User:Peter Mercator/Draft for new Mercator's Map page

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This page is about the content of the Mercator 1569 World map. For details of the projection, see Mercator Projection. For biographical details, see Gerardus Mercator.
Gerardus Mercator

The Mercator world map of 1569 is entitled Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendata which may be translated as "A new and more complete description of Earth corrected for the use of sailors". This title shows that Mercator aimed to present contemporary knowledge of the geography of the world and at the same time 'correct' the chart so that it was of use to sailors. The geographical details have been largely replaced by modern knowledge but the 'correction', whereby constant bearing sailing courses (rhumb lines) are mapped to straight lines on the map, i.e. the Mercator projection, was one of the most significant advances in the history of cartography, justifying the claim that "The master of Rupelmonde stands unsurpassed in the history of cartography since the time of Ptolemy".[1] The projection heralded a new era in in the evolution of navigation maps and charts and it is still their basis.

The map is inscribed with a great deal of text and the framed map legends (or cartouches) cover a wide variety of topics: a dedication to his patron and a copyright statement; discussions of rhumb lines, great circles and distances;comments on some of the major rivers; accounts of fictitious geography of the north pole and the southern continent. The full Latin texts and English translations of all the legends are given below. In addition to the framed legends there are many minor texts on the map: they cover such topics as the magnetic poles, the prime meridian, navigational features, minor geographical details, the voyages of discovery and myths of giants and cannibals. These minor texts are also given below.

A comparison with world maps before 1569 shows how closely Mercator drew on the work of other cartographers and his own previous works, but he declares (Legend 3) that he was also greatly indebted to many new charts prepared by Portugese and Spanish sailors in the portolan tradition. Earlier cartographers of world maps had largely ignored the more accurate practical charts of sailors, and vice-versa, but the age of discovery, from the closing decade of the fifteenth century, stimulated the integration of these two mapping traditions: Mercator's world map embodied both for the first time.

The 1569 Mercator map of the world. (This is a low resolution image. Links to higher resolution images are given below).

Mercator world map of 1569[edit]

This is a new page. Please see discussion page[edit]

Extant copies and facsimiles[edit]

Mercator's 1569 edition was a large planisphere[2], i.e. a projection of the spherical Earth onto the plane. It was printed in eighteen separate sheets from copper plates almost certainly engraved by Mercator himself.getref Each sheet measures 33 by 40 cmgetref and with a border of 2 cm the complete map measures 202 by 124 cm. All sheets span a longitude of 60 degrees; the first row of 6 sheets cover latitudes 80N to 56N, the second row cover 56N to 16S and the third row cover 16S to 66S: this latitude division is not symmetric with respect to the equator thus giving rise to the later criticism of a Euro-centric projection.[3]

It is not known how many copies of the map were printed but it was possibly in the region of several hundred.[4] Despite this large print run, by the middle of the the nineteenth there was only one known copy, that at the Bibliotheque Nationale de France. A second copy was discovered in 1889 at the Stadt Bibliothek of Breslau (now Wroclaw) along with maps of Europe and Britain.getref These three maps were destroyed by fire in 1945 but fortunately copies had been made before then.[5] A third copy was found in a map collection Mappae Geographiae vetustae from the archives of the Amerbach family which had been gifted to the library of the University of Basel.[6] The only other complete copy was discovered at an auction sale in Luzern in in 1932 and is now in the map collection of the Maritiem Museum Prins Hendrik in Rotterdam.[7] In addition to the complete copies there is a single page showing the North Atlantic in the Mercator atlas of Europe in the [British Library].[8] There are various paper reproductions of all four maps but only those at the original scale do justice to the detail and the artistry of Mercator's engraving: they are detailed below. There are online images of three versions of the map: the Breslau map is the exception.

Basel map[edit]

The Basel map is the cleanest of the three extant versions. It was photographically reproduced at a reduced scale by Wilhelm Kruecken in 1992; more recently (2011) he has produced a full scale and full sized (202 by 124 cm) reproduction of the map along with a five volume account (in German) covering all aspects of Mercator's work.[9] Medium resolution scans of the separate sheets and a composite of all 18 scans are accessible as follows.

Mercator 1569 world map sheet key.png

Links to the
individual sheets
 
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18  
 
Composite image
of all 18 sheets.
This is a 20MB file. 

Paris map[edit]

The Paris copy came into the possession of the Bibliothèque Nationale from the estate of Julius Klaproth (1783–1835).[10] The map is uncoloured, partialy borderless and in poor condition due to repeated exhibitions during the nineteenth century. [11] It was reproduced by Edmé-François Jomard (1777–1862) between 1842 and 1862 as part of a collection of 21 facsimile maps. Very few copies of this facsimile are known.

The Bibliothèque Nationale has put a digital image of their copy into the public domain. The images do not correspond exactly with the 18 original sheets: they are in three rows of different heights with 5, 4, 4 images respectively. The zoomable images permit examination of small sections of the map in very great detail. These are the only online images at a high enough resolution to read the smallest text.

Breslau map[edit]

Immediately after its discovery in 1889 the Breslau map was described by Heyer[5] who initiated copies for the Berlin Geographical Society in 1891.[12] Forty years later, in 1931, a further 150 copies were issued by the Hydrographic Bureau.

Rotterdam map[edit]

This copy in the Maritime Museum Prins Hendrik at Rotterdam is in the form of an atlas constructed by Mercator for his friend and patron Werner von Gymnich [13] . It was made by Mercator in 1561 by dissecting and reassembling three copies of his original wall map to create coherent units such as continents or oceans or groups of legends.[14] The atlas is available online at Maritiem Digitaal by searching for 'Mercator 1569'. There are 17 non-blank coloured images which may be zoomed to a medium resolution (much lower than that of the French copy at the Bibliothèque Nationale). The individual map plates, excepting those covering legends only, are:

North Atlantic Central Atlantic Eastern North America Southern Atlantic
North Pacific Southern South America Europe Africa
Northern Asia Southern Asia North polar regions South America

In 1962 a monochrome facsimile of this atlas was produced jointly by the curators of the Rotterdam museum and the cartographic journal Imago Mundi.[15] . The plates are accompanied with comprehensive bibliographic material, a commentary by van 't Hoff and English translations of the Latin text from the Hydrographics Review.[16]

World and regional maps before 1569[edit]

Some world maps of the Renaissance up to 1569 — various projections
Claudius Ptolemy 1482 
Cantino 1502 (perhaps 1503) 
Waldseemüller 1508 
Pietro Coppo 1520 
1529 Diego Ribero 
Oronce Fine 1531 
Oronce Fine 1536 
Mercator 1538 
Jean Rotz 1542 
Ptolemy 1548 
1554 lopo homen 
Ortelius 1570[17] 
Some regional maps before 1569
1500 Juan de la Cosa 
Mercator Europe 1554? 
The Zeno map 1558 
Gutiérrez 1562 

Principal features of the 1569 Mercator map[edit]

Mercator's projection[edit]

A sea chart of the Dieppe school with parallel meridians and uniformly spaced orthogonal parallels. c1543

In Legend 3 Mercator states that his first priority is "to spread on a plane the surface of the sphere in such a way that the positions of places shall correspond on all sides with each other, both in so far as true direction and distance are concerned and as correct longitudes and latitudes". He goes on to point out the deficiencies of previous projections,[18] particularly the distortion caused by the oblique incidence of parallels and meridians which gives rise to incorrect angles and shapes: therefore he adopts parallel meridians and orthogonal parallels. This is also a feature of sixteenth century plane charts (equirectangular projections) but they also have equally spaced parallels; in Legend 3 Mercator also emphasizes the distortion that this gives rise to. In particular, the straight lines emanating from the compass roses are not rhumb lines so that they do not give a true bearing. Nor was it straightforward to calculate the sailing distances on these charts. Mariners were aware of these problems and had evolved rules of thumbgetref to enhance the accuracy of their navigation.

