Open courseware 2
- The Fourier Transforms and Its Applications by Stanford University
- Next: Lecture 6
- F. Transform = non-periodic. Series = peroidic
- repeating in time = frequency, in space = period. (come together in wave motion)
- freq=nu (v)
- wavelength=lambda (λ)
- velocity (V) = nu*lambda,
- periodization of a signal (signal periodization), fixed period
- period 1: f(t+1) = f(t). sin(2pi t)
- one period, many frequencies
- Equations: Turn trigonometric sum (sines and cosines) into complex exponentials: Euler's_formula#Relationship_to_trigonometry
- Equations: Fourier Transform#Definition
- Pointwise convergence, Uniform convergence, Convergence in the mean (Convergence of random variables#Convergence_in_mean, or convergence in energy (engineering), or mean square convergence), least squares approximation
- Jump discontinuity - converges to average (middle of jump)
- Hilbert space
- Rayleigh's identity
- Heat equation, Diffusion equation
Books + H/W:
- Digital Fundamentals 9th Ed, Floyd (Digital fundy, wed)
- Circuit Analysis: Theory And Practice & Circuit Analysis With Devices: Theory And Practice by Allan H. Robbins (Author), Wilhelm C. Miller (Author)
- 5 fuses for multimeter
- Battery assignment: 3 types of batteries, define primary cell, secondary cell. Possibly explore: deep cycle, discharge problems...
- MM74HC02N (NOR) spec IC 74HC02
- SN74HC00N (NAND) spec IC 74HC00
- MC74HC86AN (XOR) spec IC 74HC86
- MM74HC32 (OR) spec IC 74HC32
- M74HC08B1R (AND) spec IC 74HC08
- L7805CV, 1.5A 5V Positive Voltage Regulator
- Linear equation - power of one, straight line
- the quadratic equation: ax² + bx + c
- Trivial (mathematics). trivial solution, nontrivial solution (e.g. y = 0)
- binomial formula ?
- Domain and range
- equations of lines
- minimum (or max) of a quadratic eq.
- graph of linear, quadratic, polyhedral, rational function
- f(x): f of x
- The following important properties of the square root functions are valid for all positive real numbers and :
When n, m, and n - m are positive (and if x is not equal to zero), one can see by counting the number of occurrences of x that
Negative integer exponents:
The most important identity satisfied by integer exponentiation is:
This identity has the following consequences:
Domain and range: y = f(x)
- Domain, range
- Domain: all x's (dependent var)
- Range: all y (codomain, all corresponding values for each x in the domain)
- changing base: logbN = logaN × logba
- exponential function
- logarithmic function
- degrees <-> radians:
- a° = aπ/180
- a°180/π = a (i think?)
- distributive law: (1 + X)² = (1 + X) + X(1 + X)
- Difference of squares, Difference of cubes
- IEC 61131-3 (IEC61131 Common Elements)
- Ladder logic cheat sheet
- Instruction list
(to read... and this maybe)read me
- Fluid power symbol(s)
- Graphics Symbols for Electrical and Electronics Diagrams (IEEE. 264 pages)
- C-Series manual
- Words: 16 bit
- We use: Output: 01, 03, 05, 07, 09. Input: 00, 02, 04, 06, 08. (to make it clear for ourselves)
0000 LD 0007 (word 00, bit 07) 0001 OR 0009 0002 OUT 0503
- Word/Bit Addresses: (6-4-1, p103): 2 bytes: address of word or flag. 1 byte: bit between 00-0F (0-15). 00 for word or flag data.... address of area + offset in BCD & bit ....
- Data areas p33, also Memory Area Designations p88
- Internal Relay (IR)
Words: 000 to 235. Bits: 00000 to 23515
- Words: 00 to 18 (bits 00 to 07).
- Used to control I/O points, other bits, timers, and counters, and to temporarily store data.
