User:Philogo

It is all the same to me...whether it is your own opinion or not. It is the argument itself that I wish to probe, though it may turn out that both I who question and you who answer are equally under scrutiny

— Plato, Protagoras, 333c

 WikiProject Philosophy task list Optimism should have a separate page that focuses on the philosophical idea of optimism and distinguishes the philosophical view from "positive thinking" and other everyday uses of the word. Philosophy of social science, has some okay points but requires elaboration on Wittgenstein and Winch, perhaps other linguistic critiques, whether logical positivist or postmodernist. Exchange value needs to be redone, it shouldn't be under 'Marxist theory'- although it's an important component of Marxist theory it's also vital for all economics. That said the articles weight on Marx is also absurd. German Idealism and the articles related to it may need to be rewritten or expanded to avoid undue weight on Arthur Schopenhauer. Protected values first section confuses right action and values and needs a copy edit, moving and wikifying Quality (philosophy) needs a more clear explanation. Socratic dialogues could do with some tidying and clarification. See the talk page for one suggested change. Problem of universals: The introductory definition is (perhaps) fixed. But, the article is poor. Check out the German version. Teleology: the article is shallow and inconsistent. Existentialism: the quality of this article varies wildly and is in desperate need of expert attention. Analytic philosophy This is a very major topic, but still has several sections which are stubs, and several topics which are not covered. Lifeworld A philosophical concept that seems to have fallen exclusively into the hands of the sociologists. Could use some attention; it's a major and complex issue in phenomenology. Amorality This page needs great attention as it is currently totally uninformative and, in my opinion, risks more to confuse readers than inform them, as most people will come here with no knowledge of amoralism and worse, often with huge bias against it. Percept The proposed content needs attention of philosophically minded Wikipedians. This is only a start in overhaul of perception and related articles. Edit this list | To do | stubs | Article alerts | Cleanup listing | Category | Portal | RFC | Deletion | Requested articles | Discussion
 WikiProject Logic task list This list should be actively updated: Discuss Logical form is in need of attention Proposition is in need of attention Logical connective is in need of attention Descriptivist theory of names needs edit particularly in first section after TOC Logical connectives: (subproject page) integration, and consistent format Charles Stewart's watchlist | stubs | edit this list | discuss these tasks | Category:Logic | Portal:Logic | RFC (philosophy) | RFC (mathematics) | Requested Articles/Redlinks
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Quote de jour

{{harv or sfn or harvnb, etc | last name(s) of author(s) | year | p=page number, or pp=page range or loc=other location }}

Trope (philosophy)

Wikipedia:WikiProject Logic/Standards for notation

Wikipedia:WikiProject Logic/Standards for notation#Symbols

dirty sandbox

clean sandbox

Sandbox

POLSandbox

Truthbearer sandbox

LogconSandbox

VacuousRefSandbox

BeyondFOLSandbox

pics1

frege

plato

Plato

Truth, Propositions and Meaning

(Truth, Propositions and Meaning)

Since logic refers to truth and falsity it presupposes the meaningfulness of these terms and so philosophy of logic has concerned itself with the correct analysis of the meaning of these terms. It is as well to begin with making some distinctions based on Wolfram 1989, (Chapter 2 Section1), and introduce and some terminology as used in this article

• A: This toucan can catch a can.
• B: If you have a bucket, then you have a pail.
• C: I promise to be good.
• D: He is grnd.
• E: Are you happy?
• F: Cats blows the wind
• G: This stone is thinking about Vienna
• H: This circle is square
• I: The author of Waverly is dead
• J: The author of Ivanhoe is dead
• K: I am under six foot tall
• L: I am over six foot tall
• M: The conductor is a bachelor
• N: The conductor is married
• O: The conductor is an unmarried man.
• P: I'm Spartacus.
• Q: I'm Spartacus.
• R: Spartacus sum.
• I: He's Spartacus.

Characters
By character we will mean a typographic character (printed or written), a unit of speech, a phoneme, a series of dots and dashes (as sounds, magnetic pulses or printed or written), a flag or stick held at a certain angle, a gesture, a sign as use in sign language, a pattern or raised indentations (as in brail) etc. in other words the sort of things that are commonly described as the element of an alphabet.

Words.
Word-tokens and word-types and word-meanings.