Mercator presents his remedy for these problems: "we have progressively increased the the degrees of latitude towards each pole in proportion to the lengthenings of the parallels with reference to the equator". The resulting variation of the latitude scale is shown on the meridian at 350E of his map. Later, Edward Wright and others showed how this statement of Mercator could be turned into a precise mathematical problem whose solution permitted the calculation of the latitude scale, but their methods has not been developed at the time of Mercator.[19] All these methods hinge on the observation that the radius, and hence circumference, of a parallel of latitude is proportional to the cosine of the latitude, unity at the equator and zero at the poles. The length of a parallel, and hence the spacing of the parallels, must therefore be increased by a factor equal to the reciprocal of the cosine (i.e. the secant) of the latitude.

Mercator left no explanation of his own methods but, as long ago as 1541, he had demonstrated that he understood how to draw rhumb lines on a globe.getref He left no documentation of his method but it has been suggested that he drew the rhumbs by using a set of metal templates for the seven principal compass points within each quadrant.getref Starting at the equator draw a short straight line segment, at say 67.5 degrees (east by northeast). Continue as far as a meridian separated by only two or three degrees of longitude and mark the crossing point. Move the template to that point and repeat the process; since the meridians have converged a little the line will bend up a little generating a rhumb which describes a spiral on the sphere. The latitude and longitude of selected points on the rhumb could have then been transferred to the chart and the latitude scale of the chart adjusted so that the rhumb becomes a straight line. There has been no shortage of proposed methods for the construction. For example Hollander analyzed 14 such hypotheses and concluded that Mercator may have used a judicious mix of mechanical transference and numerical interpolations.[20] However he proceeded, Mercator achieved a fairly accurate, but not perfect, latitude scale.getref

Since the parallels shrink to zero length as they approach the pole they have to be stretched by larger and larger amounts and correspondingly the parallel spacing increases in the same ratio. Mercator concludes that "the chart cannot be extended as far as the pole, for the degrees of latitude would finally attain infinity" — Legend 6. (The reciprocal of the cosine of the latitude become infinite). He therefore uses a completely different projection for the inset map of the north polar regions — an equidistant azimuthal projection. This was another innovation for sixteenth century charts.

It took many years for Mercator's projection to gain wider acceptance. The following gallery shows the first maps in which it was employed. General acceptance only came with the publication of the French sea atlas "Le Neptune Francois"find_date at the end of the seventeenth century: all the maps in this widely disseminated volume were on the Mercator projection.[21]

The first maps on the Mercator projection
1597 Hondius; The Christian Knight Map 
Wright Azores sailing map 1599 
Wright–Molyneux world map 1599 
Blaeu atlas 1606 and later editions 

Distances and the Organum Directorium[edit]

In Legend 12 Mercator makes careful distinction between great circles (plaga) and rhumb lines (directio) and he points out that the rhumb between two given points is always longer than the great circle distance, the latter being the shortest distance between the points. However, he stresses that over short distances (which he quantifies) the difference may be negligible and a calculation of the rhumb distance may be adequate and more relevant since it is the sailing distance on a constant bearing. He gives the details of such a calculation in a rather cumbersome fashion in Legend 12 but in Legend 10 he says that the same method can be applied more readily with the Organum Directorium (the Diagram of Courses, sheet 18) shown annotated here. Only dividers were used in these constructions but the original maps had a thread attached at the origin of each compass rose. Its use is partially explained in Legend 10.

Organum

To illustrate his method take A at (20N,33E) and B at (65N,75E). Plot the latitude of A on the left hand scale and plot B with the appropriate relative latitude and longitude. Measure the azimuth α, the angle MAB: it can be read off the compass scale by constructing OP parallel to AB; for this example it is 34 degrees. Draw a line OQ through the origin of the compass rose such that the angle between OQ and the equator is equal to the azimuth angle α. Now find the point N on the equator which is such that the number of equatorial degrees in ON is numerically equal to the latitude difference (45 degrees for AM on the unequal scale). Draw the perpendicular through N and let it meet OQ at D. Find the point E such that OE = OD, here approximately 54 degrees. This is a measure of the rhumb line distance between the points on the sphere corresponding to A and B on the spherical Earth. Since each degree on the equator correspond to 60 nautical miles the sailing distance is 3240 nautical miles for this example. If B is in the second quadrant with respect to A then the upper rose is used and if B is west of A then the longitude separation is simply reversed. Mercator also gives a refined method which is useful for small azimuths.

The above method is explained in Legend 12 by using compass roses on the equator and it is only in Legend 10 that he introduces the Organum Directorium and also addresses the inverse problems: given the initial point and the direction and distance of the second find the latitude and longitude of the second.

Mercator's construction is simply an evaluation of the rhumb line distance in terms of the latitude difference and the azimuth as[22]


s=(\phi_B-\phi_A)\sec\alpha.

If the latitude difference is expressed in arc minutes then the distance is in nautical miles.

In later life Mercator commented that the principles of his map had not been understood by mariners but he admitted to his friend and biographer, Walter Ghym, that the map lacked a sufficiently clear detailed explanation of its use.[23]. The intention expressed in the last sentence of Legend 10, that he would give more information in a future 'Geographia', was never realised.

Prime meridian and magnetic pole[edit]

Two posible magnetic poles

In Legend 5 Mercator argues that the Prime Meridian should be identified with that on which the magnetic declination is zero, namely the meridian through the Cape Verde islands, or alternatively that through the island of Corvo in the Azores. (He cites the varying opinions of the Dieppe mariners). The prime meridian is labelled as 360 and the remainder are labelled every ten degrees eastwards. He further claims that he has used information on the geographical variation of declination to calculate the position of the (single) magnetic pole corresponding to the two possible prime meridians: they are shown on Sheet6 with appropriate text. (For good measure he repeats one of these poles on Sheet 1 to emphasize the overlap of the right and left edges of his map; see text). He does not show a position for a south magnetic pole and presumably he did not believe in the existence of such. The model of the Earth as a magnetic dipole did not arise until the end of the seventeenth century getref and between 1500 and that era the number of magnetic poles was a matter for speculation, variously 1, 2 or 4.[24] Later, he accepted that magnetic declination changed in time, thus invalidating his position that the prime meridian could be on these grounds.

Geography[edit]

In his introduction to the Imago Mundi facsimile edition t' Hoff gives lists of world maps and regional maps that Mercator may well have seen, or even possessed by the 1560s.[25] A more complete illustrated list of world maps of that time may be compiled from the comprehensive survey of Shirley. Comparisons with his own map show how freely he borrowed from these maps and from his own 1538 world map[26] and his 1541 globe.getref

A 1550 portolan of the eastern meridian showing the high quality of coastal mapping.

In addition to published maps and manuscripts Mercator declares (Legend 3) that he was greatly indebted to many new charts prepared by Portugese and Spanish sailors in the portolan traditions. "It is from an equitable conciliation of all these documents that the dimensions and situations of the land are given here as accurately as possible". Earlier cartographers of world maps had largely ignored the more accurate practical charts of sailors, and vice-versa, but the age of discovery, from the closing decades of the fifteenth century, brought together these two traditions in the person of Mercator.[27]

There are great discrepancies with the modern atlas. Europe, the coast of Africa and the eastern coast of the Americas are well covered but beyond that the anomalies increase with distance. For example the spectacular bulge on the western coast of South America , replaced the more accurate representation of earlier maps: it disappears for good with the Blaeu map of 1606.[28].

Frisland, a phantom island (as represented on the 1595 Mercator atlas

The phantom islands of Frisland and Brasil in the North Atlantic persist in the maps of the period even though they were in waters readily accessed by European sailors. Mercator accepted current beliefs in the existence of a large Southern continent (Terra Australis) — beliefs which would prevail until the discovery of the open seas south of Cape Horn and the circumnavigation of Australia. He does show a Strait of Anian between Asia and the Americas as well as NW and NE passages to the spice islands of the East: this he justifies on his studies of the ancient texts detailed in Legend 3 for as yet these were uneplored regions.

The north polar regions as portrayed in the 1595 atlas.