- Special Relay (SR)
Words: 236 to 255. Bits: 23600 to 25507
- Words: 18 (bits 08 to 15) and 19 (bits 00 to 07)
- Contains system clocks, flags, control bits, and status information.
- Auxiliary Relay (AR)
Words: AR 00 to AR 27. Bits: AR 00 to AR 2715
- Contains flags and bits for special functions. Retains status during power failure.
- Data Memory DM Read/write: DM 0000 to DM 0999
- Read only: DM 1000 to DM 1999
- Used for internal data storage and manipulation.
- Holding Relay HR
Words: HR 00 to HR 99. Bits: HR 0000 to HR 9915
- Words: HR0 to HR 9, bits: HR00 to HR915
- Used to store data and to retain the data values when the power to the PC is turned off.
- Timer/Counter (TC)
TC 000 to TC 511 (TC numbers used to access other information)
- TC 00 to TC99
- Used to define timers and counters, and to access completion flags, PV, and SV. In general, when used as a bit operand, a TC number accesses the completion flag for the timer or counter defined using the TC number. When used as a word operand, the TC number accesses the present value of the timer or counter.
Link Relay (LR) Words: LR 00 to LR 63 Bits: LR 0000 to 6315
- Available for use as work bits.
- Temporary Relay (TR)
TR 00 to TR 07 (bits only)
- TR00 to TR07 (bits only)
- Used to temporarily store and retrieve execution conditions. These bits can only be used in the Load and Output instructions. Storing and retrieving execution conditions is necessary when programming certain types of branching ladder diagrams.
- Program Memory (UM)
UM: Depends on Memory Unit used.
- UM:1199 words
- Contains the program executed by the CPU.
Standard instructions 3-1 p25:
- AND, AND LD, AND NOT, CNT (counter), LD (load), LD NOT, OR, OR LD, OR NOT, OUT, TIM (timer), NOP, END, IL (interlock), ILC (IL clear),
JMP, ..., SFT (shift register), KEEP, DIFU (differentiate up), DIFD, TIMH (high-speed timer), CMP (compare), MOV, MVN (move not), ADD (bcd add), SUB (bcd sub), STC (set carry), CLC (clear carry).
OR, AND (0001+0003).0002
- DeMorgan's Theorum
- NPN - PNP switch. (PNP default) Bipolar_junction_transistor#NPN
- CLR MON CLR
- CLR CLR CLR SET NOT RESET MON CLR
- Fluid power actuator, Actuator, Hydraulics, Solenoid valve, Solenoid
- Pneumatic circuit, Pneumatic, Fluidics, Hydraulic circuit
- Pneumatic circuit diagram, Hydraulic circuit diagram 
Digital principles (Wed)
- duty cycle, rise time, pulse width, (Pulse-width modulation?)
- diagnose faults
- Angle cutters
- Long nose pliers
- Digital logic probe
- Boolean algebra: Postulate, Theorem, Binary addition, Binary multiplication
- Ovality principle or Quality principle
- cyclical vs finite resource(s)
- Australia: 90% fossil fuel (but may not count some renewables like lighting and heat)
- Trucks on LPG?
- Natural gas / LPG - minimal refining process. Engine runs hotter.
- Electric jugs take too long to switch off.
- Clipblock PVs (Solar roofs, solar shingle, Building-integrated photovoltaic)
- Simple payback period
- Discount rate
- Invert tariff
- rebate / incentive
- Remote Area Power Supply Systems (RAPSS)
- Silicon wafer
- Some chemicals: Silane, phosphine, boron, HCl, Hydrofluride acid (HF),
- deionized water
- Howard carbon policy
- ASIC, CMOS
- Clean room (class 100)
- evacuated tube
- solar hot water
- electricity tariff equalisation legislation (QLD) subsidising grid extensions & diesel
Types of energy (one way of grouping):
- Mechanical energy - kinetic (flywheel) or potential (spring)
- Electrical energy - stored in capacitor or condenser
- Electromagnetic energy - transitional
- Chemical energy - fossil, battery, wood stove
- Nuclear energy
- Thermal energy - heat
- Air Mass Air Mass Zero AM0
- Stirling engine
- Carnot cycle
- Boyle's law (fridges)
- Passive thermal (aircon)
- Gas stove, Wood stove
- PMOS (impurities migrate away from junctions. Leave on to fix impurity problems)
- NMOS (impurities migrate to junctions.)
