingual (more than 55)
Update method APT (front-ends available)
Package manager dpkg (front-ends like Synaptic available)
Platforms IA-32, x86-64, lpia, SPARC, PowerPC, ARM, IA-64
Kernel type Monolithic (Linux)
Userland GNU
Default user interface GNOME
License Mainly the GNU GPL / plus various other licenses
Official website www.ubuntu.com
Ubuntu 9.04 with New Wave theme

Ubuntu (pronounced /uːˈbuːntuː/ (deprecated template)),[2][3] is a computer operating system based on the Debian Linux distribution. It is named after the Southern African ethical ideology Ubuntu ("humanity towards others")[4] and is distributed as free and open source software. Ubuntu provides an up-to-date, stable operating system for the average user, with a strong focus on usability and ease of installation. Ubuntu has been selected by readers of desktoplinux.com as the most popular Linux distribution for the desktop, claiming approximately 30% of Linux desktop installations in both 2006 and 2007.[5][6]

Ubuntu is composed of multiple software packages of which the vast majority is distributed under a free software license (also known as open source). The main license used is the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL), explicitly declare that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software. Ubuntu is sponsored by the UK based company Canonical Ltd., owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. By keeping Ubuntu free and open source, Canonical is able to utilize the talents of community developers in Ubuntu's constituent components. Instead of selling Ubuntu for profit, Canonical creates revenue by selling technical support and from creating several services tied to Ubuntu.

Canonical endorses and provides support for three additional Ubuntu-derived operating systems: Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Ubuntu Server Edition. There are several other derivative operating systems including local language and hardware-specific versions.[7]

Canonical releases new versions of Ubuntu every six months and supports Ubuntu for eighteen months by providing security fixes, patches to critical bugs and minor updates to programs. LTS (Long Term Support) versions, which are released every two years,[8] are supported for three years on the desktop and five years for servers.[9] The current version of Ubuntu, 9.10 (Karmic Koala), was released on October 29, 2009.

History and development process[edit]

Ubuntu is a fork of the Debian project's code base.[10] The original aim was to release a new version of Ubuntu every six months, resulting in a more frequently updated system. Ubuntu's first release was on October 20, 2004.[11]

Ubuntu is released a month after GNOME releases.[12] In contrast to other forks of Debian which extensively use proprietary and closed source add-ons, Ubuntu uses primarily free (libre) software, making an exception only for some proprietary hardware drivers.[13]

Ubuntu packages are based on packages from Debian's unstable branch: both distributions use Debian's deb package format and package management tools (APT and Synaptic). Debian and Ubuntu packages are not necessarily binary compatible with each other, however, and sometimes .deb packages may need to be rebuilt from source to be used in Ubuntu.[14] Many Ubuntu developers are also maintainers of key packages within Debian. Ubuntu cooperates with Debian by pushing changes back to Debian,[15] although there has been criticism that this doesn't happen often enough. In the past, Ian Murdock, the founder of Debian, has expressed concern about Ubuntu packages potentially diverging too far from Debian Sarge to remain compatible. [16] Before release, packages are imported from Debian Unstable continuously and merged with Ubuntu-specific modifications. A month before release, imports are frozen, and packagers then work to ensure that the frozen features interoperate well together.

Ubuntu is currently funded by Canonical Ltd.. On July 8, 2005, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical Ltd. announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided an initial funding of US$10 million. The purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all future versions of Ubuntu. Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation as an "emergency fund" (in case Canonical's involvement ends).[17]

Ubuntu 8.04, released on April 24, 2008, is the current Long Term Support (LTS) release. Canonical releases LTS versions every two years, with Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx (release number subject to change) scheduled as the next LTS version in 2010.[18][19][20] The current regular release, Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala), was released on October 29, 2009.