The bizarre representation of the geography of the north polar regions in the inset is discussed in detail in Legend 6 and in the minor texts of sheet 13. Mercator accepts that a fourteenth century English friar had employed magic arts to survey the septentrional regions. The four channels carry the sea towards the pole where it disappears into an abyss with great force.

Beyond Europe the interiors of the continents were unknown but Mercator struggled to combine the scattered data at his disposal into a harmonious whole in the map legends which speculate on the Asian Prester John and the courses of the Ganges, Nile and Niger. For his geographical information Mercator quotes (Legends 3,4, 8, 11, 14) classic authors such as Pliny the Elder, Pomponius Mela, Ptolemy, and earlier travellers such as Marco Polo but, as the principal geographer of his time, he would have undoubtedly have been in touch with contemporary travellers.

Decorative features[edit]

High resolution details
Poseidon? map sheet 
sea monster map sheet 

The ornate border of the map shows the 32 points of the compass. The cardinal appoints appear in various forms: west is Zephyrus, Occides, West, Ponente, Oeste; east is Subsola, Oriens, Oost, Levante, Este; south is Auster, Meridio, Zuya Ostre, Sid; north is Boreas, Septentrio, Nord, tramontana. All of the other 28 points are written only in Dutch, confirming Mercator's wish that his map would be put to practical use by mariners.

Within the map Mercator embellishes the open seas with fleets of ships, sea creatures, of which one is a dolphin, and a striking god-like figure which may be Triton. The unknown continental interiors are remarkably devoid of creatures and Mercator is for the most part content to create speculative mountain ranges, rivers and cities. The only land animal, in South America, is shown as "having under the belly a receptacle in which it keeps its young warm and takes them out but to suckle them". ( (40S,295E) with text.) He also shows cannibals but this may have been true. The giants shown in Patagonia may also be founded in truth: the reaction of Spanish sailors of slight stature on confronting a tribe of natives who were well over six foot in height. These images of south Americans are almost direct copies of similar figures on the [[#World and regional maps before 1569:map] of Diego Gutierrez.[29] The are three other images of figures: Prester John in Ethiopia (10N,60E); a tiny vignette of two 'flute' players (72N,170E) with (See text; the lady Zororaia who is she? at (60N,110E).

The italic script used on the map was largely developed by Mercator himself. He was a great advocate of its use, insisting that it was much clearer than any other. He published an influential book, Literarum latinorum, showing the italic hand it should be executed.[30]

Texts of the map[edit]

Mercator 1569 world map text key.png

Links to the
legend texts
 
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15  
 
 
Minor texts

Summary of the legends[edit]

  • Legend 1 The dedication to his patron, the Duke of Cleves.
  • Legend 2 A eulogy, in latin hexameters, expressig his good fortune at living in Cleves after having fled from persecution by the Inquisition.
  • Legend 3 Inspectori Salutem: greetings to the reader. Mercator sets forth three motivations for his map: (1) an accurate representation of locations and distances corrected for the use of sailors by the adoption of a new projection; (2) an accurate representation of countries and their shapes; (3) to stay true to the understanding of ancient writers.
  • Legend 4 The Asian Prester John and the origin of the Tartars.
  • Legend 5 The prime meridian and how a logical choice could be made on the basis of a study of magnetic declination.
  • Legend 6 The north polar (septentrional) regions.
  • Legend 7 Magellan's circumnavigation of the world.
  • Legend 8 The Niger and Nile rivers and their possible linkage.
  • Legend 9 Vasco de Gama.
  • Legend 10 The use of the Organum Directorium, the Diagram of courses, for the measurement of rhumb line distance.
  • Legend 11 The southern continent (Terra Australis]] and its relation to Java.
  • Legend 12 The distinction between great circles and rhumb lines and the measurement of the latter.
  • Legend 13 The 1493 papal Bull arbitrating on the division between Spanish and Portugese spheres of influence.
  • Legend 14 The Ganges and the geography of south-east Asia.
  • Legend 15 The copyright notice.

Legend texts[edit]

The following literal translations are taken, with permission of the International Hydrographics Board, from the Hydrographics Reviewgetref. The latin text differs from that of Mercator in using modern spelling. Punctuation has been modified or added. Paragraph breaks have been added where required.

Title

NOVA ET AUCTA ORBIS TERRAE DESCRIPTIO AD USUM NAVIGANTIUM EMENDATA ACCOMMODATA

NEW AND MORE COMPLETE REPRESENTATION OF THE TERRETIAL GLOBE PROPERLY ADAPTED FOR USE IN NAVIGATION

Legend 1 — Illustrissimo

ILLUSTRISSIMO ET CLEMENTISSIMO PRINCIPI AC DOMINO, DOMINO WILHELMO DUCI JULIAE, CLIVORUM ET MONTIS, COMITI MARCHIAE ET RAVENSBURGI, DOMINO IN RAVENSTEIN opus hoc felicibus ejus auspiciis inchoatum atque perfectum Gerardus Mercator dedicabat.

TO THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS AND CLEMENT PRINCE AND LORD WILHELM DUKE OF JUILLERS, OF CLEVES AND OF MONT, COUNT OF THE MARCHES AND OF RAVENSBURG, LORD OF RAVENSTEIN, this work, commenced and ended under his favourable patronage, was dedicated by Gerhard MERCATOR.

Legend 2 — Felices Patriae Happy countries

Felices patriae, felicia regna perennes
In quibus exubias agitat Jovis alma propago
Justitia, et sceptris divino Astraea receptis
Munere se sociat, rectosque ad sidera vultus
Extollens, summi moderatur cuncta monarchae
Ad placitum, miseros regno studet illius uni
Subdere mortales, finem sectata beatum.
Pax illic immota ducem comitata potentem
Justitiam, et Pietas nullo tristata labore
Jucundas, faciles, et amico plebis habenas
Obsequio firmas faciunt, animique per omnes
Fortunae eventus robur constanter adaugent
Aspirante deo, nec si quid turbinis atri
Invida virtutis commoto Acheronte ciebit
Impietas, timor ullus adest, pater optimus ille
Culmine qui mundi residens nutu omnia solo
Cogit, opus regnumque suum non deseret unquam.
Jam quoque cum tali regitur moderamine civis
Non timit insidias, non horrida bella, famemque
Squalentem indignis sycophantae morsibus ansae
Praecisae, Pietas et Pax soror omne malignum
Blanda terit facinus retegitve inoxia turba
Sola tenet laudem, solis qui dona sequuntur
In commune bonum sua conceduntur honores,
Improbitas despecta jacet, virtutis armorem
Passim exempla movent, et amanter foedera nectunt
Mutua sollicitos regi servire deoque.
Sic regnat sanctè cui sunt condredita sceptra,
Et pariter qui sceptra dedit, sic gaudet uterque
Innocuum genuisse gregem qui floreat usque
Justitia, pacemque colat, tum pneumatis almi
Mente hilari tractet referatque charismata pure. Gaude
Clivorum soboles, et Julia gaude,
Vos beat una domus, beat et qui regibus unus
Imperat, haud quicquam est quod non sinat esse beatos.