Word-tokens
A word-token is a pattern of characters.
The pattern of characters A (above) contains five word-tokens

Meaningful-word-tokens
A word-token which means soemthing is a meaningful-word-token. grnd in D above does not mean anything.

Word-types
A word-type is an identical pattern of characters (or units of speech).
The pattern of characters A (above) contains four word-types (the word-token can occurring twice)

Word-meanings
Two word-tokens which mean the same are of the same word-meaning. Only those word-tokens whcih are meaningful-word-tokens can have the smae mening as anothr word-token. The pattern of characters A (above) contains four word-meanings.
Although it contains only four word-types, the two occurrences of the word-token can have different meanings.
Consider the pattern of characters labeled B above.
On the assumption that bucket and spade mean the same, B contains ten word-tokens, seven word-types, and six word-meanings.

Sentences
In grammar a sentence can be a declaration, an explanation, a question, a command. In logic a declarative sentence is considered to be a sentence that can be used to communicate truth. Some sentences which are grammatically declarative are not logically so.

Meaningful Declarative-sentences A declarative-sentence is a ...

Sentence-tokens
A sentence-token is a pattern of meaningful word-tokens.
The pattern of characters D (above) is not a sentence-token because grnd is not a meaningful word-token.

Sentence-types1
Two sentence-tokens are of the same sentence-type1 if they are identical patterns of meaningful word-tokens characters, e.g. the sentence-tokens P and Q above are of the same sentence-type1.

Declarative-sentence-tokens
A declarative-sentence-token is a sentence-token which that can be used to communicate truth or convey information.
The pattern of characters E (above) is not a declarative-sentence-token because it interrogative not declarative.
Meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens
A meaningful-declarative-sentence-token is a declarative-sentence-token which has meaning.
The pattern of characters F (above) (Cats blows the wind) is not a meaningful-declarative-sentence-token because it is grammatically ill-formed
The pattern of characters G above ( This stone is thinking about Vienna) is not a meaningful-declarative-sentence-token because thinking cannot be predicated of a stone
The pattern of characters H (above) (This circle is square) is not a meaningful-declarative-sentence-token because it is internally inconsistent

Meaningful-declarative-sentence-types Two meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens are of the same meaningful-declarative-sentence-type if …..

Nonsense- declarative-sentence-token
A nonsense-declarative-sentence-token is a declarative-sentence-token which is not a meaningful-declarative-sentence-token.
The patterns of characters F, G & H above are nonsense-declarative-sentence-token because they are declarative-sentence-token but not meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens

Propositions
A meaningful-declarative-sentence-token expresses a proposition.
Two meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens which have the same meaning express the same proposition.
The two patterns of characters I: (The author of Waverly is dead) and J (The author of Ivanhoe is dead) have different meanings and therefore express different propositions.

Statements
The concept of a statement was introduced by John Stebbing in the 1950s.
Two meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens which say the same thing of the same object(s) make the same statement.
On the assumption that the same person wrote Waverly and Ivanhoe, the two patterns of characters I: (The author of Waverly is dead) and J (The author of Ivanhoe is dead) make the same statement but express different propositions.
The pairs of sentence-tokens (K, L) & (M, N) have different meanings, but they are not necessarily contradictory, since K& L may have been asserted by different people, and M & N nay have been asserted about different conductors.

What there examples show is that we cannot identify that which is true or false (the statement) with the sentence used in making it; for the same sentence may be used to make different statements, some of them true and some of them false.

(Stebbing 1952)

...

Frege: Thought

pol glossary

• Word.
• 1. (word-token) an individual instance of a word.
• 2. (word-type1) word-tokens are of the same word-type if they are typographically identical
• 3. (wordtype2) word-tokens are of the same word-type if they are typographically identical and have the same meaning
• Sentence. (varied usage) Series of words bounded by full stops, etc. and distinguished into sentence-token and sentence-type.
• Token. (word, sentence, proposition, statement). Individual instance of a word &c., a particular.
• Particular. Individual such as material object, event person.: distinguished from non-particulars by feature that there can be two particulars which are indistinguishable except for their location in time and space.
• word-token: A word-token is a sequence of characters (or units of speech).
• word-type. A word-type is an identical sequence of characters (or units of speech).