On March 12, 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for 3rd party cloud management platforms, such as for those used at Amazon EC2.[21]

Features[edit]

Installing and removing software in Ubuntu in versions lower than 9.10 Karmic Koala

Ubuntu focuses on usability[22] and security. The Ubiquity installer allows Ubuntu to be installed to the hard disk from within the Live CD environment, without the need for restarting the computer prior to installation. Ubuntu also emphasizes accessibility and internationalization to reach as many people as possible. Beginning with 5.04, UTF-8 became the default character encoding,[23] which allows for support of a variety of non-Roman scripts. As a security feature, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, allowing the root account to remain locked, and preventing inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes.[24] PolicyKit is also being widely implemented into the desktop to further harden the system through the principle of least privilege.

Ubuntu comes installed with a wide range of software that includes OpenOffice, Firefox, Empathy (Pidgin in versions before 9.10), Transmission, GIMP, and several lightweight games (such as Sudoku and chess). Ubuntu allows networking ports to be closed using its firewall, with customized port selection available. (Note that the default firewall does not pass the Shields Up test; Ubuntu recommends installing Firestarter and testing it using Shields Up.[25]) GNOME (the current default desktop) offers support for more than 46 languages.[26] Ubuntu can also run many programs designed for Microsoft Windows (such as Microsoft Office), through Wine or using a Virtual Machine (such as VMware Workstation or VirtualBox).

Installation[edit]

Ubuntu 9.04 (live CD session)

Installation of Ubuntu is generally performed with the Live CD. The Ubuntu OS can be run directly from the CD (albeit with a significant performance loss), allowing a user to "test-drive" the OS for hardware compatibility and driver support. The CD also contains the Ubiquity installer,[27] which then can guide the user through the permanent installation process. CD images of all current and past versions are available for download at the Ubuntu web site. Installing from the CD requires a minimum of 256 MB RAM.

Users can download a disk image (.iso) of the CD, which can then either be written to a physical medium (CD. DVD), or optionally run directly from a hard drive (via UNetbootin). Ubuntu is even available on the PowerPC platform (enabling users of older Macintosh computers to run Ubuntu natively on their machines); however, it is no longer officially supported.

Canonical offers Ubuntu[28] and Kubuntu[29] installation CDs at no cost, including paid postage for destinations in most countries around the world (via a service called ShipIt).

A Microsoft Windows migration tool, called Migration Assistant (introduced in April 2007),[30] can be used to import bookmarks, desktop background (wallpaper), and various settings from an existing MS Windows installation into a new Ubuntu installation.[31]

Ubuntu and Kubuntu can be booted and run from a USB Flash drive[32] (as long as the BIOS supports booting from USB), with the option of saving settings to the flashdrive. This allows a portable installation that can be run on any PC which is capable of booting from a USB drive.[33] In newer versions of Ubuntu, the USB creator program is available to install Ubuntu on a USB drive (with or without a LiveCD disc).

Wubi, which is included as an option on the Live CD,[34] allows Ubuntu to be installed and run from within a virtual Windows loop device (as a large image file that is managed like any other Windows program via the Windows Control Panel). This method requires no partitioning of a Windows user's hard drive. Wubi also makes use of the Migration Assistant to import users' settings. It is only useful for Windows users; it is not meant for permanent Ubuntu installations and it also incurs a slight performance loss.

Remastering[edit]

Various programs (such as remastersys and Reconstructor) exist to produce customised remasters of the Ubuntu Live CD.

Package classification and support[edit]

Ubuntu divides all software into four domains to reflect differences in licensing and the degree of support available.[35] All unsupported applications receive updates from community members, but not from Canonical Ltd..

free software non-free software
supported Main Restricted
unsupported Universe Multiverse

Free software includes only software that has met the Ubuntu licensing requirements,[36] which roughly correspond to the Debian Free Software Guidelines. Exceptions, however, include firmware and fonts, in the Main category, because although they are not allowed to be modified, their distribution is otherwise unencumbered.[37]

Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are made for important non-free software. Supported non-free software includes device drivers that can be used to run Ubuntu on some current hardware, such as binary-only graphics card drivers. The level of support in the Restricted category is more limited than that of Main, because the developers may not have access to the source code. It is intended that Main and Restricted should contain all software needed for a general-use Linux system. Alternative programs for the same tasks and programs for specialized applications are placed in the Universe and Multiverse categories.