ENGLISH

Legend 3 — Inspectori Salutem To the readers, Greeting

In hac orbis descriptione tria nobis curae fuerunt.
Primum sphaerae superficiem ita in planum extendere, ut situs locorum tam secundem directionem distantiamque veram quam secundum longitudinem latitudinemque debitam undequaque inter se correspondeant, ac regionum figurae in sphera apparentes, quatenus fieri potest, serventur, ad quod nova meridianorum ad parallelos habitudine et situs opus fuit, quae enim a geographis hactenus editae sunt conscriptiones meridianorum curvitate et ad invicem inclinatione inidoneae sunt ad navigationes, in extremitatibus quoque figuras situsque regionum, propter obliquam meridianorum in parallelos incidentiam, adeo mire distorquent, ut agnosci non possint, nec distantiarum rationes observari. In marinis nauclerorum tabulis gradus longitudinum per omnes parallelos usque in polum crescunt supra sphaericam rationem, nam perpetuo aequales manent gradibus aequatoris, at gradus latitudinum minime crescunt, quare ibi quoque distrahi enormiter figuras regionum necesse est, et vel longitudines ac latitudines, vel directiones distantiasque a vero aberrare, et cum magni ea causa errores committantur, ille caput est, quod trium locorum inscriptione ex uno aequinoctialis latere facta secundum triangularem aliquam dispositionem, si medius quivis extremis justa directione et distantia respondeat, impossibile sit extremos similiter inter se respondere, quibus consideratis gradus latitudinum versus utrumque polum paulatim auximus pro incremento parallelorum supra rationem quam habent ad aequinoctialem, quo id consecuti sumus, ut quomodocunque quis duos tres pluresve locos inscribat, modo ex his 4: differentia longitudinis, differentia latitudinis, distantia, directione, duo quaelibet in unoquoque loco ad alterum collato observet, recte se habebunt omnia in cujuslibet loci ad quemlibet collatione, et nullus uspiam error commissus reperietur, quem in vulgaribus naucleorum tabulis multis modis potissimum in majoribus latitudinibus admitti necesse est. Alterum quod intendimus fuit, ut terrarum situs magnitudines locorumque distantias juxta ipsam veritatem quantum assequi licet exhiberemus, in hoc extremam diligentiam impendimus, marinas Castellanorum Portogalensiumque tabulas, tum inter se, tum cum plerisque navigationibus impressis et scriptis conferentes, ex quibus omnibus aequabiliter inter se conciliatis hanc terrarum dimensionem et situm damus, secundum ea quae hactenus observata sunt et ad nostras manus pervenire potuerunt castigatissimum. Tertium quod tractandum suscepimus fuit: ostendere quae partes orbis et quousque veteribus innotuerint, quo antquae geographiae limites non ignorentur, et priscis saeculis suus honos deferatur. Dicimus autem tres esse distinctas continentes, primam e cujus medio creatum multiplicatumque genus humanum in omnem undique terram disseminatum est, secundam quae nova India dicitur, tertiam quae meridiano cardini subjacet. Harum posteriores duae veteribus ignotae penitus permanserunt nisi forte nova India sit quae apud Platonem est Atlantis. Prima tametsi tota non fuerit a Ptolemeo in tabulas assumpta, omnis tamen ambitus ejus occeano terminari agnitus et maxima parte a veteribus descriptus est. Et quod ad tabularem Ptolemei descriptionem attinet, ex his, que de Gangis situ demonstravimus in hoc opere, constat eam comprehensis insulis quas ibi dicimus ab orientali parte as Thamum usque Cathai promontorium progredi, ubi (ut Melae placet) extremus Indiae angulus, meridionalis lateris terminus initiumque orientalis existit. A meridie hinc quidem ad Prassum Africae promontorium et Madagascar insulam, inde vero ad Hippodromum Aethiopiae in medio sinu Hesperico terminatur. Septentrionalis orae extrema post Cimbrorum promontorium est Livonia, sed assumptis simul insulis Scandia, Albione, Hibernia, Ebudibus, Orcadibus, et Islandia, quam certum est esse Thulen ex Plinio: lib :2. cap:75, et lib :4. cap :16, Solino cap :25, et Pomponio: Mela lib:3. cap:6. Reliquus ambitus septentrionalis a Plinio transcensis Riphaeis jugis describitur, et ex sinistro littore Scythici oceani Norvegiam Suediam et Finlandiam sub nominibus Balthia Basilia Scandinavia et Eningia perlustrat lib :4. cap :13, sed tanquam insulas, quod isthmum qui Finnicum sinum a Grandvico disjungit ignoraret. Dextrum littus prosequens lib :6. cap :13 primum post Hyperboreas gentes Lytarmem Riphei montis promontorium ponit, deinde Arimpheos plurimasque alias nationes quae circum mare Caspium ejusque ostia sunt, putabat enim in oceanum Scythicum erumpere, postea cap :17 residui littoris conditionibus et populis enarratis Tabin promontorium superat, et per conversam in orientem aestivum littorum faciem ad Seras procedit, denique in Indiam revertitur. Quod item reliquum erat Africae a Prasso promontorio ad sinum Hespericum, Jubae regis testimonio circumnavigabile dicit lib :6. cap :29, assignatis etiam aliquot stationibus ejus navigationis qua ex India in Mauretaniam itur. Et multo antea, ut est apud Herodotum: lib :4, jussu Nechaonis, Aegypti regis, Phoenices quidam Arabico sinu egressi bienno Africam usque ad columnas Herculis circumnavigarunt. Et postea Eudoxus quidam apud Melam, cum Lathyrum regem Alexandriae profugeret Arabico sinu egressus Gades usque pervectus est. Certum est igitur oceano cingi continentem nostram, et a veteribus ambitum ejus notum, ac pro maxima parte descriptum esse ipsorum autoritate constat, quare manifestum est errare eos qui novam Indiam cum Asia continentem faciunt, quemadmodum et eos qui Portogalensium navigationes Asiaticas longe Ptolemei descriptionem superare affirmant cum juxta ea quae de Gangis et Aureae situ adferimus multum adhuc ab ejusdem termino distare eas constet.

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Legend 4 — De presbytero Joanne On Prester John of Asia

De presbytero Joanne Asiatico et prima dominii Tartarorum origine.
Eo tempore quo communibus copiis Syriae a Christianis obsessa et expugnata est, anno 1098, erat monarcha regionum Orientalium Asiae Coir Cham, quo mortuo sacerdos quidam et pastor Nestorianus arripuit dominium populi Naimam in terra Naiam, ac deinceps totius Orientis imperium, vocatusque est (ut erat) presbiter et rex Joannes; quo defuncto imperium sibi arrogavit frater ejus Vuth, qui in Carocoran dominabatur, et Cham se vocavit, id est dominum. Hic dum metueret succrescentes multitudinem et vires Sumongularum, hoc est aquaticorum Mongulorum, qui proprie Tartari dicebantur a Tartar flumine patrio, quanquam nec regem nec civitatem haberent sed pastores tantum essent et tributum annuum penderent, voluit illos in varias regiones dispergere quo rebellandi potentiam frangeret, verum illi cognationis et mutuae societatis jura relinquere nolentes conspiratione facta fugerunt versus aquilonem, amplam ibi et natura munitam regionem occupantes, in qua etiam negato tributo tueri se possent et libertatem vindicare. Post paucos vero annos, cum (ut habet Gulielmus Tripolitanus) gregibus imperatoris sui Vutcham graverentur caeteri Mongali, aut alioqui forte propter ereptum Tartarorum tributum vexarentur, faber quidam ferrarius Mongalus, nomine Chinchis communis injuriae pellendae et libertatis afferendae avidus Jecmongalos ad defectionem sollicitat, Tartaros revocat, et communicatis consiliis omnium consensu rex creatur anno Domini 1187, mox eas regiones quae citra Belgian montem erant invadens facile omnes adeptus est, quoniam ut erat prudens, recte victoria utebatur, in victos minime saeviebat, sed unicuique lubenter se submittendi et militiae operam suam communicanti vitam conjuges liberos et substantiam omnem salvam esse jubebat. Deinde montem Belgian ubi in oceanum excurrit superansagressus est regnum Tenduc sedem imperialem Vutcham,quo devicto factus est monarcha orientis, vixit post Vutchamsex annis, in quibus multas provincias imperio suo adjecit. Sic imperium ad Mongalos pervenit et Tartarorum dicitur, cum quod horum occasione et opera conquisitum sit, tum maxime quod communi jure et societate viventes Mongali omnes generaliter Tartari vocarentur. Mansit autem Vutcham cum sua posteritate rex Tenduc, sed sub tributo et Tartarorum imperio. Haec breviter collegimus ex Marco Paulo Veneto, Haitono Armeno, et Gulielmo Tripolitano Dominicano Anconensi, qui anno 1275 a Gregorio 10 missus fuit ad Tartaros, quo prima dominii Tartarici origo et sedes nota esset, ac de veritate ejus Presbiteri Joannis qui in Asia regnare creditus est hactenus, tum quoque diversum esse eum ab illo, qui usque hodie in Africa Prete Giam appellatur, constaret.

