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Oldřich Menhart (1897, Prague – 1962, Prague) was a Czechoslovakian calligrapher and type designer designing typefaces mainly for Grafotechna type foundry. He designed the following typefaces: Menhart Antiqua and Kursive (1936), Menhart (1938), Menhart Roman (1939), Hollar (1939), Figural (1940-62), Victory (1947), Ceska Uncial (1948), Manuscript (1949), Monument (1949), Parlament (1950), Unciala (1953), Grazdanka (1953-5), and Triga (1955).

[1] [2] [3]

  1. ^ Typotheque: Czechoslovak Typography Connections by Johanna Biľak
  2. ^ Richard Kegler; James Grieshaber; Tamye Riggs (2007). Indie Fonts 2: A Compendium of Digital Type from Independent Foundries. Rockport Publishers. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-59253-351-0. 
  3. ^ Neil Macmillan (2006). An A-Z of Type Designers. Laurence King Publishing. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-85669-395-0. 

External Links[edit]

  • Samples of manuscript typeface here and here

Josef Týfa (5 December 1913 – 19 January 2007) was a Czech type designer. He significantly contributed to the cultivation of corporate style and the development of book design and advertising in the 1950s and 60s.[1][2] Typefaces he designed include: Kolektiv, Tyfa, Juvenis, Amos and Academia, many of which he digitized with František Štorm, founder of Storm Type Foundry. He has indicated that his influences include Jaroslav Benda, Pier Luigi Nervi, and modern graphic design and architecture including functionalism.[2][3][4][5]


He was born in Běloves, Náchod, Bohemia in December, 1913.[6][5] He studied graphics at the Rotter School in Prague and later became art director of the Centrotex export company.[7] In the 50s and early 60s he designed advertisments for companies such as Pilsner Urquell Brewery, Bata Shoes and the department store Brouk and Babka.[8][9][10] Later in the 60s he began to focus more on type design and won several contests announced by state type foundry Grafotechna. Throughout his whole career Týfa designed hundreds of books.[2]

Upon the improvement and popularization of digital typography software, although familiar with traditional requirements on metal type, he quickly began to enjoy the technology, and adjusted his old designs to a more contemporary look.[2]

He died in Prague at the age of 93.[5]



In the past, type design was primarily based on the esthetic values of the faces. Mine were inspired by the forms of modern architecture.

– Josef Týfa[3]

"Tyfa" was designed in 1959 and first released in 1960 when a Czechoslovakian design competition was held to determine the best new Czech typeface for book composition. Týfa's "Tyfa" typeface was the winner and the design was made into fonts for the Linotype typecaster and as a hand-set type by the Czech type foundry, Grafotechna (for hot metal typesetting). Berthold Type Foundry later produced letter matrices of the design for Staromat devices, used for manual phototypesetting of display alphabets.[11] It was also available on dry transfers of Transotype in the 80's.[12] Although the design found immediate and continued popularity in Czechoslovakia, it saw little use elsewhere.[13][9][12] The design was inspired by the work of architect Pier Luigi Nervi.[3]

ITC Tyfa[edit]

18 years after the publication of the original design Jan Solpera, another Czech type designer, sent a letter ITC suggesting that it should release Tyfa as an ITC font. ITC was unable to communicate with Týfa at the time due to existence of the "Iron Curtain". Týfa was willing to licence his design to ITC but could only provide his original sketches from the late 50's, which were a set of signs on pieces of yellowing cardboard about B2 in size.[12] In 1995 František Štorm approached Týfa, proposing to digitize his design under Týfa's direction.[13] It was issued by ITC in 1998.[14]


Storm began digitizing the typeface under Týfa's direction and feels the design shows "a little touch of baroque typography". According to ITC, while it is possible to see the influences of older Czech designers such as Oldřich Menhart, ITC Týfa is a unique typeface with a distinctive character all its own and international appeal.[3][13] The structure is considered neoclassical, with clear contrasts between thin and thick strokes and italics, other than the majuscule letters, differ largely in style from the regular characters.[12]


Josef Týfa first published the Academia typeface in 1967–68. It was the winning design from competition aimed at new typeface for scientific texts, announced by Grafotechna. It was cut and cast in metal in 1968 in 8 and 10 point sizes of plain, italic and semi-bold designs.