In addition to the above, in which the software does not receive new features after an initial release, Ubuntu Backports is an officially recognized project to backport newer software from later versions of Ubuntu.[38] The repository is not comprehensive; it consists primarily of user-requested packages, which are approved if they meet quality guidelines. Backports receives no support at all from Canonical, and is entirely community-maintained.

The -updates repository provides updates to stable releases of Ubuntu and are generally installed through update-manager. Each release is given its own -updates repository (e.g. intrepid-updates). The repository is supported by Canonical Ltd. for packages in main and restricted, and by the community for packages in universe and multiverse. All updates to the repository must meet certain requirements and go through the -proposed repository before being made available to the public.[39] Updates will continue to be available until the end of life for the release.

In addition to the -updates repository, the unstable -proposed repository contains uploads which must be confirmed before being copied into -updates. All updates must go through this process to ensure that the patch does truly fix the bug and there is no risk of regression.[40] Updates in -proposed are confirmed by either Canonical or members of the community.

Availability of third-party software[edit]

See also: Medibuntu and Getdeb

Ubuntu has a certification system for third party software.[41] Some third-party software that does not limit distribution is included in Ubuntu's multiverse component. The package ubuntu-restricted-extras additionally contains software that may be legally restricted, including support for MP3 and DVD playback, Microsoft TrueType core fonts, Sun's Java runtime environment, Adobe's Flash Player plugin, many common audio/video codecs, and unrar, an unarchiver for files compressed in the RAR file format.

Additionally, several third party application suites are available for purchase through the Canonical web-based store, including software for DVD playback and media codecs.

Releases[edit]

Version Code name Release date
4.10 Warty Warthog 2004-10-20
5.04 Hoary Hedgehog 2005-04-08
5.10 Breezy Badger 2005-10-13
6.06 LTS Dapper Drake 2006-06-01
6.10 Edgy Eft 2006-10-26
7.04 Feisty Fawn 2007-04-19
7.10 Gutsy Gibbon 2007-10-18
8.04 LTS Hardy Heron 2008-04-24
8.10 Intrepid Ibex 2008-10-30
9.04 Jaunty Jackalope 2009-04-23[42]
9.10 Karmic Koala[43] 2009-10-29[44]
10.04 LTS Lucid Lynx[45] 2010-04-29[46]

There are two Ubuntu releases per year, using the year and month of the release as the version number. The first Ubuntu release, for example, was Ubuntu 4.10 and was released on October 20, 2004.[47] Version numbers for future versions are provisional; if the release is delayed the version number changes accordingly.

Ubuntu releases are also given code names, using an adjective and an animal with the same first letter (e.g., "Dapper Drake" and "Intrepid Ibex"). With the exception of the first three releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer. Commonly, Ubuntu releases are referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name.[48]

Releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases (which in turn are about one month after releases of X.org). Consequently, every Ubuntu release comes with a newer version of both GNOME and X. Selected releases (such as 6.06 Dapper Drake and 8.04 Hardy Heron) have been labeled as Long Term Support (LTS) versions, to indicate that they will be supported (with updates) for three years on the desktop and five years on the server,[49] compared to the 18-month support period for non-LTS releases.[50]

The current release is 9.10 Karmic Koala,[51] released on October 29, 2009. Some users have reported hardware-recognition and functionality issues on upgrading to this version from previous versions of Ubuntu.[52]

Variants[edit]

Kubuntu is an official variant of the Ubuntu distribution which uses KDE rather than GNOME

Several official and unofficial Ubuntu variants exist. These Ubuntu variants install a set of packages that differ from the original Ubuntu distribution.

Official variants store packages and updates in the same repositories as Ubuntu, so that the same software is available for each of them and is generally compatible between the official variants. The Ubuntu derivatives that are fully supported by Canonical are[7]

The following are Canonical-sponsored derivatives:

There are also many unofficial variants, unsponsored derivatives, and other localizations and customizations not controlled or guided by Canonical Ltd., which are generally fork customizations that have been created for specific goals.