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Legend 5 — De longitudinum On longitudes

De longitudinum geographicarum initio et polo.
Testatur Franciscus Diepanus peritissimus navarchus volubiles libellas magnetis virtute infectas recta mundi polum respicere in insulis C.Viridis, Salis, Bonavista, et Maio, cui proxime astipulantur qui in Tercera aut S. Maria (insulae sunt inter Acores) id fieri dicunt, pauci in earundem occidentalissima Corvi nomine id contingere opinantur. Quia vero locorum longitudines a communi magnetis et mundi meridiano justis de causis initium sumere opportet plurimum testimonium secutus primum meridianum per dictas C.Viridis insulas protraxi, et quum alibi plus minusque a polo deviante magnete polum aliquem peculiarem esse oporteat quo magnetes ex omni mundi parte respiciant cum hoc quo assignavi loco existere adhibita declinatione magnetis Ratisbonae observata didici. Supputavi autem ejus poli situm etiam respectu insulae Corvi, ut juxta extremos primi meridiani positus extremi etiam termini, intra quos polum hunc inveniri necesse est, conspicui fierent, donec certius aliquid naucleorum observatio attulerit.

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Legend 6 — In subjectam septentrionalis On northern regions

In subjectam septentrionalis descriptionem
Cum in polum extendi tabula nostra non posset, latitudinis gradibus tandem in infinitum excurrentibus, et decriptionis aliquid haud quaquam negligendae sub ipso septentrione haberemus, necessarium putavimus extrema descriptionis nostrae hic repetere et reliqua ad polum annectere. Figuram sumpsimus quae illi parti orbis maxime congruebat, quaeque situm et faciem terrarum qualis in sphaera esset, redderet. Quod ad descriptionem attinet, eam nos accepimus ex Itinerario Jacobi Cnoyen Buscoducensis, qui quaedam ex rebus gestis Arturi Britanni citat, majorem autem partem et potiora a sacerdote quodam apud regem Norvegiae anno Domini 1364 didicit. Descenderat is quinto gradu ex illis quos Arturus ad has habitandas insulas miserat, et referebat anno 1360 Minoritam quendam Anglum Oxoniensem mathematicum in eas insulas venisse, ipsique relictis ad ulteriora arte magica profectum descripsisse omnia, et astrolabio dimensum esse in hanc subjectam formam fere uti ex Jacobo collegimus. Euripos illos 4 dicebat tanto impetu ad interiorem voraginem rapi, ut naves semel ingressae nullo vento retroagi possint, neque vero unquam tantum ibi ventum esse ut molae frumentariae circumagendae sufficiat. Simillima his habet Giraldus Cambrensis in libro de mirabilibus Hiberniae; sic enim scribit: Non procul ab insulis (Ebudibus, Islandia etc.) ex parte boreali est maris quaedam miranda vorago, ad quam a remotis partibus omnes undique marini fluctus tanquam ex conducto confluunt et concurrunt, qui in secreta naturae penetralia se ibi transfundentes quasi in abyssum vorantur; si vero navem hanc forte transire contigerit, tanta rapitur et attrahitur fluctuum violentia, ut eam statim irrevocabiliter vis voracitatis absorbeat.

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Legend 7 — Prima orbis circumnavigatio First circumnavigation of the globe

Ferdinandus Magellanus anno Domini 1519 20 Septembris solvens ex Hispania, sequenti anno 21 Octobris ad fretum a se Magellanicum appellatum pervenit ac primus illud penetravit, inde Moluccas petiit, in Barussis insulis cum 8 Hispanis occisus est, reliqua classis lacera et mutila orbe deinceps circumnavigatio post triennium prope exactum in Hispaniam reversa est.

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Legend 8 — Quod Nigir in Nilum fluat Niger flows into Nile

Nigirem fluvium cum reliquis in Libyae paludem fluentibus inde cum Gir fluvio continuari credimus, non solum nominis affinitate ducti, verum etiam partim quod tot tamque longe labentia flumina ab uno tandem lacu absoberi sine alia derivatione credibile non sit, partim, et quidem maxime, quod Solinus cap :30 et 33 Nili aquas inde produci ingenue afferat, ac latius id explicans cap:35 ex autoritate Punicorum librorum et traditione Jubae Mauritaniae regis dicat Nilum originem habere ex monte inferioris Mauritaniae qui oceano propinquat, eumque in Aegypto exundationis incrementa sentire, quando aut copiosior nix liquescens aut imbres largiores ab hac origine et Mauritaniae montibus defluxerint. Dicit autem bis eum per cuniculos subterraneos conspectum subterfugere, primum ubi e Nilide lacu effusus fuerit amplior mox e Caesariensi specu (ad Usargalam opinior montem) prorumpens, deinde iterum antequam Nigrim fluvium (qui Gir Ptolemeo dicitur) Africam ab Aethiopia sejungentem effundat. Tertio item absorberi et per subterranea e Nuba palude in aliud flumem erumpere indicat Ptolemeus lib:4 geogr: cap:6. Eadem fere quae, Solinus habet Plinio lib:5 cap9.

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Legend 9 — Anno Domini 1497 In 1497 Vasco de Gama

Anno Domini 1497 primus Vasco de Gama superato 20 Novembris capite Bonae spei, et Africa circumnavigata Callicutium pervenit mandante Emanuele I rege Portogalliae 13.

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Legend 10 — Brevis usus Organi Directorii Using the Organum Directorium

Brevis usus Organi Directorii
Cum inscriptionibus necessariis occupatus oceanus sufficientia directoria recipere nequat, et terra in qua eorundem non exiguus est usus nulla, coacti fuimus hoc Organum directorium addere, ut duorum quorumlibet locorum ad invicem respectus et habitudo inde peti possit. Debet autem prior locus, ad quem alterius respectum quaerimus, latitudinem notam habere, et in eadem sub primo Organi meridiano situs intelligi. Duo autem huic primo directoria applicuimus, quorum superius serviet cum prior locus majorem habet latitudinem, quam secundus, inferius cum minorem, ex utriusque centro filum dependeat. Quando igitur secundus locus longitudinis et latitudinis differentiam a priore notam habet, nota fient directio et distantia. Directio primum si notato situ secundi loci juxta longitudinis et latitudinis differentiam filum ex centro directorii ad aequidistantiam eorum locorum extendatur, parallelae enim lineae quaecunque in Organo ejusdem sunt directionis. Parallelas autem eadem circini extensio ex utroque loco in filum directa optime judicabit. Distantia deinde per modum alia tabella contentum invenietur. Si secundus locus directionem cum differentia alterutra longitudinis vel latitudinis notam habuerit, ad eam directionem filum extendatur et ex priori loco circini ductu illa parallela linea fingatur, quae ubi notam differentiam compleverit, etiam distantiam notam faciet juxta rationem in alia tabella descriptam. Si secundus locus directionem et distantiam a primo notas habuerit, innotescent etiam differentiae latitudinis et longitudinis: Quaeratur directio eandem ab aequatore declinationem habens, quam locorum direction a meridiano, et in eadem a centro directionum tot gradus aequatoris mensurentur quot locorum distantia exigit, tum meridianus eos gradus terminans in aequatore quoque gradus differentiae latitudinis a centro directionum computandos terminabit. Hos si addas priori loco in minori latitudine existenti, aut demas ab eodem in majore posito, prodibit latitudo secundi loci, ad quam e priore loco educta directio etiam longitudinis differentiam notabit, inde videlicet ad aequidistantiam a proximo meridiano in aequatorem descendendo. Plura majoraque de hoc Organo in Geographia nostra deo volente dabimus.