A word-token is a sequence of characters (or units of speech).
A word-type is an identical sequence of characters (or units of speech).
The sequence of characters A (above) contains four word-types (the word-token can occurring twice)

• Word-meanings
• Meaningful Declarative-sentences: A declarative-sentence is a ...
• Sentence-tokens. A sentence-token is a sequence of meaningful word-tokens.
• Declarative-sentence-tokens: A declarative-sentence-token is a sentence-token which that can be used to communicate truth or convey information.
• Meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens. A meaningful-declarative-sentence-token is a declarative-sentence-token which has meaning.
• Nonsense- declarative-sentence-token. A nonsense-declarative-sentence-token is a declarative-sentence-token which is not a meaningful-declarative-sentence-token.
• Propositions. A meaningful-declarative-sentence-token expresses a proposition. Two meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens which have the same meaning express the same proposition.
• Statements. Two meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens which say the same thing of the same object(s) make the same statement.

pol citations

Wolfram (1989). Philosophical Logic: an introduction. Routledge. ISBN 0 415 02317 3 (0 415 02318 (pbk)) Check |isbn= value (help). Unknown parameter |Sybil= ignored (help)

quotes

Let us first look at the term proposition. It has its origin in the Gr. , used by Aristotle in the Prior Analytics, the third part of the Organon. It was translated, apparently by Cicero, into Lat. propositio, which has its modern counterparts in It.\ proposizione, Eng. proposition and Ger. Satz. In the old, traditional use of the word proposition, propositions are the things that we prove. We talk about proposition and proof, of course, in mathematics: we put up a proposition and let it be followed by its proof. In particular, the premises and conclusion of an inference were propositions in this old terminology. It was the standard use of the word up to the last century. And it is this use which is retained in mathematics, where a theorem is sometimes called a proposition, sometimes a theorem. Thus we have two words for the things that we prove, proposition and theorem. The word proposition, Gr. , comes from Aristotle and has dominated the logical tradition, whereas the word theorem, Gr. , is in Euclid, I believe, and has dominated the mathematical tradition.

With Kant, something important happened, namely, that the term judgement, Ger. Urteil, came to be used instead of proposition. Perhaps one reason is that proposition, or a word with that stem, at least, simply does not exist in German: the corresponding German word would be Lehrsatz, or simply Satz. Be that as it may, what happened with Kant and the ensuing German philosophical tradition was that the word judgement came to replace the word proposition. Thus, in that tradition, a proof, Ger. Beweis, is always a proof of a judgement. In particular, the premises and conclusion of a logical inference are always called judgements. And it was the judgements, or the categorical judgements, rather, which were divided into affirmations and denials, whereas earlier it was the propositions which were so divided.

The term judgement also has a long history. It is the Gr. , translated into Lat. judicium, It. giudizio, Eng. judgement, and Ger. Urteil. Now, since it has as long a history as the word proposition, these two were also previously used in parallel. The traditional way of relating the notions of judgement and proposition was by saying that a proposition is the verbal expression of a judgement. This is, as far as I know, how the notions of proposition and judgement were related during the scholastic period, and it is something which is repeated in the Port Royal Logic, for instance. You still find it repeated by Brentano in this century. Now, this means that, when, in German philosophy beginning with Kant, what was previously called a proposition came to be called a judgement, the term judgement acquired a double meaning. It came to be used, on the one hand, for the act of judging, just as before, and, on the other hand, it came to be used instead of the old proposition. Of course, when you say that a proposition is the verbal expression of a judgement, you mean by judgement the act of judging, the mental act of judging in scholastic terms, and the proposition is the verbal expression by means of which you make the mental judgement public, so to say. That is, I think, how one thought about it. Thus, with Kant, the term judgement became ambiguous between the act of judging and that which is judged, or the judgement made, if you prefer. German has here the excellent expression gefälltes Urteil, which has no good counterpart in English.

references

rhubarb

¬ → $\forall$ $\exists$

Wikipedia:WikiProject Logic/Standards for notation#Symbols

reflist

1. ^ Wolfram, Sybil (1989). Routledge. Missing or empty |title= (help)
2. ^ Sybil Wolfram, Philosophical Logic, Routledge, London and New York, 1989, ISBN 0 415 02317 3, page 55
3. ^ Wolfram, Sybil (1989). Philosophical Logic. Routledge, London and New York. ISBN 0 415 02317 3.

refgroup

1. ^ Wolfram, Sybil (1989). Philosophical Logic. Routledge, London and New York. ISBN 0 415 02317 3.

