Human Biodiversity (HBD) is a concept that attributes observed behavioral and cognitive differences between social classes, the two sexes and the major human races to human genotypic variation. It is subset of hereditarianism. Proponents of human biodiversity argue that genetics can be used to explain a wide range of diverse phenomena including but not limited to the continuing poverty of much of the third world, the overall failure of nonwhites, with the exception of [East Asians|East Asians], to successfully integrate into Western societies, and racial disparities in socioeconomic status, crime and educational achievement.
Blogger Half Sigma defines human biodiversity as follows:
Human biodiversity is an acknowledgment that humans differ from each other in various ways because of our different genotypes. Differences include, but are not limited to, physical appearance, athletic ability, personality, and cognitive abilities.
One especially significant genetic difference between humans is whether or not they have one X and one Y chromosome or two X chromosomes. In addition to looking different, humans with two X chromosomes have different behavioral and cognitive predispositions than humans with one Y and one X chromosome.Even when humans are of the same race and sex, they can have vastly different cognitive and behavioral predispositions. This is also part of HBD.
HBD and Race
See also: Race and Intelligence
The heritability of IQ in the United States has been found to be between 0.4 and 0.8. Blacks have lower IQs and educational achievements than whites in any society where the two races live together. Also, IQ is correlated with brain size and whites have bigger skulls than blacks. Those of East Asian descent likewise outperform whites in IQ and educational achievement in the US, Britain,, Australia, Canada,  and Brazil. IQ is important because it predicts educational achievement, income, crime, out of wedlock pregnancy, and job performance. If different races have different IQs, than in a multi-racial society life disparities are inevitable.
Many of those who advocate human biodiversity to explain racial disparities do so because they believe whites, both living and dead, have been wrongly demonized and blamed for the problems of nonwhites. Michael Levin wrote the following in his book Why Race Matters.
The topic of racial variation is admittedly disturbing, and in an ideal world might be passed over in silence, but accusations against whites have made such discretion impossible. The right of the accused to present his case includes the right to raise issues that distress his accuser. A plaintiff demanding damages for a broken leg cannot ask at the same time that his leg not be talked about, nor take offense when the defendant presents evidence that the injury was congenital...Claiming racial harm has opened the topic of race differences.
A society that acknowledged racial differences in intelligence may not waste money or effort in trying to close educational achievement gaps. It also may be less likely to consider inequality of outcome as evidence of an unfair society. Perhaps most importantly, first world nations may be permanently lowering their standard of living by allowing low-IQ immigration and HBD can be used to argue against this.
Steve Sailer invokes HBD explanations to account for racial disparities in interracial marriage rates(more black men tend to marry white women than the other way around and same with white men marrying Asian women) and sports achievement.
R/k Selection Theory
Main article: Race, Evolution and Behavior
Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective is a controversial book written by J. Philippe Rushton, a professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, and the current head of the Pioneer fund. Rushton argues that race is a valid biological concept and that racial differences frequently arrange in a continuum of Mongoloids (Orientals, East Asians) at one extreme, Negroids (blacks, Africans) at the opposite extreme, and Caucasoids (whites, Europeans) in the middle. Rushton's book is focused on what he considers the three broadest racial groups, and does not address other populations such as South East Asians or Australian aboriginals.
Rushton argues that Mongoloids, Caucasoids, and Negroids fall consistently into the same one-two-three pattern when compared on a list of 60 different behavioral and anatomical variables. The book claims that Mongoloids, on average, are at one end of a continuum, that Negroids, on average, are at the opposite end of that continuum, and that Caucasoids rank in between Mongoloids and Negroids, but closer to Mongoloids. His continuum includes both external physical characteristics and personality traits.
Citing genetic research by Cavalli-Sforza, the African Eve hypothesis, and the out of Africa theory, Rushton concludes that Negroids branched off first (200,000 years ago, Caucasoids second 110,000 years ago, and Mongoloids last 41,000 years ago), arguing that throughout all of evolution, more ancient forms of life (i.e. plants, bacteria, reptiles) are less evolved than more recent forms of life (i.e. mammals, primates, humans) and that the much smaller variation in the races is consistent with this trend. "One theoretical possibility," said Rushton "is that evolution is progressive and that some populations are more advanced than others". Rushton argues that this first, second, and third chronological sequence perfectly correlates with, and is responsible for, a consistent global multi-dimensional racial pattern on everything from worldwide crime statistics, the global distribution of AIDS, to personality.