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Legend 11 — De Meridianae Continentis On the Southern Continent

De Meridianae Continentis ad Javam Majorem accessu.br Ludovicus Vartomannus lib : 3 Indiae cap : 27 refert a latere meridiano Javae majoris versus austrum gentes esse quasdam quae syderibus nostro septentrioni obversis navigant, idque eousque donec diem 4 horarum inveniant, hoc est in 63 gradum latitudinis atque haec ex ore naucleri sui Indi refert. Marcus Paulus Venetus autem coram hujus continentis provincias aliquot et insulas vidit, ac distantias annotavit usque ad Javam minorem, quam neque Burneo insulam, neque aliquam majori Javae orientalem esse (ut varie plerique opinantur) ex eo certissimo constat, quod illam ait usque adeo in austrum declinare, ut neque polus arcticus neque stella ejus, hoc est ursa minor, videri possint et cap : 16 dicit in uno ejus regno quod Samara dicitur neutram ursam videri, quare considerato ambitu insulae, quem ait 2000 miliarum esse, certum est borealem ejus terminum 20 ut minmum gradum latitudinis australis superare. Colligimus ergo continemtem australem longe versus septentrionem excurrere et fretum quoddam cum Java majore efficere, cui Johannes Mandevillanus, autor licet alioqui fabulosus, in situ tamen locorum non contemnendus, consentit cap : 108 mare Rubrum juxta Taprobanam et adjacentes regiones atque insulas ab Oceano orientali secludi inquiens [25°S | 130°O]

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Legend 12 — Distantiae locorum Distances of places

Distantiae locorum mensurandae modus.
Aliud nobis est plaga, aliud directio distinctionis rerum causa. Plagam vocamus nostri loci ad alterum respectum secundum declinationem circuli maximi per utrumque locum ducti ab aliquo 4 punctorum cardinalium. Sic dicimus locum aliquem nobis esse boreozephyrium, id est nordwestium, quando circulus maximus a nobis per eum ductus 45 gradus in horizonte declinat a septentrionali cardine versus occidentalem. Directionem vocamus lineam ab uno loco in alium sic ductam, ut cum quibusvis meridianis aequales angulos faciat, haec perpetuo oblique incurvatur in superficie sphaerae propter meridianorum ad se invicem inclinationem, atque inde in magnis distantiis, et potissimum circa borealiores partes distantia directionalis semper major est distantia plagali, in mediocribus vero, et maxime versus aequatorem sitis, non est notablis differentia, quare cum plagales distantiae sumendae circa aequatorem non excedunt 20 gradus maximi circuli, aut in climate Hispaniae et Galliae 15 gradus: aut in partibus septentrionalibus Europae et Asiae 8 vel 10, convenienter directionalibus distantiis pro plagalibus sive rectis utemur, alioqui et harum inquirendarum ratio tradi potest, sed operosior nec admodum necessaria. Distantiae ergo directionalis sic invenientur. Consideretur quo nomine appelletur linea imaginaria inter duos locos extensa, hoc est cui in tabula scriptae lineae sit parallela, quod per circinum ex utroque loco in eandem lineam extenso explorabitur, deinde quae sit differentia latitudinis eorundem locorum, quae invenietur distantiam cujusque a proximo parallelo latitudinis in scalam graduum latitudinis transferendo; his duobus inventis quaeratur in aliquo directorio aequinoctiali imposito linea eodem angulo declinans ab aequinoctiali, quo linea imaginaria propositorum locorum a meridiano alterutrius, et a centro directorii computatis tot gradibus aequatoris quot erant in differentia latitudinis, ab extremo graduum ad proximum meridianum distentus circinus deorsum feratur altero pede semper eundem meridianum occupante, reliquo vero eundem aequidistanter comitante donec in inventam declinationis lineam incidat, ibi tum iste figatur, ille qui meridiano inhaerebat extendantur in centrum directorii, sic distentus circinus utroque pede aequatori applicetur, ac tum gradus intercepti indicabunt directionalem propositorum locorum distantiam, multiplicando numerum graduum per 15 si germanica miliaria quaerantur, per 60 si italica, per 20 gallica aut hispania communia. Haec distantiae inquirendae ratio per se quidem semper infallibilis est, sed in iis directionibus quae maxime ad parallelum latitudinis inclinantur incertior est circini applicatio propter nimis obliquam directionalium linearum incidentiam in parallelos, ideoque in his alter hic modus erit exactior. Sumetur circino assumptorum locorum, et observando quot gradus ibidem circinus intercipiat, sic distentus ex uno loco versus alterum toties revolvatur quoties intercapedo locorum suspicere potest, si quid residuum est distantiae quod ad integram circini extensionem non perveniat id contractior circinus excipiet, et in medios gradus differentiae latitudinis traducetur, notatisque ibi intercepis gradibus colligentur omnium revolutionum gradus cum residuo in unam summam, qua ut mox diximus multiplicata provenient iliaria distantiae quaesitae.

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Legend 13 — Anno 1493 1493 arbitration of the Pope

Anno 1493 cum iam longinquae navigationis studium per contentionem ferveret inter Castellanos et Portugallenses, Alexander Pontifex limitem statuit meridianum circulum 100 leucis distantem a qualibet insularum capitis Viridis et earum quas vocant Acores, qui utriusque partis navigationes et conquirendi jura determinaret, occiduum orbem Castellanis, orientalem Portogallensibus determinans. Retractato autem hoc limite ab utrisque propter incidentes altercationes anno 1524, constitutus est communis limes meridianus 370 leucis in occasum distans ab insula Sancti Antonii Gorgadum occidentalissima.

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Legend 14 — De vero Gangis On the Ganges

