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Oldřich Menhart (1897, Prague – 1962, Prague) was a Czechoslovakian calligrapher and type designer designing typefaces mainly for Grafotechna type foundry. He designed the following typefaces: Menhart Antiqua and Kursive (1936), Menhart (1938), Menhart Roman (1939), Hollar (1939), Figural (1940-62), Victory (1947), Ceska Uncial (1948), Manuscript (1949), Monument (1949), Parlament (1950), Unciala (1953), Grazdanka (1953-5), and Triga (1955).
- Typotheque: Czechoslovak Typography Connections by Johanna Biľak
- Richard Kegler; James Grieshaber; Tamye Riggs (2007). Indie Fonts 2: A Compendium of Digital Type from Independent Foundries. Rockport Publishers. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-59253-351-0.
- Neil Macmillan (2006). An A-Z of Type Designers. Laurence King Publishing. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-85669-395-0.
- 1 External Links
- 2 Life
- 3 Typefaces
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
- 7 Life
- 8 Awards
- 9 Description
- 10 Distribution
- 11 Notes and References
- 12 External Links
- 13 Description
- 14 Distribution
- 15 Habitat
- 16 References
- 17 External Links
- 18 Carlo Bourlet
- 19 Internaciaj Floraj Ludoj
Josef Týfa (5 December 1913 – 19 January 2007) was a Czech type designer. He significantly contributed to the cultivation of corporate style and the development of book design and advertising in the 1950s and 60s. Typefaces he designed include: Kolektiv, Tyfa, Juvenis, Amos and Academia, many of which he digitized with František Štorm, founder of Storm Type Foundry. He has indicated that his influences include Jaroslav Benda, Pier Luigi Nervi, and modern graphic design and architecture including functionalism.
He was born in Běloves, Náchod, Bohemia in December, 1913. He studied graphics at the Rotter School in Prague and later became art director of the Centrotex export company. In the 50s and early 60s he designed advertisments for companies such as Pilsner Urquell Brewery, Bata Shoes and the department store Brouk and Babka. Later in the 60s he began to focus more on type design and won several contests announced by state type foundry Grafotechna. Throughout his whole career Týfa designed hundreds of books.
Upon the improvement and popularization of digital typography software, although familiar with traditional requirements on metal type, he quickly began to enjoy the technology, and adjusted his old designs to a more contemporary look.
"Tyfa" was designed in 1959 and first released in 1960 when a Czechoslovakian design competition was held to determine the best new Czech typeface for book composition. Týfa's "Tyfa" typeface was the winner and the design was made into fonts for the Linotype typecaster and as a hand-set type by the Czech type foundry, Grafotechna (for hot metal typesetting). Berthold Type Foundry later produced letter matrices of the design for Staromat devices, used for manual phototypesetting of display alphabets. It was also available on dry transfers of Transotype in the 80's. Although the design found immediate and continued popularity in Czechoslovakia, it saw little use elsewhere. The design was inspired by the work of architect Pier Luigi Nervi.
18 years after the publication of the original design Jan Solpera, another Czech type designer, sent a letter ITC suggesting that it should release Tyfa as an ITC font. ITC was unable to communicate with Týfa at the time due to existence of the "Iron Curtain". Týfa was willing to licence his design to ITC but could only provide his original sketches from the late 50's, which were a set of signs on pieces of yellowing cardboard about B2 in size. In 1995 František Štorm approached Týfa, proposing to digitize his design under Týfa's direction. It was issued by ITC in 1998.
Storm began digitizing the typeface under Týfa's direction and feels the design shows "a little touch of baroque typography". According to ITC, while it is possible to see the influences of older Czech designers such as Oldřich Menhart, ITC Týfa is a unique typeface with a distinctive character all its own and international appeal. The structure is considered neoclassical, with clear contrasts between thin and thick strokes and italics, other than the majuscule letters, differ largely in style from the regular characters.
Josef Týfa first published the Academia typeface in 1967–68. It was the winning design from competition aimed at new typeface for scientific texts, announced by Grafotechna. It was cut and cast in metal in 1968 in 8 and 10 point sizes of plain, italic and semi-bold designs.