Rushton says that his collection of 60 different variables can be unified by a single evolutionary dimension known as the r and K scale. His theory attempts to apply the inter-species r/K selection theory to the much smaller inter-racial differences within the human species. While all humans display extremely K-selected behavior, Rushton believes the races vary in the degree to which they exhibit that behavior. He asserts that Negroids use a strategy more toward an r-selected strategy (produce more offspring, but provide less care for them) while Mongoloids use the K strategy most (produce fewer offspring but provide more care for them), with Caucasoids exhibiting intermediate tendencies in this area. He further asserts that Caucasoids evolved more toward a K-selected breeding strategy than Negroids because of the harsher and colder weather encountered in Europe, while the same held true to a greater extent for Mongoloids. Rushton argues that the survival challenges of making warm clothes, building durable shelter, preserving food, and strategically hunting large animals all selected genes for greater intelligence and social organization among the populations that migrated to cold climates.
Rushton invokes genetics to explain his data arguing that purely environmental theories fail to elegantly explain what he sees as such a consistent pattern of both behavioral and physiological differences, but instead just provide a long list of ad hoc explanations. Rushton argues that science strives to organize and simplify data, and seeks the simplest explanation possible, and claims that r/K selection theory explains all his data quite parsimoniously.
HBD and Gender
HBDers believes that modern feminism errs by denying the natural differences between men and women. They cite studies showing that women are more nurturing and less ambitious than men. Thus, discrepancies in earnings and career choices between men and women are, like race difference, not a problem to be "fixed" through private initiative or government intervention.
HBD and White Nationalism
Although not all those who believe in HBD are white nationalists, the magazine American Renaissance publishes many articles on human biodiveristy and has scientists who study race differences speak at its conventions. HBD is used to justify their goals of ending affirmative action and forced racial integration. White nationalists not associated with American Renaissance like David Duke also use human biodiversity to defend their positions.
Despite that, some white nationalists say that arguments about IQ and other genetic characteristics are not necessary for a race that ones to preserve itself from a biological and genetic perspective. For example, American Renaissance editor Jared Taylor has written:
I think Asians are objectively superior to Whites by just about any measure that you can come up with in terms of what are the ingredients for a successful society. This doesn’t mean that I want America to become Asian. I think every people has a right to be itself, and this becomes clear whether we’re talking about Irian Jaya or Tibet, for that matter.
Support for taking the science of human differences seriously in policy making decisions exists to a lesser extent amongst paleoconservatives and libertarians. For example, libertarian icon Murray Rothbard saw that racial disparities in life outcomes were being used by the government to seize power and wrote the following after the publication of The Bell Curve as to why those who favor the free market should talk about inherent differences between populations:
Two reasons we have already mentioned; to celebrate the victory of freedom of inquiry and of truth for its own sake; and a bullet through the heart of the egalitarian-socialist project. But there is a third reason as well: as a powerful defense of the results of the free market. If and when we as populists and libertarians abolish the welfare state in all of its aspects, and property rights and the free market shall be triumphant once more, many individuals and groups will predictably not like the end result. In that case, those ethnic and other groups who might be concentrated in lower-income or less prestigious occupations, guided by their socialistic mentors, will predictably raise the cry that free-market capitalism is evil and "discriminatory" and that therefore collectivism is needed to redress the balance. In that case, the intelligence argument will become useful to defend the market economy and the free society from ignorant or self-serving attacks. In short; racialist science is properly not an act of aggression or a cover for oppression of one group over another, but, on the contrary, an operation in defense of private property against assaults by aggressors.
Famous HBD Blogs
Notes and references
- Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X
- Richard Lynn on low IQ immigration,
- Hernstein, R. and Murray, C. (1996). The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0684824299
- HBD = human biodiversity
- R. Plomin, N. L. Pedersen, P. Lichtenstein and G. E. McClearn (May 1994). "Variability and stability in cognitive abilities are largely genetic later in life". Behavior Genetics 24 (3): 207. doi:10.1007/BF01067188
- Hernstein and Murray, 23.
- Lynn, Richard (2008). The Global Bell Curve: Race, IQ and Inequality Worldwide. Washington Summit Publishers. ISBN: 1-59368-028-7
- Race, Evolution and Behavior
- Hernstein and Murray, 272-276.
- Lynn (2008), 93.
- Lynn (2008), 50-51.
- Lynn (2008), 116-117.
- Lynn (2008), 72-73.
- Levin, Michael (1997). Why Race Matters. Fist Century Books. p. 3.
- Jason Richwine on immigrant quality
- Is Love Colorblind?
- Human Biodiversity Hall of Fame
- Rushton, J. P. (1995). Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective (2nd special abridged edition ed.). Port Huron, MI: Charles Darwin Research Institute.
- Rhoades, S. (2004). Taking Sex Differences Seriously. Encounter Books.
- Review of The Woman Racket.
- Sailer argues against white nationalism
- Why I am not a White Nationalist
- Richard Lynn writing in American Renaissance.
- Article on American Renaissance conference
- Article on cranial size and IQ from David Duke's website]
- Jared Taylor's website
- Murray Rothbard on race.