&site=en.wikipedia.org Wannabe Kate

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In Aristotle's view, if X is the assertion that s is F and Y is the assertion that s is not-F, then (a) if s exists then X is true or false and Y the contrary depending of whether of not s is F, but (b) if s does not exist then X is false and Y is true [1] [2]

1. ^ Aristotle (350 B.C.E). Categories. p. Section 3 Part 10 (iii). "At the same time, when the words which enter into opposed statements are contraries, these, more than any other set of opposites, would seem to claim this characteristic. 'Socrates is ill' is the contrary of 'Socrates is well', but not even of such composite expressions is it true to say that one of the pair must always be true and the other false. For if Socrates exists, one will be true and the other false, but if he does not exist, both will be false; for neither 'Socrates is ill' nor 'Socrates is well' is true, if Socrates does not exist at all. In the case of 'positives' and 'privatives', if the subject does not exist at all, neither proposition is true, but even if the subject exists, it is not always the fact that one is true and the other false. For 'Socrates has sight' is the opposite of 'Socrates is blind' in the sense of the word 'opposite' which applies to possession and privation. Now if Socrates exists, it is not necessary that one should be true and the other false, for when he is not yet able to acquire the power of vision, both are false, as also if Socrates is altogether non-existent. But in the case of affirmation and negation, whether the subject exists or not, one is always false and the other true. For manifestly, if Socrates exists, one of the two propositions 'Socrates is ill', 'Socrates is not ill', is true, and the other false. This is likewise the case if he does not exist; for if he does not exist, to say that he is ill is false, to say that he is not ill is true. Thus it is in the case of those opposites only, which are opposite in the sense in which the term is used with reference to affirmation and negation, that the rule holds good, that one of the pair must be true and the other false." More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help);
2. ^ Aristotle. "Categories".

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Name Description/Usage Symbol(s) Preferred Symbol(s) Template [itex] See
Definition $X\stackrel{\rm def}=y_1,y_2,\dots$ $\stackrel{\rm def}=$ $\stackrel{\rm def}=$ none \stackrel{\rm def}= Definition
Theorem $X \vdash Y$, $\vdash Z$, $A \vdash_S X$ $\vdash$ $\vdash$ {{tee}} \vdash Turnstile (symbol)
Semantic Entailment $A \models_L X$, $\models X$ $\models$ $\models$ {{models}} \models Double turnstile
True, tautology  $\vDash \top$ $\top$ or T or 1 $\top$ {{true}} \top Tee (symbol)
False, contradiction  $\vDash \neg\bot$ $\bot$ or F or 0 $\bot$ {{false}} \bot Falsum

• $\vdash$ \vdash Turnstile (symbol)
• cf ⊢
• Semantic Entailment , $\models$
• Definition none \stackrel{\rm def}= Definition
• Theorem , , $\vdash$ \vdash Turnstile (symbol)
• Semantic Entailment , $\models$ \models Double turnstile
• True, tautology or T or 1 $\top$ \top Tee (symbol)
• False, contradiction or F or 0 $\bot$ \bot Falsum

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Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Logic {{logic}}Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Philosophy#WikiProject Logic tst — Philogo (talk) 02:37, 13 February 2011 (UTC) tst — Philogos (talk) 02:38, 13 February 2011 (UTC)

We say that A is contradictory (according to quantification theory) iff ~A is logically valid, or, equivalently, iff A is false for every interpretation

1. Pn0, Pn1, Pn2, Pn3, … 2. For every integer n ≥ 0 there are infinitely many n-ary function symbols: f n0, f n1, f n2, f n3, … In contemporary mathematical logic, the 3. Pn0, Pn1, Pn2, Pn3, … f n0, f n1, f n2, f n3, …

deaths

John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy pronunciation (help·info) (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.

Harry Stanley Harry Stanley (c. 1953–22 September 1999) was a painter and decorator who was fatally shot by police in controversial circumstances.

Roger Sylvester Roger Sylvester (c. 1969–11 January 1999) was a mentally ill black man who died in north London after being detained outside his home in Tottenham by eight Metropolitan police officers.