- CMOS - mix of PMOS, NMOS
- eppley pyranometer
- Electus  (outlet watt meter?)
- Report: kWH, MJ, (Big macs?), vaccuum
- Car battery: 120Ah, 12V, but max use is 12Ah. Inverter -> 240V (maybe 85% efficient?)
- George Harrison (Invented compressor fridge?)
- Gas fridge
- Fridge efficiency improvements: clean back, change seal
- Electrical ballast (lighting)
- Halogen lamp = Incandescent light bulb (Luminous efficacy)
- Wheatstone bridge
- Capacitor: Phase difference (90° between V and I in capacitor)
- inductance (coils)
- Cannot remove from a circuit: inductance, capacitance, resistance.
- Insolation (= irradiation ?) eg MJ/m² (vs Isolation or Insulation)
- Irradiance = W/m²
- Concentrating system (only works without clouds, which diffuse the light)
- Airmass, Air mass = 1/sin(θ[sun angle from ground])) [method 1] = sqrt(1+(shadow / height)²). Assumes earth is flat.
- Earth circumference, Nautical mile, millimeter vs inch
- Valves in solar hot water: Diverter valve, check valve (one way valve), Break valve, restrictor valve, dump valve
- absorber plate (contains pipes of channels for the fluid to be heated). Tube and fin or Sandwich construction.
- selective surface (high "absorbtance", low emittance)
- continuous booster element, continuous booster, booster element
- Renewable energy certificates (Australia)
- Clerestory window (Clerestory)
- reflective foil laminate (rfl)
- R value, R rating (thermal resistance) R up, R down
- Solar air based space heating system, Pebble bed storage, Rock bed storage (active, air based system). fans and dampers.
- Rankine cycle air-conditioning
- Absorption cycle air-conditioning (lithium bromide absorption chiller s)
- Maximum power point tracker (MPPT), Maximum power point
- I/V curve for Photovoltaics : Emission coefficient, Diode modelling, Boltzmann constant, Diode#Shockley_diode_equation, Emission coefficient
Circuit theory (Thurs morn)
- Resistor color codes
- Ohm's law V=IR
- Kirchoff's voltage law
- fuse, blown fuse (∞ Ω) milky white (good blown fuse)
- HD soldering, surface mount, unserviceable
- large resistors are wire wound
- preferred value(s) for resistors.
- series circuit
- open circuit vs short circuit
- o/c when fail: resistor
- s/c when fail: capacitor, semiconductor
- with respect to (wrt) .. for voltages
- emf = electromotive force
- electron flow (- to +) useful for CRTs and electron guns
- conventional current flow
- voltage divider rule
- continuity meter (flow meter?), mega?
- On a series circuit: voltage and resistance increase and decrease together. (V=IR, but I is the same.)
- on a series circuit, V and R increase or descrease together. V=
- Voltage divider rule
- sum of voltage drops = supply (simplification of Kirchoff V.law)
- Series circuit: PT = P1 + P2 + P3 + ... The power consumed is equal to the sum of the individual values of power dissipated.
- Cigarette 3-5W disapated (per cm³?)
- capacitance, capacitors
- electrostatic charge vs electromagnetic charge
- Unit of charge: 1 coulomb = 6.24×1018 (how do you measure columbs?)
- Unit of capacitance: 1 farad. Q = CV (charge = capacitance × voltage)
- dielectric material: relative permittivity or dielectric constant or εr ?
- stray capacitance (between electrical wires, problem at higher freq.)
