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Open courseware 2[edit]



Books + H/W:



ICs 1:

ICs 2:


  • L7805CV, 1.5A 5V Positive Voltage Regulator

Maths (Monday)[edit]

Some elementary algebra or arithmetic:

  • The following important properties of the square root functions are valid for all positive real numbers x and y:
\sqrt{xy} = \sqrt x \sqrt y \qquad \Rightarrow \qquad \sqrt{100\cdot y} \, = \, 10 \cdot \sqrt y
\sqrt{\frac{x}{y}} = \frac{\sqrt{x}}{\sqrt{y}} \qquad \Rightarrow \qquad \sqrt{\frac{x}{100}} = \frac{\sqrt{x}}{10}
\sqrt x = x^{1/2}


\sqrt x - \sqrt y = \frac{x-y}{\sqrt x + \sqrt y},

When n, m, and n - m are positive (and if x is not equal to zero), one can see by counting the number of occurrences of x that

 \frac{x^n}{x^m} = x^{n - m}.

Negative integer exponents:

a^{-1} = \frac{1}{a}
3^{-4} = \frac{1}{3^{4}}.

The most important identity satisfied by integer exponentiation is:

 a^{m + n} = a^m \cdot a^n

This identity has the following consequences:

a^{m - n}& = \begin{matrix}\frac{a^m}{a^n}\end{matrix};\\
(a^m)^n& = a^{mn};\\
a^\frac{m}{n}& = \sqrt[n]{a^m}.\,

Domain and range: y = f(x)

  • Domain, range
  • Domain: all x's (dependent var)
  • Range: all y (codomain, all corresponding values for each x in the domain)




Automation (Tue)[edit]

Automation, Programmable logic controller

Omron Sysmac SYSMAC LINK C-20 (C-Series):

  • C-Series manual
  • Words: 16 bit
  • We use: Output: 01, 03, 05, 07, 09. Input: 00, 02, 04, 06, 08. (to make it clear for ourselves)
0000 LD  0007 (word 00, bit 07)
0001 OR  0009 
0002 OUT 0503


  • Word/Bit Addresses: (6-4-1, p103): 2 bytes: address of word or flag. 1 byte: bit between 00-0F (0-15). 00 for word or flag data.... address of area + offset in BCD & bit ....
  • Data areas p33, also Memory Area Designations p88
  • Internal Relay (IR)
    • Words: 000 to 235. Bits: 00000 to 23515
    • Words: 00 to 18 (bits 00 to 07).
    • Used to control I/O points, other bits, timers, and counters, and to temporarily store data.
  • Special Relay (SR)
    • Words: 236 to 255. Bits: 23600 to 25507
    • Words: 18 (bits 08 to 15) and 19 (bits 00 to 07)
    • Contains system clocks, flags, control bits, and status information.
  • Auxiliary Relay (AR)
    • Words: AR 00 to AR 27. Bits: AR 00 to AR 2715
    • Contains flags and bits for special functions. Retains status during power failure.
  • Data Memory DM Read/write: DM 0000 to DM 0999
    • Read only: DM 1000 to DM 1999
    • Used for internal data storage and manipulation.
  • Holding Relay HR
    • Words: HR 00 to HR 99. Bits: HR 0000 to HR 9915
    • Words: HR0 to HR 9, bits: HR00 to HR915
    • Used to store data and to retain the data values when the power to the PC is turned off.
  • Timer/Counter (TC)
    • TC 000 to TC 511 (TC numbers used to access other information)
    • TC 00 to TC99
    • Used to define timers and counters, and to access completion flags, PV, and SV. In general, when used as a bit operand, a TC number accesses the completion flag for the timer or counter defined using the TC number. When used as a word operand, the TC number accesses the present value of the timer or counter.
  • Link Relay (LR)
    • Words: LR 00 to LR 63 Bits: LR 0000 to 6315
    • Available for use as work bits.
  • Temporary Relay (TR)
    • TR 00 to TR 07 (bits only)
    • TR00 to TR07 (bits only)
    • Used to temporarily store and retrieve execution conditions. These bits can only be used in the Load and Output instructions. Storing and retrieving execution conditions is necessary when programming certain types of branching ladder diagrams.
  • Program Memory (UM)
    • UM: Depends on Memory Unit used.
    • UM:1199 words
    • Contains the program executed by the CPU.

Standard instructions 3-1 p25:

  • AND, AND LD, AND NOT, CNT (counter), LD (load), LD NOT, OR, OR LD, OR NOT, OUT, TIM (timer), NOP, END, IL (interlock), ILC (IL clear), JMP, ..., SFT (shift register), KEEP, DIFU (differentiate up), DIFD, TIMH (high-speed timer), CMP (compare), MOV, MVN (move not), ADD (bcd add), SUB (bcd sub), STC (set carry), CLC (clear carry).

OR, AND (0001+0003).0002

Digital principles (Wed)[edit]



Types of energy (one way of grouping):

Circuit theory (Thurs morn)[edit]

Circuit theory

Electronic concepts (Thurs arvo)[edit]

  • 3 labs
  • 1 project (similar to lab 3): build circuit, report
  • 2 tests


Cathode ray oscilloscope (vs LCD oscilloscope)



Op-amp symbol
Pin assignment (Dual in-line package)


Applied electricity[edit]

Applied electricity

Electricity's parameters:




Fundamental sources of energy:

an electric current is an "orderly" movement (flow) of electrons.




Open courseware 1[edit]

open courseware