Christopher Alder Christopher Ibikunle Alder was a trainee computer programmer and former British Army paratrooper who had been decorated for his service with the Army in Northern Ireland.[1] He died while in police custody at Queen's Gardens Police Station, Kingston upon Hull, in April 1998.[2]

Stephen Lawrence Stephen Lawrence, a black British teenager (born 13 September 1974) from Eltham, southeast London, was stabbed to death while waiting for a bus on the evening of 22 April 1993.[1]

Oluwashijibomi Lapite Oluwashijibomi "Shiji" Lapite (died December 16, 1994) was a 34 year-old Nigerian asylum seeker. Married to Olamide Jones and the father of two young children he died in the back of a police van shortly after being detained by two officers from Stoke Newington police station in London, England.[1]

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1. Sider, Theodore (1997). "Four-Dimensionalism". Philosophical Review (Oxford University Press) 106 (2): 197–231. http://tedsider.org/papers/4d.pdf.
2. "The Unreality of Time". Wikisource. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Unreality_of_Time. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
3. "Time". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2002-11-25. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/time/#TimTra). Retrieved 2008-12-15.

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The following shows the lede before and after my recent edits Before In philosophy, four-dimensionalism may refer to either eternalism or perdurantism. The former is a theory of time, while the latter is a theory about the identity of objects over time. Sider (1997), for example, uses the term four-dimensionalism to refer to perdurantism, the theory that objects (and people) are four dimensional (see below for explanation). Eternalism, by contrast, is the theory that the universe (but not necessarily its contents, e.g., objects and people) is four dimensional, with time being the fourth dimension. Nevertheless, both theories tend to be discussed together, as many philosophers hold the combination of eternalism and perdurantism, considering both as better theories than their counterparts, presentism and endurantism, respectively. Probably, nobody who accepts perdurantism rejects eternalism, and it is unclear if such a position would even be coherent.

After In philosophy, four-dimensionalism (also known as the the doctrine of temporal parts and the theory that objects "perdure") is the philosophical theory that persistanmce through time is like extension through space and an object that exists in time has temporal parts in the various subregions of the total region of time it occupies. (Sider (1997, page 1)) [1] Contemporary four-dimensionalists include, according to Sider (1997), Armstrong (1980), Hughes (1986) , Heller (1884, 1990,1992,1992) and Lewis (1983, 1986).

Four-dimensionalism may refer to either eternalism or perdurantism. Eternalism is a philosophical approach to the ontological nature of time, according to which all points in time are equally "real", as opposed to the presentist idea that only the present is real.[2] Perdurantism or perdurance theory is a philosophical theory of persistence and identity.[3] according to which an individual has distinct temporal parts throughout its existence. Thus eternalism is a theory of time, while perdurantism is a theory about the identity of objects over time. Sider (1997) uses the term four-dimensionalism to refer to perdurantism. Eternalism and perdurantism tend to be discussed together because many philosophers argue for a combination of eternalism and perdurantism, considering both as better theories than their counterparts, presentism and endurantism, respectively. It may be argued that the acceptance of perdurantism and rejection of eternalism would would be incoherent.

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test template Please do not add or change content without verifying it by citing reliable sources, as you did to [[test]]. Please review the guidelines at Wikipedia:Citing sources and take this opportunity to add references to the article. Thank you. —

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In logic, entailment is a relation between a set of sentences (meaningfully declarative sentences or truthbearers) and another sentence. If a sentence, S1, is the conjunction of all the elements of a set of one or more sentences, Γ, then, Γ entails another sentence, S2, if and only if S1 and not-S2 are logically inconsistent. Using $\models$ to stand for entailment we can write:

• If Γ =$\{A_1,A_2,\ldots,A_n\}$ & $S1 = A_1\wedge A_2\wedge \ldots \wedge A_n$ then Γ $\models$ S2 $\stackrel{\rm def}=$ (S1 & ¬S2) $\models$ $\bot$.

If a set of one or more sentences, Γ, entails a sentence, S2, then S2 is called the logical consequent of the conjunction of the elements of Γ, S1,and the conjunction of the elements of Γ, S1, is said to logically imply S2.

jlkjklj In logic, entailment is a relation between logical propositions: a set of propositions $\{A_1,A_2,\ldots,A_n\}$ entails a proposition $B$ if and only if the conjunction $A = A_1\wedge A_2\wedge \ldots \wedge A_n$ logically contradicts the negation $\neg B$. When this is the case, we say that A logically implies B, or that B is a logical consequent of A.