System requirements[edit]

The desktop version of Ubuntu currently supports the Intel x86, AMD64, and ARM[59] architectures. Some server releases also support the SPARC architecture[60][61] Unofficial support is available for the PowerPC,[62] IA-64 (Itanium) and PlayStation 3 architectures.

Desktop & Laptop[63] Server[63]
Required Recommended
Processor 300 MHz (x86) 700 MHz (x86) 300 MHz (x86)
Memory 256 MB 384 MB* 64 MB
Hard drive capacity 4 GB[64] 8 GB[64] 500 MB
Video card VGA @ 640×480 VGA @ 1024×768 VGA @ 640×480

* With compositing effects enabled

Development[edit]

UDS Karmic Group Photo

The Ubuntu Developer Summit is a gathering of software developers which occurs prior to the release of a new public version of Ubuntu.

At the beginning of a new development cycle, Ubuntu developers from around the world gather to help shape and scope the next release of Ubuntu. The summit is open to the public, but it is not a conference, exhibition or other audience-oriented event. Rather, it is an opportunity for Ubuntu developers, who usually collaborate online, to work together in person on specific tasks.

Reception[edit]

In an August 2007 survey of 38,500 visitors on DesktopLinux.com, Ubuntu was the most popular distribution with 30.3% of respondents claiming to use it.[6]

In January 2009 the New York Times reported that Ubuntu had over ten million users and in June 2009 ZDNet reported "Worldwide, there are 13 million active Ubuntu users with use growing faster than any other distribution."[65][66]

Ubuntu was awarded the Reader Award for best Linux distribution at the 2005 LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in London,[67] has been favorably reviewed in online and print publications,[68][69][70] and has won InfoWorld's 2007 Bossie Award for Best Open Source Client OS.[71]

Jamie Hyneman, co-host of the television series Mythbusters, has advocated Linux, specifically giving the example of Ubuntu, as an alternative to proprietary software, citing software bloat as a major hurdle in proprietary operating systems.[72][73]

Ubuntu has also received negative assessments. In early 2008 PC World criticized the lack of an integrated desktop effects manager, although this did not prevent them from naming Ubuntu the "best all-around Linux distribution available today".[74]

The Ministry of Education and Science of Macedonia deployed more than 180,000 Ubuntu Linux based classroom desktops, and has encouraged every student in the country to use Ubuntu-powered computer workstations.[75]

The French police is in the process of installing Ubuntu on 90,000 workstations, demonstrating a 70 % saving on the IT budget without having to reduce its capabilities [76].

Vendor support[edit]