De vero Gangis et Aureae Chersonesi situ
Ea quae longa experientia discuntur si ad perfectam veritatis cognitionem progredi non autem falsitate obscurari debeant sic instituenda sunt, ut castigatis quae per manifestas rationes falsa sunt, probabilia retineantur, donec experientiae et ratiocinationes omnes inter se consentaneae res ipsas in sua veritate ob oculos ponant, talis est geographia, quam, si volumus veterum inventa temere quavis occasione transponere, commutare aut invertere, non modo non perficiemus, sed pro unius erroris emendatione centum veritates depravabimus et confusissimam tandem terrarum et nominum congeriem faciemus, in qua nec regiones suis locis nec nomina suis regionibus reponantur, quale quid hodie in Indiae descriptione sit a geographis, dum nimis absurde Gangem celebratissimum fluvium occidentalior faciunt Cincapura promontorio et Taprobana, qui veteribus multo fuit orientaliter, atque universam deinceps Indiae descriptionem, quae apud Ptolomeum est, invertunt et confundunt, nihil illi ultra dictum promontorium concedentes, quod in primis nobis refellendum est, quo Ptolomeo sua stet autoritas et geographica veritas eruatur, quae non minus vera nomina quam veros locorum situs postulat. Ac primum constat eam descriptionem non obiter a Ptolomeo congestam esse, sed inde usque ab Alexandro Magno multorum terra marique profectionibus, multorum observationibus hanc figuram accepisse, et emendatius collectam a Marino, integritatique a Ptolomeo restitutam, quare cum tot saeculis totque artificibus elaborata sit, non est possibile tam enormiter a vero recedere, ut tam longi littoris transpositione fallat, neque enim poterat tantarum littoris partium, quantae sunt a Comara promontorio ad Taprobanam adjacensque ei promontorium, ac dehinc ad Gangem et Auream, neque tam frequentatarum (ut copiosa locorum inscriptio arguit) consequentia ignorari, ut quae prior erat posterior poneretur, et Ganges longo intervallo Taprobanam sequeretur, qui (ut nostri volunt) multo antecedere debebat. In directionum cursu falli poterant veteres propter navigandi artem adhuc imperfectam, et quod neglectis fere directionibus littora soleant legi. In articularium itidem locorum transpositione errare poterant, at sane in hujusmodi quam diximus consequentia nequaquam. Arrianus gravis autor in Periplo veritatis nobis judex est, cui ab Indo in meridiem est Comara unde juxta consequentiam littorum per Colchos, Camaram Poducam et Sopatmam pervenit in Taprobanam et adjacentem illi regionem Azaniam, ubi nunc Malacha est nostris, et Ptolomeo, Mesolus fluvius, Arrino item Mazalia regio; postea per Desarenam Cirradas, Bargisos, Hippoprosopos demum ad Gangem fluvium et emporium pertingit. Ad haec via regia stadiorum 20 000, quae est ab Indo ad Gangem et Palibotram apud Strabonem lib.15 non alio loco Gangem admittet, quam quo nos eum cum Ptolomeo posuimus. Non enim intimus recessus Bengalici sinus, quo hodie veterum Gangem transferunt, eousque elongari ab Indo potest servatis directionibus et earum dimensionibus, ut propositam distantiam Palibotra Gangi imposita servet, simul perpenso quod Ganges a Palibotra orientem versus mare petat. Jam si consideremus 38 dierum iter quod Nicolaus de Conti Venetus confecit ab intimo inu Bengalico, et Avam fluvium, ad quem pervenit, multo majorem Guenga Bengalico, non inepte judicabimus eum ad maximum Indiae fluminum celebratissimumque verteribus Gangem pervenisse, quanquam alio forte ibi nomine vocatum, Avam quoque urbem eidem fluvio adjacentem credibile erit Palibotram esse cum ob magnitudinem, ut quae 15 miliarium ambitu patet, tum ob convenientem ab ostiis distantiam, 17 enim diebus enavigavit Nicolaus, cum 6000 stadiorum ponat Strabo. Et sane cum eo loco que nos signavimus situm fontes Guengae Bengalici, idemque quem posuimus ipsius decursus, ut Joannem de Barros testem habemus, quid absurdius dici poterat quam hunc esse veterum illum Gangem, cujus fontes constat iisdem montibus quibus Indum ortos, et 280 mil:pass: tantum a Zaradro orientalissimo Indum augentium fluvio Plinio test distare, tum etiam magna parte in meridiem ferri? Quare cum neque fontes Guengae, neque situs, neque longitudo ipsius veterum descriptioni conveniat, hunc esse veterum Gangem negamus, tametsi nomen ejus referre videatur. Quinimo nec ipsi qui ejus opinionis autores fuerunt suae sententiae confidenter stare videntur, cum alterum finxerint Gangem iisdem cum Guenga ostiis se in Bengalicum sinum exonerantem, ipsa nimirum dislocatione eos redarguente. Adde quod oppida aliquot et Moin sive Mien aut Mein regnum huic fluvio, quem nos Gangem esse defendimus, debita ad suum quoque fictitium Gangem transtulerint, quo perspicue intelligi datur verum illlum et veterum Gangem alibi quam in sinu Bengalico quaerendum esse. Praeter solidas quoque istas rationes vel figura ipsa littorum et nomina passim inscripta veritatem ostendere poterant, Comari enim promontorium et nostri cum Ptolomeo atque Arriano ponunt, tum cabo de Colle quid aluid sonat quam Collaicum Ptolomei aut Colchicum Arriani? Quid consonantius quam Jameri et Chaberis sive Camara, Pogu vel Pegu et Poduca, Tavay et Tava, Malanga et Malaca, Cantan et Gange oppidum cum fluvio maximo qualem veteres quoque Gangem testantur? Denique, si hic non est Ganges ubi posuimus, quo referentur tot insulae in sinu Gangetico a Ptolomeo positae, cum in Bengalico sinu non reperiantur? Tenemus ergo Cantan maximum fluvium esse Gangem a veteribus celebratum, et Auream ess non quae nunc Malaca est, sed Japan insulam, ut ex Arriano et Mela liquet, tametsi peninsulam faciat Ptolomeus, apud quem et Sabana emporium hodiernum insulae nomen videtur obtinere, Marcus Paulus Venetus lib : 3. cap : 2. dicit eam convenienter antiquo nomini suo auro abundantissimam esse. Praeterea insulam Burneo esse quae Ptolomeo Bonae fortunae, Celebes, Ambon et Gilolo esse quae Sindae appellantur, Mindanao cum vicinis 4 majoribus Barussas vocari refellere non possumus. Nomina item quaedam in recentioribus tabulis invenio quae Mangi et Cathaium regna Ptolomeo cognita fuisse manifeste doceant, et ad sinum Magnum quem Plinius Chrysen vocat pertinere, ut sunt in Mangi regno Pagrasa, Done, Caracaran, Agonara, Tartaho, in Cathaio autem Aspicia et Brema, quibus apud Ptolomaeum respondent Pagrasa, Daona, Lariagara, Aganagara, Coracha, Aspithara, Bramma, ut dubium nullum sit Gangem Taprobana orientaliorem esse, recteque deinceps Chrysen, insulam et sinum Magnum sequi, ultra quae Cattigara Sinarum statio postremus Ptolomaicae descriptionis terminus orientalem nostrae continentis extremitatem possidere, et in regnum, quod hodie Tenduch vocatur, incidere videtur.

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Legend 15 — Cautum est privilegio Copyright

Caesareae Majestatis ne quis in Imperio aut Regnis provinciisque ejus hereditariis intra annos 14 hoc opus ullo modo recudat aut alibi recusum eodem inferat. Idem quoque ne fiat in Belgio per annos 10 Regiae Majestatis mandato prohibetur. Aeditum autem est opus hoc Duysburgi anno Domini 1569 mense Augusto.

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Polus magnetis. Hunc altero fine tabulae in sua latitudine repetitum vides, quemadmodum et reliquas descriptiones extremitates, quae hoc tabulae latus finiunt, quod ideo factum est ut utriusque termini ad alterum continuato clarius oculis subjecta esset.

Magnetic Pole. Ye see it repeated at the other end of the chart in the proper latitude as also the other extremities of the representation which terminate at this side of the chart; this was done in order that the continuity of each of the two ends with the other shall more clearly be set before your eyes.

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Sheet 13

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Oceanus 19 ostiis inter has insulas irrumpens 4 euripos facit quibus indesinenter sub septentrionem fertur, atque ibi in viscera terrae absorbetur.
Rupes quae polo est ambitum circiter 33 leucarum habet.

The ocean breaking through by 19 passages between these isles forms four arms of the sea by which, without cease, it is carried northward there being absorbed into the bowels of the Earth.
The rock which is at the pole has a circumference of about 33 leagues.

LOCATION

Hic euripus 5 habet ostia et propter angustiam ac celerem fluxum nunquam

This arm of the sea has five passages and, on account of its straitness and of the speed of the current it never freezes.

LOCATION

Hic euripus 3 ingreditur ostiis et quotannis at 3 circiter menses congelatus manet, latitudinem habet 37 leucarum.

This arm of the sea enters by three passages and yearly remains frozen about 3 months; it has a width of 37 leagues.

LOCATION

Pygmae hic habitant 4 ad summum pedes longi, quaemadmodum illi quos in Gronlandia Screlingers vocant.

Here live pygmies whose length is 4 feet, as are also those who are called Screlingers in Greenland.

LOCATION

Haec insula optima est et saluberrima totius septentrionis.

This isle is the best and most salubrious of the whole Septentrion.