A set of propositions Γ = $\{A_1,A_2,\ldots,A_n\}$ entails a sentence $S2$ if and only if the conjunction $S1 = A_1\wedge A_2\wedge \ldots \wedge A_n$ logically contradicts the negation $\neg S2$. When this is the case, we say that S1 logically implies S2, or that S2 is a logical consequent of S1.

Γ = $\{A_1,A_2,\ldots,A_n\}$ entails a sentence $S2$ if and only if the conjunction $S1 = A_1\wedge A_2\wedge \ldots \wedge A_n$ logically contradicts the negation $\neg S2$. When this is the case, we say that S1 logically implies S2, or that S2 is a logical consequent of S1.

sider refs

Sider (1997), Armstrong (1980): Armstrong, David M. (1980). “Identity Through Time.” In Peter van Inwagen (ed.), Time and Cause, 67-68 Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

Hughes (1986): Hughes, C. (1986)). “Is a Thing Just the Sum of Its Parts?” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 85: 213-33.

Heller (1984, 1990,1992,1993) Heller, Mark (1984). “Temporal Parts of Four Dimensional Objects.” Philo- sophical Studies 46: 323-34. Reprinted in Rea 1997: 12.-330. Heller, Mark (1990). The Ontology of Physical Objects: Four-dimensional Hunks of Matter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Heller, Mark (1992). “Things Change.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52: 695-304 Heller, Mark (1993). “Varieties of Four Dimensionalism.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71: 47-59.

Lewis (1983, 1986). Lewis, David (1983). “Survival and Identity.” In Philosophical Papers, Volume 1, 55-7. Oxford: Oxford University Press. With postscripts. Originally published in Amelie O. Rorty, ed., The Identities of Persons (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 17-40. Lewis, David (1986a). On the Plurality of Worlds. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Lewis, David (1986b). Philosophical Papers, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Adams, Robert Merrihew †). “Time and Thisness.” In French et al. (1986), 315™. Armstrong, David M. €). “Identity Through Time.” In Peter van Inwagen (ed.), Time and Cause, 67À. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Chisholm, Roderick ~). Person and Object: A Metaphysical Study. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Co. Dau, Paolo †). “Part-Time Objects.” In French et al. (1986), 459¼. Evans, Gareth €). “Can There Be Vague Objects?” Analysis 38: 208. Fine, Kit Œ). “Compounds and Aggregates.” Noûs 28_): 137p. French, Peter, Theodore E. Uehling, Jr. and Howard K. Wettstein (eds.) †). Midwest Studies in Philosophy XI: Studies in Essentialism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Geach, Peter z). “Some Problems about Time.” 302. Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press. Graham, George ). “Persons and Time.” Southern Journal of Philosophy 15: 308. Haslanger, Sally Œ). “Humean Supervenience and Enduring Things.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72: 339±. Haslanger, Sally and Roxanne Marie Kurtz (eds.) _). Persistence: Contempo- rary Readings. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Heller, Mark „). “Temporal Parts of Four Dimensional Objects.” Philo- sophical Studies 46: 323œ. Reprinted in Rea 1997: 320Ø. — ˆ). The Ontology of Physical Objects: Four-dimensional Hunks of Matter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 31

— Š). “Things Change.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52: 695Ä. — ‹). “Varieties of Four Dimensionalism.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71: 47±. Hirsch, Eli ‚). The Concept of Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hughes, C. †). “Is a Thing Just the Sum of Its Parts?” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 85: 213›. Kazmi, Ali Akhtar ˆ). “Parthood and Persistence.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 16: 227¨. Leonard, Henry S. and Nelson Goodman ‘). “The Calculus of Individuals and its Uses.” Journal of Symbolic Logic 5: 45­. Lewis, David ƒ). “Survival and Identity.” In Philosophical Papers, Volume 1 , 55•7. Oxford: Oxford University Press. With postscripts. Originally published in Amelie O. Rorty, ed., The Identities of Persons (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 17-40. — † a). On the Plurality of Worlds. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. — † b). Philosophical Papers, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Markosian, Ned ). “Brutal Composition.” Philosophical Studies 92: 211©. Mellor, D. H. ). Real Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Merricks, Trenton Œ). “Endurance and Indiscernibility.” Journal of Philoso- phy 91: 165Ä. — ). “On the Incompatibility of Enduring and Perduring Entities.” Mind 104: 523Y. Perry, John (ed.) }). Personal Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press. Prior, A.N. x). “Changes in Events and Changes in Things.” In Papers on Time and Tense, 7‘. London: Oxford University Press. 32