A number of vendors offer computers with Ubuntu pre-installed, including Dell,[77] Tesco,[78] OP3, Gliese IT, System76,[79] and the South African company, Bravium Computers.[80] Dell and System76 customers are able to choose between 30-day, three-month, and yearly Ubuntu support plans through Canonical.[81] Dell computers (running Ubuntu 8.04) include extra support for ATI Video Graphics, Dell Wireless, Fingerprint Readers, HDMI, Bluetooth, DVD Playback (using LinDVD), and MP3/WMA/WMV.[82]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ubuntu 9.10 Desktop Edition puts the user at the heart of its new design
  2. ^ YouTube - The Ubuntu Experience (Nelson Mandela Interview)
  3. ^ Frequently Asked Questions | Ubuntu
  4. ^ Ubuntu Documentation: About the Name
  5. ^ "2006 [[Desktop Linux]] Market survey". 2006-08-29. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
  6. ^ a b "2007 [[Desktop Linux]] Market survey". 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
  7. ^ a b "Derivatives". Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  8. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark. "» Blog Archive » The Art of Release". Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  9. ^ "Ubuntu 8.04 LTS Desktop Edition Released". www.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  10. ^ "ubuntu/history "The Ubuntu Story"". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  11. ^ "Time Based Releases". Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  12. ^ "Releases". Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  13. ^ "Our Philosophy". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2008-08-19. "Currently, we make a specific exception for some "drivers" which are only available in binary form [..]"  Text "publis" ignored (help)
  14. ^ "Mark Shuttleworth on binary compatibility". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  15. ^ "ubuntu/relationship "Website does not reference Debian visibly"". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  16. ^ "Ubuntu vs. Debian, reprise". 2005-04-20. Retrieved 2007-10-21. 
  17. ^ Hill, Benjamin Mako (2005-07-08). "Announcing Launch of ($10 m) Ubuntu Foundation". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  18. ^ Manchester, Phil (2008-05-13). "Next Ubuntu LTS in 2010, unless Linuxes synchronize". The Register. Retrieved 2008-06-03. "He [Shuttleworth] also pledged to deliver the next Long Term Support (LTS) release of Ubuntu, version 10.4, in April 2010[...]."  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  19. ^ Voicu, Daniel (2008-05-19). "Mark Shuttleworth Wants Synchronicity between Linux Distributions - Collaboration between major distros would bring a lot of benefits". Softpedia. Retrieved 2008-06-03. "Shuttleworth wrote that the next LTS release, Ubuntu 10.4 LTS, would be launched in April 2010[...]."  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  20. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark (2008-05-12). "The Art of Release". here be dragons. Retrieved 2008-06-03. "As a result, we can commit that the next LTS release of Ubuntu will be 10.04 LTS, in April 2010."  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  21. ^ "RightScale Adds Full Support for Ubuntu Server to its Cloud Managment Platform". Canonical. 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  22. ^ "About Ubuntu". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2006-04-25. 
  23. ^ "5.04 Release Notes". Canonical Ltd. 2005-04-08. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  24. ^ "RootSudo". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  25. ^ https://help.ubuntu.com/8.04/keeping-safe/C/firewall.html
  26. ^ "GNOME 2.22 Release Notes - Internationalization". GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  27. ^ "Installing Ubuntu from the Live CD". Integrity Enterprises. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  28. ^ "Requesting an Ubuntu CD". Retrieved 2009-04-17. "a CD of the latest version (9.10 (Karmic Koala)) with no extra cost, but delivery may take up to ten weeks" 
  29. ^ "Requesting CDs from ShipIt". Retrieved 2009-04-17. "pre-order CDs of Kubuntu 9.10 (Jaunty Jackalope)" 
  30. ^ "Ubuntu 7.04 Adds a Migration Tool". Integrity Enterprises. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  31. ^ "Migration Assistant in Launchpad". Launchpad.net. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  32. ^ "How to Install Ubuntu Linux without Optical Drive". Extra Reading Material. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  33. ^ "Ubuntu 8.10 Persistent Flash Drive Installation". Pendrivelinux.com. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  34. ^ "Wubi - Ubuntu Installer for Windows". Sourceforge. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  35. ^ "ubuntu/components". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  36. ^ "ubuntu/licensing". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  37. ^ "ubuntu/components". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  38. ^ "UbuntuBackports". UbuntuForums. Retrieved 2006-03-16. 
  39. ^ "StableReleaseUpdates". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  40. ^ "SRU Verification". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  41. ^ "partners/certification/software". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2006-03-16. 