Sheet 14

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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nordenskiöld Facsimile Atlas, p.23
  2. ^ Planisphere here means a rendering of the sphere onto the plane. It has no relation to the star charts as described in the article planisphere.
  3. ^ Monmonier, Chapter 10 and notes at page 200.
  4. ^ van Nouhuys p.237 . Nouhuys claims that the records of the Plantin Press show that they sold 69 copies of the Mercator 1538 world map in the autumn of 1567 alone and presumably many hundreds in the preceding thirty years. Yet only one copy is known at present — in the Geographical Society of New York. Undoubtedly hundreds of copies of the 1569 map were distributed over the world by Plantin and others.
  5. ^ a b Heyer, A. Drei Karten–Mercator in der Breslauer Stadt-Bibliotek. Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Geographie herausgegeben von J.I.Kettler, vol VII (1890), pp. 379, 474, 507.
  6. ^ van 't Hoff (1961) , page 40.
  7. ^ van 't Hoff (1961), p.19
  8. ^ Mercator 1570 atlas, Plate 14
  9. ^ The publications of Wilhelm Krucken are available from the home page of his web site at Ad maiorem Gerardi Mercatoris gloriam.
  10. ^ van 't Hoff (1961) , page 40.
  11. ^ van 't Hoff (1961) , page 40.
  12. ^ Heyer, A. Drei Karten von Europa, Britische Inseln, Weltkarte, herausgegeben von der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde. Berlin 1891.
  13. ^ van 't Hoff (1961), p.19
  14. ^ Monmonier Figure 4.2, page 51
  15. ^ van 't Hoff (1961),
  16. ^ "Text and translations of the legends of the original chart of the world by Gerhard Mercator issued in 1569.". Hydrographics review 9/2: 7–45. 
  17. ^ The Ortelius map was published in 1570 but it was known to Mercator from about 1556getref
  18. ^ Some of the projections used in the period before 1569 are shown in the gallery. They are discussed in Snyder (Flattening the Earth Chapter 1 ) and also in his article in the History of Cartography.
  19. ^ Monmonier, Chapter 5 and notes at page 191.
  20. ^ Hollander, Raymond d'. (2005) Loxodromie et projection de Mercator. Published by the Institut Océanographique (Paris). ISBN 9782903581312.
  21. ^ Le Neptune François ou receuil des cartes marines. Levées et gravépar ordre exprés du roy. Pour l'usage de ses armées de mer. A Paris, chez Hubert Jaillot originally by Alexis-Hubert Jaillot, 1632–1712. Pirated by the Mortier brothers in Amsterdam
  22. ^ Osborne, P (2008)The Mercator Projections (Chapter 2)
  23. ^ van 't Hoff
  24. ^ van Nouhuys, p.239
  25. ^ van 't Hoff Appendices F, G.
  26. ^ Nordenskiöld Facsimile Atlas
  27. ^ Penrose, B. 1932. Travel and discovery in the Renaissance, 1420–1620. Cambridge, mass.
  28. ^ Blaeu (1606)
  29. ^ The Gutierez map of 1562 is available on several web sites: Decorative maps; The Library of Congress
  30. ^ van 't Hoff p.40 The latin text and an English translation may be found in Osley.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bagrow, Leo (1985), History of cartography [Geschichte der Kartographie] (2nd ed.), Chicago .
  • Ghym, Walter (15??), Vita Mercatoris  Check date values in: |date= (help) Translated in Osley. (Surname also spelled as Ghim)
  • Monmonier, Mark [Stephen] (2004), Rhumb Lines and Map Wars: A Social History of the Mercator Projection, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-53431-6 (hbk.) Check |isbn= value (help) 
  • Osley, A. S. (1969), Mercator, a monograph on the lettering of maps, etc. in the 16th century Netherlands, with a facsimile and translation of his treatise on the italic hand [’Literarum latinarum’] and a translation of Ghim’s ’Vita Mercatoris, Watson-Guptill (New York ) and Faber (London) 
  • van 't Hoff, Bert and editors of Imago Mundi (1961), Gerard Mercator's map of the world (1569) in the form of an atlas in the Maritime Museum Prins Hendrik at Rotterdam, reproduced on the scale of the original, Rotterdam/'s-Gravenhage: van Het Maritiem Museum Prins Hendrik. Publication No. 6. Supplement no. 2 to Imago Mundi .
  • van Nouhuys, J. W. (1933), Hydrographic Review 10/2 
  • "Text and translations of the legends of the original chart of the world by Gerhard Mercator issued in 1569.". Hydrographics review 9/2: 7–45. 
  • Van Raemdonck, J (1869), Gerard Mercator, Sa vie et ses oeuvres, St Niklaas 
  • Snyder, John P. (1993), Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections., University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-76747-7. Check |isbn= value (help) 
  • Snyder in History of Cartography getref
  • Karrow getref
  • History of Cartography getref

Further reading[edit]

Map bibliography[edit]

This bibliography gives lists of world and regional maps, on various projections, that Mercator may have used in the preparation of his world map. In addition there are examples of maps of the succeeding decades which did or did not use the Mercator projection. Where possible references are given to printed or online reproductions.

Atlases and map collections[edit]

  • Barron, Roderick (1989), Decorative Maps, Londo: Studio Editions, ISBN 1851702989 
  • Baynton-Williams, Ashley and Miles (2006), New Worlds: maps from the age of discovery, Quercus, ISBN 1905204809  Unknown parameter |Location= ignored (|location= suggested) (help)
  • Mercator (1570), Atlas of Europe . There are two online versions in the British Library: the 'Turning the pages' version at[1] and an annotated accessible copy at[2].
  • Nordenskiöld, Adolf Eric (1897), Periplus : An essay on the early history of charts and sailing-direction translated from the Swedish original by Francis A. Bather. With reproductions of old charts and maps., Stockholm 
  • Nordenskiöld, Adolf Eric (1889), Facsimile-atlas till kartografiens äldsta historia English [Facsimile-atlas to the early history of cartography with reproductions of the most important maps printed in the XV and XVI centuries translated from the Swedish by J. A. Ekelöf and C. R. Markham], Kraus Reprint Corporation and New York Dover Publications London Constable 1973, ISBN 0486229645 
  • Shirley, Rodney W. (2001), The mapping of the world : early printed world maps 1472–1700 (4 ed.), Riverside, Conn.: Early World Press, ISBN 0970351801 
  • Ptolemy, Claudius (1990), Cosmography, Leicester: Magna, ISBN 1854221035 . The maps of the Codex Lat V F.32, a 15th-century manuscript in the National Library, Naples.

World maps before 1569[edit]

  • Germanus, Henricus Martellus (1489+),   Check date values in: |date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help) In Nordenskiöld Periplus, p.123 , and Bagrow, table 40.
  • de la Cosa, Juan (1500),   Missing or empty |title= (help) Nordenskiöld Periplus, plate XLIII.
  • Ribero, Diego,   Missing or empty |title= (help) Nordenskiöld plates XLVIII–XLIX .
  • Apianus,   Missing or empty |title= (help) Nordenskiöld Periplus, plate XLIV,
  • Gastaldi, Giacomo,   Missing or empty |title= (help) Nordenskiöld Periplus, p.165, also in Shirley plate 92 (entry 107).
  • Gastaldi, Giacomo (1546), Universale  Shirley plate 72 (entry 85).
  • Cabot, Sebastian (1544), World Map  Shirley plate 69 (entry 81).
  • Ruys, Johann,   Missing or empty |title= (help) Nordenskiöld Facsimile Atlas, plate XXXII.
  • Finnaeus, Orontius,   Missing or empty |title= (help) Nordenskiöld Facsimile Atlas, plate XLI.
  • Mercator, Gerardus (1538),   Missing or empty |title= (help) Nordenskiöld Facsimile Atlas, plate XLIII. Shirley plate 79 (entries 74 and 91).
  • Ortelius, Abraham (1564), Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis  Shirley plate 97 (entry 114).

Regional maps before 1569[edit]

  • Mercator, Gerardus (1554), Map of Europe .
  • Gastaldi (1561), Map of Asia  Nordenskiöld Periplus, plates LIV, LV, LVI.
  • Gastaldi (1564), Map of Africa  Nordenskiöld Periplus, plates XLVI.
  • Gutierez (1562), Map of South America  Bagrow, Plate 86.

World maps using the Mercator projection after 1569[edit]

  • Hondius (1596),   Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Hondius (1608),   Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Wright1599,   Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Quadt (1608),   Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Dudley (1646),   Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Blaeu, William Janzoon (1606), Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Geographica ac Hydrographiva Tabula . Printed in New Worlds, page 59

World maps not using the Mercator projection after 1569[edit]

  • Ortelius, Abraham (1570), Typus Orbis Terrarum  [[#CITEREF|]]

below[edit]

more[edit]

projections

oval (Agnese 1540, Bordone 1528, Ortelius 1570; cordiform (Werner 1514 double cordiform Fine 1531, Mercator 1538,

[3] Piri Reis map

[4]

[5]

uni minnesota

[6] oronce

[7] de Jode 1593 polar projections

Gutierez map of 1562

http://www.decorative-maps.com/map-analysis-gutierrez-americae.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/gutierrz.html