In 2003 Týfa began work with František Štorm on digitizing the typeface. As usual, Light and Black weight designs were used as starting points for the interpolation of the other weights. During 2004 Týfa approved a number of differences from the original typeset in order to bring the typeface more original and timeless feeling. Such differences were:
- vertical stem outlines were softly slendered in the middle rather than being completely straight.
- italics quietened
- uppercase proportions brought closer to antique principle
The new name, "Academica" distinguishes the present digital transcription from the original idea. It comprises Týfa’s initial concept to create a typeface for scientific application with versatility to other genres of literature.
Juvenis is a contemporary typeface originally intended for children's literature. It was digitized by Josef Týfa and František Štorm in 2002 and conceived half a century ago. Despite it's original purpose as a contemporary typeface for children's literature, it can now be applied to posters, periodicals and longer works. Distinguishing characteristics include a large x-height and semi-serifs on lower case letters. On Týfa's attitude during the making process Štorm said: "it would not be Josef Tyfa, if he did not redesign the entire alphabet, and to such an extent that all that has remained from the original was practically the name".
- Kolektiv (1952), a transitional roman typeface designed with S. Duda and K. Míšek, foundry: Grafotechna.
- Amos (1982)
- Association Typographique Internationale : Main Program – Life and work of Josef Týfa
- Storm Type Foundry – Josef Týfa
- Linotype – Download ITC Tyfa™
- Communication Arts Magazine 74. Coyne & Blanchard. March 2005. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- Josef Týfa – Náchodské.info (Czech)
- Zemřel grafik Josef Týfa – Novinky.cz (Czech)
- Josef Týfa – Linotype Font Designer Gallery
- Josef Týfa se zapsal i do pověstné knihovny Adobe – Strategie.cz (Czech)
- A Brief Portrait of Czech and Slovak Stampmakers (German)
- On Snot and Fonts – Josef Týfa, written by Luc Devroye
- Olivier Bessard-Banquy (2008). La typographie du livre français. Presses Univ de Bordeaux. p. 66. ISBN 978-2-86781-499-0. Retrieved 25 August 2013. (French)
- Storm Type Foundry – Tyfa
- Fonts.com – ITC Tyfa
- Neil Macmillan (2006). An A-Z of Type Designers. Laurence King Publishing. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-85669-395-0. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- Storm Type Foundry – Academia
- Storm Type Foundry – Juvenis
- Eye Magazine | Feature | Storm: living history
- Richard Kegler; James Grieshaber; Tamye Riggs (2007). Indie Fonts 2: A Compendium of Digital Type from Independent Foundries. Rockport Publishers. p. 295. ISBN 978-1-61059-680-0. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- Typotheque: Czechoslovak Typography Connections by Johanna Biľak
- Typefaces by Josef Týfa at MyFonts
- Typefaces by Josef Týfa at FontShop
- Stamp designed by Josef Týfa
- Identifont – Josef Týfa
- Works by Josef Týfa at the National Library of the Czech Republic (Czech)
Robert Lewin (9 May 1920, New York City, New York, USA — 28 August 2004, Santa Monica, California, USA) was an American screenwriter and TV producer known for numerous shows and films such as:. In 1956 they were nominated for Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay) for their script The Bold and the Brave.
|1957||The Bold and the Brave||Academy Award||Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay)||Nominated|
|1969||Judd for the Defense||Writers Guild of America Award|
Shell perforated, depressly-turbinate, thin and transparent, very smooth, showing under the lens very faint curved lines, and traces of still fainter spiral lines, shining, pinkish or flesh coloured; spire broadly conical, rather acute; 6 whorls, flatly convex, last not descending in front, the periphery shewing nearly obsolete traces of a keel, below convex, glossy, generally opaquely milky-white about the umbilicus, which is minute and shallow; aperture diagonal, somewhat squarely-lunar, pearly within; peristome simple, acute, columellar margin very slightly triangularly dilated and reflected above. In old age, white and callous.
Diameter 0.65[1.651cm]; height 0.55[1.397cm] of an inch.
Notes and References
- ^α Text contains some minor corrections and updates; no spaces before semicolons, showing instead of shewing, "." as decimal mark instead of "·", etc...