  42. ^ "Jaunty Release Schedule". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  43. ^ https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-devel-announce/2009-February/000536.html
  44. ^ "Karmic Release Schedule". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 
  45. ^ http://ostatic.com/blog/ubuntu-version-9-10-code-named-lucid-lynx
  46. ^ https://wiki.ubuntu.com/LucidReleaseSchedule
  47. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark (2004-10-20). "Ubuntu 4.10 announcement". ubuntu-announce mailing list. https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2004-October/000003.html. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
  48. ^ "DevelopmentCodeNames - Ubuntu Wiki". Wiki.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2008-10-19. 
  49. ^ Zimmerman, Matt. "Announcing Beta release of Ubuntu 6.06 LTS". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  50. ^ "LTS - Ubuntu Wiki". 
  51. ^ "Ubuntu 9.10 Review". linuxcritic.com. Retrieved 2009-10-30. 
  52. ^ Gavin Clarke (2009-11-03). "Early adopters bloodied by Ubuntu's Karmic Koala". Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  53. ^ "Edubuntu - Frequently asked questions". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  54. ^ "Ubuntu JeOS 7.10 released". Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  55. ^ Krishnamurti, Srinivas. "Get Juiced!". Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  56. ^ "Ubuntu Mobile". Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  57. ^ "Ubuntu to announce its mobile Linux in June". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  58. ^ "Ubuntu Netbook Remix". Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  59. ^ "Jaunty Jackalope ARM'd and ready". 2009-04-20. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  60. ^ "Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)". Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  61. ^ "Ubuntu to Support Sun 'Niagara' Platform". 
  62. ^ "Technical Board Decision - February 2007". Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  63. ^ a b "Ubuntu System Requirements". Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  64. ^ a b "Ubuntu Desktop Edition". Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  65. ^ Vance, Ashlee (January 2009). "A Software Populist Who Doesn’t Do Windows". Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  66. ^ Dawson, Christopher (June 2009). "Ubuntu a minor player? Not outside the States". Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  67. ^ "LinuxWorld Expo UK 2005" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  68. ^ "Ubuntu - A New Approach to Desktop Linux". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  69. ^ "Linux in Government: Linux Desktop Reviews, Part 6 - Ubuntu". Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  70. ^ McAllister, Neil (January 2008), "Gutsy Gibbon: Desktop Linux OS Made Easy", PC World 26 (1): 84, retrieved 2008-08-19 
  71. ^ "Best of open source in platforms and middleware". Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  72. ^ "MythBuster Advocates Linux". Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  73. ^ "MythBusters: 7 Tech Headaches—and How to Fix Them". Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  74. ^ Strohmeyer, Robert (2008-06-02). "Desktop Linux Face-Off: Ubuntu 8.04 vs. Fedora 9". PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help);
  75. ^ Every Student in the Republic of Macedonia to Use Ubuntu-Powered Computer Workstations | Ubuntu
  76. ^ "French police: we saved millions of euros by adopting Ubuntu". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  77. ^ "Ubuntu on Dell". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  78. ^ "Tesco Shipping Desktops with Ubuntu - eSys ePC". Tesco. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  79. ^ "Ubuntu Customers". Dell, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  80. ^ "Ubuntu Computers". Bravium Computers. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  81. ^ "System76 announces servers with Ubuntu 7.10 and Canonical support services". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  82. ^ "Your Blog » Blog Archive » Dell Upgrades Consumer Linux PCs to Ubuntu 8.04". Dell.com. Retrieved 2008-09-13. 

Literature[edit]

  • Thomas Keir. Beginning Ubuntu Linux: From Novice to Professional. p. 608. ISBN 1590596277. 
  • Rickford Grant. Ubuntu Linux for Non-Geeks. p. 464. ISBN 1593271182. 
  • Benjamin Mako Hill, Jono Bacon, Corey Burger, Jonathan Jesse, Ivan Krstic. The Official Ubuntu Book. p. 320. ISBN 0132435942. 
  • Jonathan Oxer, Kyle Rankin, Bill Childers. Ubuntu Hacks : Tips & Tools for Exploring, Using, and Tuning Linux. p. 447. ISBN 0596527209. 
  • Andrew Hudson, Paul Hudson. Ubuntu Unleashed. p. 800. ISBN 0672329093. 
  • William von Hagen. Ubuntu Linux Bible. p. 744. ISBN 0470038993. 
  • Moving to Ubuntu Linux. p. 464. ISBN 032142722X. 

External links[edit]


[[Category:2004 software]] [[Category:Ubuntu (operating system) derivatives]] [[Category:Debian-based distributions]] [[Category:Live CD]] [[Category:X86-64 Linux distributions]] [[Category:PowerPC operating systems]] [[Category:Launchpad consumers]] [[Category:Launchpad projects]]