Quine, W. V. O. ~). “Whither Physical Objects.” In R.S. Cohen, P.K. Feyerabend and M.W. Wartofsky (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos, 497D. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. — ). Theories and Things. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Rea, Michael (ed.) ). Material Constitution. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Little_eld. Sider, Theodore ‹). “Van Inwagen and the Possibility of Gunk.” Analysis 53: 285É. — Ž a). “All the World’s a Stage.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74: 433+. Reprinted in Haslanger and Kurtz 2006: 91O. — Ž b). “Merricks on Perdurance/Endurance Incompatibility.” Never published; but material from this paper appeared in chapter 3 of Sider (2001). — _). Four-Dimensionalism. Oxford: Clarendon. Simons, Peter ‡). Parts: A Study in Ontology. Oxford: Clarendon. Thomson, Judith Jarvis ƒ). “Parthood and Identity across Time.” Journal of Philosophy 80: 201. Reprinted in Rea 1997: 25£. Unger, Peter ). “I Do Not Exist.” In G. F. Macdonald (ed.), Perception and Identity: Essays Presented to A. J. Ayer with His Replies to Them, 235©. New York: Macmillan. Reprinted in Rea 1997: 175È. van Inwagen, Peter ). “The Doctrine of Arbitrary Undetached Parts.” Paci_c Philosophical Quarterly 62: 123_. Reprinted in van Inwagen 2001: 75Ì. — ˆ a). “Four-Dimensional Objects.” Noûs 24: 245­. Reprinted in van Inwagen 2001: 111Q. — ˆ b). Material Beings. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. — _). Ontology, Identity and Modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 33

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Argument: Prevailing usage in logic

The prevailing use of the term argument in logic is that it (a) consists of one or more premises and a conclusion (b) the premises purport to support the conclusion (c) in the case of deductive argument, the premises are purported to entail the conclusion (d) Various terms are used in the literature when saying what the premises and the conclusion are including statements, sentences (by which are meant declarative or indicative sentences), propositions, claims. All authors agree that whichever terms they have used , they are referring to whatever it is they consider to be either true or false (i.e. truthbearers ).

The following citations from reliable sources are offered in evidence for the above:

• The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 2nd Ed. CUM, 1995: "Argument: a sequence of statements such that some of them (the premises) purport to give reason to accept another of them, the conclusion"; Stanford Enc. Phil., Classical Logic;
• Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy."Argument", <http://www.iep.utm.edu/argument/>: "An argument is a connected series of statements or propositions, some of which are intended to provide support, justification or evidence for the truth of another statement or proposition. Arguments consist of one or more premises and a conclusion. The premises are those statements that are taken to provide the support or evidence; the conclusion is that which the premises allegedly support."
• Standford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy, Informal Logic [1]: "The premises of a valid deductive argument guarantee the truth of the conclusion. If the premises are true, the conclusion cannot be false. Informal logic tends to categorize arguments in terms of a consequent distinction between "deductive" and "inductive" arguments (a distinction that Govier [1987] aptly calls "the great divide"). In contrast with valid deductive arguments, the premises of a good inductive argument render a conclusion only probable, leaving it possible that the premises are true and the conclusion false (identifying poor arguments as deductive or inductive is inherently problematic: perhaps it can best be said that poor deductive and inductive arguments are arguments that in some way approximate good deductive and inductive forms)."
• Wesley Salman, Logic, PH 1963. pp 2,3 : "Arguments are often used to convince, and this is one of those important and legitimate function; however logic is not concerned with the persuasive power of argument. ..Roughly speaking, an argument is a conclusion standing in relation to its supporting evidence." More precisely, an argument is a group of statements standing in relation to each other. (Footnote: The term "statement" is used to refer to components of arguments because it is philosophically more neutral than alternatives such as "sentence" or "proposition". No technical definition of "statement is offered here, because any definition would raise controversies in the philosophy of language which need not trouble the beginner. More sophisticated readers may supply whatever technical definition seems most appropriate to them.) An argument consists of one statement which is the conclusion and one or more statements of supporting evidence. The statements of evidence are called "premises".
• Mates, Elementary Logic, 1972, p 4, 5 ".. Logic investigates the relation of consequence that holds between the premises and the conclusion of a sound argument... By an argument we mean a system of declarative sentences(of a single language) one of which is designated as the conclusion and the other as premises...Sentences are usually classified as declarative, interrogative, imperative etc. Characteristic of declarative sentences is that they are true or false, and it is these that are of primary interest to the logician."
• Jennifer Fisher, The Philosophy of Logic, 2008, p 6: "An argument ..is a set of sentences in which one or sentences are supposed to give some sort of support to another sentence." and p 24 14 "a set of sentences in which one sentence (sentences) is (are) supposed to give some sort of support to another sentence."
• Anthony Harrison-Barbet, Mastering Philosophy, p 13: "In an argument we pass from one or more propositions called premises to another proposition called the conclusion"
• LTF Gamit, Logic Language and Meaning, 1991, p 1 "For our purposes it is convenient to see an argument as a sequence of sentences, with the premises at the beginning and the conclusion at the end of the argument." p 6 "An argument is composed of indicative sentences. It does not contain any questions, for example."
• Barwise & Ethcmendy, Language Proof and Logic, 1999, page 42: "..an arguments is any series of statement in which one (called the concusion) is meant to follow from, or be supported by the others (called the premises)"
• Sybil Wolfram, Philosophical Logic, 1989: p 10 "An argument is generally said to be valid if the conclusion follows from the premises" p 276 "Sentence: (varied usage) here used of series of words bounded by full stops etc"; p 33 "A meaningful declarative sentence is, as a first approximation, one which could express a truth (convey information)
• Ian Hacking, A concise Introduction to Logic, Random House, NY; 1972, pp 5,6: "We can divide an argument into two parts. There is the part that states the conclusion and the part that gives the reasons. Statements giving reasons are called (27) PREMISES/CONCLUSION. The (28)_______________ give reasons for the (29)______________"
• Ralph Johnson's Manifest Rationality: A pragmatic theory of argument (2000) "One view of argument sees it as a set of statements, (propositions, assertions, beliefs, and judgments), one of which, the conclusion, is supported by the others — the premises. A definition of this sort can be found in every kind of logic text, whether deductive or inductive, formal or informal. }}
• The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Honderich, 1995)p 47 : "In the most important sense for philosophy an argument is a complex consisting of a set of propositions (called its premises) and a proposition (called its conclusion). You can use an argument by asserting its premises and drawing or inferring its conclusion"

4dtexts

[2]

REA

Michael Rea (Forthcoming in The Oxford Handbook for Metaphysics) uses the term ‘four-dimensionalism’ to mean the view that presentism is false as opposed to ‘perdurantism’, the view that objects last over time without being wholly present at every time at which they exist. [4]

1 References

1. ^ Sider:publisher Philosophical Review (Oxford University Press), Ted (1997). [http://tedsider.org/papers/4d.pdf))
2. ^ Kuipers, Theo A.F. (2007). General Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues. North Holland. p. 326. ISBN 978-0444515483.
3. ^ Temporal parts - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
4. ^

.. This view is variously called ‘four-dimensionalism’, ‘perdurantism’, or ‘the doctrine of temporal parts’. Some think that four-dimensionalism understood as the denial of presentism implies four-dimensionalism understood as perdurantism. But whether or not that is true, the important thing to recognize is that these are two very different views. To avoid confusion, I will in this paper reserve the term ‘four-dimensionalism’ exclusively for the view that presentism is false, and I will use the term ‘perdurantism’ to refer to the view that objects last over time without being wholly present at every time at which they exist.

— MICHAEL C. REA, FOUR DIMENSIONALISM, Forthcoming in The Oxford Handbook for Metaphysics)

[ https://www.nd.edu/~mrea/papers/Four%20Dimensionalism.pdf] Four-dimensionalism].