- inductance (later)
- TV ribbon
- Tau = C x R. Capacitance (F, Farads) x Resistance (Ohms)
- CR circuit
- 5 tau = fully charged.
- 1-e^(1-x) and e^(1-x)
- Tau 1 = VC = 0.6321205588...
- tantalum capacitors
- VC = VS(1 - e^(t/CR)). CR = Tau.
- ε = e = ln = natural log
Electronic concepts (Thurs arvo)
- 3 labs
- 1 project (similar to lab 3): build circuit, report
- 2 tests
- Voltage level
- Peak, Peak to peak, period or cycle
- Rectified average or rectified value = average of absolute values
- rms, Root Mean Square
- Form factor (electronics)
- Sine wave
- effective value & RMS
- Half cycle
- DC level (when wave is symmetric)
- Dual beam oscilloscope
- Attenuator + preamplifier
- Vertical amplifier
- Delay line
- Timebase generator
- Horizontal amplifier
- Decibel = 10 log10 Po/Pi
- Gain, frequency response
- dBm indicates that the reference quantity is one milliwatt
- Operational amplifier is a high gain differential amplifier
- high input impedance (~∞ Ω between input pins 2, 3)
- low output impedance (0 Ω for pin 6 to ground (pin4?) )
- LM741, µA741
- 741 Datasheet: e.g. see power supply
- Voltage follower, Unity follower
- Isolation circuit
- Summing amplifier
- practical op-amp
- offset voltage
- phase angle, angular velocity
- Sources of electricity (electricity generation, #Methods of generating electricity)
- ATRA conference?
- 3 conductor (platinum, silver, gold, copper, aluminium): is made of atoms which contain 3 or less valence electrons (loosly bonded).
- 5 insulator (wood, rubber, plastic, glass, ceramic, air
- 4 semiconductor: carbon, selenium, silicon, germanium
- Voltage. = pressure. doesn't have to be flowing.
- Current = flow, measured in amps
- Resistance, (crimp, restriction, opposition)
- CCA rating for car batteries, Cold Cranking Amps (e.g. 200A, 380A or 600A)
- Sump (oil sinks to bottom of sump)
- ignition coil (=spark coil) uses current. (see also induction coil)
- Aluminium battery (Aluminium air battery)
- Lithium-ion battery
- NiMH (Nickel metal hydride battery)
- Carbon-zinc battery 1.5 V typically
- Nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd)
- Super battery
- Lead acid battery
- Gel cell (Gel battery)
- Coconut battery
- Potential Difference (PD), V different from Hydrogen
- electrochemical series
- Standard electrode potential (data page)
- Alternator (14V), Car battery (12V)
- Electron theory, conventional theory.. anode, cathode
- Doping (semiconductor)
- N-type semiconductor doped with insulator ("negatively charged")
- P-type semiconductor doped with conductor (+)
- NP creates a diode
- semiconductor, diode, transistor
Fundamental sources of energy:
an electric current is an "orderly" movement (flow) of electrons.
- voltage/wattage of lightning ?
- flux or magnetic lines of force
- when relative motion exists between a conductor and a magnetic field, a voltage appears across the conductor and if the circuit is completed, a current is generated.
- convention: rotate turbine CCW ? to give a nice sine wave?
- Sine wave RMS value = Peak * 0.707. (Root Mean Square for AC)
- Casio fx82
- Electrolyte specific density in lead acid
- Microhydro power
- Solar cells ususally P-type material, but dubious exceptions are N-type (e.g. Sunpower)
- emf (electromotive force
- primary coil : secondary coil ratio
- powerboards, fuses, etc, rated at 10A in au. 10A @ 240V = 2400W.
- lighting: 1mm². 10A rating. 8A fuse.
- power: 2.5mm². 10A rating. 16A fuse.
- resistivity: R = ρL/A. ρ = Rho (1.72E-8 Ω for copper). L=Length, A=thickness.