- ^β In the publication Cox refers to Helix subrugata and Helix Moretonensis, meaning Nitor subrugata and Nitor moretonensis respectively. Helix subrugata and Helix moretonensis are accepted synonyms.
- Cox, J.C. 1868. A Monograph of Australian Land Shells. Sydney : Maddock 111 pp.
- Catalogue of Life: 2009 Annual Checklist — Nitor pudibunda
- Atlas of Living Australia — Nitor pudibunda — Names
- Austalian Government
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities | Nitor pudibunda
- Discover Life — Nitor pudibunda — partial distibution map
- ZipcodeZoo.com — Nitor pudibunda
|This Helicarionidae-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Rossmässler, 1839 
Their shells are dirty whiteish to yellow brownish, usually 21-27×20-26 mm in size. Large shells are about 29-31×29-30 mm.
The species is present in Greece, Bulgaria and Macedonia, except, perhaps, the island of Skyros in the Aegean sea where only empty shells of the species have been found, suggesting a recent extinction in the area. There have been reports of the species in western Turkey, however, it seems that these are actually Helix nucula, a related and similar species.
It is found in a variety of habitats including dry, open shrubland areas and ranging from coastal areas (dunes) up to 700m above sea level. On the continent, it lives in areas where there are enough sediment, as it is a soil-dwelling species. It buries itself deep into the soil, at least 700 m in south west Bulgaria.
- Neubert, E. & Triantis, K. 2011. Helix figulina. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 July 2013.
- Fauna Europaea — Helix figulina
- European Environment Agency — Helix figulina
- AnimalBase :: Helix Figulina
- Fauna Europaea — European Distribution Map of Helix Figulina (Java required)
- IUCN Red List — Distribution Map of Helix figulina
The Internaciaj Floraj Ludoj (International Floral Games) were an annual Catalonia-based Esperanto literary contest inspired by the Barcelonan Floral Games. It was started by Frederic Pujulà i Vallès in 1908 from the drafts of La Revuo (The Journal) at the 5th annual World Congress of Esperanto. The first winner was the German Poet, Marie Hankel.
After it's founding in 1910 by Catalan Federation of Esperanto, the games were held by Catalan Esperanto Congress. They soon gained participation and support. They are often held to be the most prestigious Esperanto event in the era before World War II.
The winners were awarded the Natural Flower. Winners who had participated in the games thrice were awarded the title of Master of the Floral Games. Some of the Masters of the Floral Games were: Timothy Brian Carr, Bernard Golden, Giorgio Silfer and Krys Ungar.
|1||1911||Tarragona||Vicente Inglada i Ors||La blinda bovino, translation of The Blind Cow by Joan Maragall||Unknown|
|2||1912||Terrassa||Clarence Bicknell||Versaĵo pri Amo (Poem about Love)||Unknown|
|3||1913||Olot||Eulalia and Teresa Rosell||Vi, kial ne venas? (You, why not come?)||Carlo Bourlet|
|4||1914||Sant Feliu de Guixols||Artur Domènech i Mas||Amo (Love)||Unknown|
|5||1915||Vilanova i la Geltrú||Josep Grau Casas||La sunhorloĝo (The sundial)||Unknown|
|6||1916||Reus||Artur Domènech i Mas||En krepusko (Vesperkanto de maristo) (At twilight (Evensong of a sailor))||Unknown|
|7||1919||Manlleu||Jaume Grau Casas||Soneto al la Reĝino de niaj Floraj Ludoj (Sonnet for the Queen of our Floral Games)||Unknown|
|8||1921||Girona||Artur Domènech i Mas||Al rozo (To a rose)||Unknown|
|9||1923||Manresa||Julio Baghy||Dolora deziro (Painful desire)||Unknown|
|10||1924||Vic||Kalman Kalocsay||Kisoj (Kisses)||Unknown|
|11||1925||Ciutat de Mallorca||Artur Domènech i Mas||Viaj okuloj (Your eyes)||Edmond Privat|
|12||1926||Santa Coloma de Farners||Example||Example||Example|
|20||1980||Vilanova i la Geltrú||Example||Example||Example|
|25||1985||Sant Cugat del Vallès||Example||Example||Example|