- Protronics tech corp, Millennium cell incorp. (ieee spectrum radio). 3 day special forces 6 pounds of batteries (=2.75kg). 12+ lithium throw away batteries for 72 hours ($1050US).
- Mud brick (now 5 stars?)
- Current distribution formula vs proportionality formula
- [[::]] (same as. e.g. a ratio)
- Pulsating DC, Filtered DC
- Inductor or coil (pencil sharpener like device)
- The current lags the voltage by 90deg in a pure [no resistance or capacitance] inductor.
- Back emf, Back EMF vs inductive reactance (ohms), XL
- Tau = C x R. Capacitance (F, Farads) x Resistance (Ohms)
Open courseware 1
- Maths: 1803 Differential Equations next 1
- Physics: 802 - Electricity and Magnetism next: 10
- MIT EECS: videos (next: 24) -- pre-reqs: 802 1803
- Lumped Circuit Abstraction, Lumped Matter Discipline (=Thévenin's theorem ?)
- Electric potential: volts = one joule of energy per coulomb of charge,
- Analysis toolkit:
- KVL KCL
- Node method (anything) = Nodal analysis
- Superposition method (Linear circuit) = Superposition theorem
- Thévenin method (Linear circuit) = Thévenin's theorem
- Norton method (Linear circuit) = Norton's theorem
- Digital circuits (are by their nature, nonlinear, but with given switch settings can apply linear techniques)
- Analytic method (nonlinear)
- Graphical method (nonlinear) graph V vs I.. (Load line)
- Piecewise linear method (nonlinear) (see 4.4) - curves approximated with straight lines
- incremental analysis aka small signal analysis (nonlinear) Small signal model (= zen method, small signal trick)
- Value discretization, Discretize value (digital, high 5V, low 0V) (vs continuous value regeim)
- Noise margin: Voltage Output High (VOH); Voltage Output Low (VOL); Voltage Input High (VIH); Voltage Input Low (VIL). Noise margin for 0: VIL - VOL; for 1: VIH - VOH.
- Static discipline: 4 thresholds (inputs and outputs)
- Combinational gate, Digital signal processing
- binary voltage level(s)
- RAW chip, Raw Architecture Workstation  (MIT - 3 million gates) simple, highly parallel VLSI architecture
- MOSFET: gate control, in drain (+), out source (-). See also: Standard cell
- Switch model of MOSFET (see notes 6.7)
- electronics design pattern, electrical design pattern, electronic design pattern
- Expodweeb, Expo dweeb
- Taylor series (in Small signal model)
- triode, triode region (maybe= three terminal device)
- Large Signal
- Voltage Controlled Current Source, voltage controlled current source (VCCS)
- Saturation, Saturation region, saturation discipline
- voltage divider current divider (patterns to know well)
- Bias point
- Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
- Small signal notation: vA (total) = VA (DC bias or operating point) + va (small signal or incremental signal) ...
operating range= input swing range (where MOSFAT is in saturation), small signal circuit view
- distortion (audio distortion)
- Inverter delay
- M-channel MOSFET (M-type, M-channel)
- differentiation by method of homogeneous and particular solution, particular solution + homogeneous solution for capacitors
- zero state response (ZSR), zero input response (ZIR)
- Miller effect (subtle circuit effects)
- Characteristic equation
- Euler's relation (gets a cosine into circuit)
- WebSim 
- source follower
- anti-lock braking
- Operational amplifier applications
- CMOS, CMOS logic: P-channel MOSFET or PFET, used with N-channel MOSFET
- Field line (Electric field)
- Conservative force
- Electric potential (V) vs electrostatic potential energy (U)
- electrostatic potential - energy stored e.g from same-polarity particles held together.
- Faraday cage (Electrostatic shielding)
- Gaussian surface, Gauss's law
- Electric breakdown, electric discharge (lightning)
- Electron volt
- Surface charge density (Electric charge)
- Field energy density
- Plate capacitor
- Dielectric, dipole
- Leyden jar