In 2003 Týfa began work with František Štorm on digitizing the typeface. As usual, Light and Black weight designs were used as starting points for the interpolation of the other weights. During 2004 Týfa approved a number of differences from the original typeset in order to bring the typeface more original and timeless feeling. Such differences were:

  • vertical stem outlines were softly slendered in the middle rather than being completely straight.
  • italics quietened
  • uppercase proportions brought closer to antique principle

The new name, "Academica" distinguishes the present digital transcription from the original idea. It comprises Týfa’s initial concept to create a typeface for scientific application with versatility to other genres of literature.[15]


Juvenis is a contemporary typeface originally intended for children's literature. It was digitized by Josef Týfa and František Štorm in 2002 and conceived half a century ago. Despite it's original purpose as a contemporary typeface for children's literature, it can now be applied to posters, periodicals and longer works. Distinguishing characteristics include a large x-height and semi-serifs on lower case letters.[16][17][18] On Týfa's attitude during the making process Štorm said: "it would not be Josef Tyfa, if he did not redesign the entire alphabet, and to such an extent that all that has remained from the original was practically the name".[16][17]


  • Kolektiv (1952), a transitional roman typeface designed with S. Duda and K. Míšek, foundry: Grafotechna.[10]
  • Amos (1982)[19][1]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Robert Lewin (9 May 1920, New York City, New York, USA — 28 August 2004, Santa Monica, California, USA) was an American screenwriter and TV producer known for numerous shows and films such as:. In 1956 they were nominated for Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay) for their script The Bold and the Brave.


They were born on 9th May 1920, New York City. They died of lung cancer in 2004.


Year Nominated for Award Category Result
1957 The Bold and the Brave Academy Award Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay) Nominated
1969 Judd for the Defense Writers Guild of America Award
Example Example Example

Nitor pudibunda
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
clade Sigmurethra
clade limacoid clade

Superfamily: Helicarionoidea
Family: Helicarionidae
Subfamily: Helicarioninae
Genus: Nitor
Species: N. pudibunda
Binomial name
Nitor pudibunda
Cox, 1868[1]

Helix pudibunda[1][2][3]

Nitor pudibunda is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Helicarionidae. This species is endemic to Australia.


Cox's description of the shell of a specimen of N. pudibunda, published in A Monograph of Australian Land Shells, 1868.[1]α

Shell perforated, depressly-turbinate, thin and transparent, very smooth, showing under the lens very faint curved lines, and traces of still fainter spiral lines, shining, pinkish or flesh coloured; spire broadly conical, rather acute; 6 whorls, flatly convex, last not descending in front, the periphery shewing nearly obsolete traces of a keel, below convex, glossy, generally opaquely milky-white about the umbilicus, which is minute and shallow; aperture diagonal, somewhat squarely-lunar, pearly within; peristome simple, acute, columellar margin very slightly triangularly dilated and reflected above. In old age, white and callous.

Diameter 0.65[1.651cm]; height 0.55[1.397cm] of an inch.

Habitat. Richmond River.— MacGillivray. Moreton Bay.— Masters.

The smoothness, want of carina, pinkish colour, and callous columella are the chief points of distinction between this and H. Moretonensis and H. subrugata.β


The species is found in eastern Australia, most commonly along the coasts of Queensland and New South Wales, from Cooloola to Lismore.[2][4][5][6]

Notes and References[edit]


Text contains some minor corrections and updates; no spaces before semicolons, showing instead of shewing, "." as decimal mark instead of "·", etc...
In the publication Cox refers to Helix subrugata and Helix Moretonensis, meaning Nitor subrugata and Nitor moretonensis respectively. Helix subrugata and Helix moretonensis are accepted synonyms.


External Links[edit]


Helix figulina
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
informal group Sigmurethra

Superfamily: Helicoidea
Family: Helicidae
Subfamily: Helicinae
Tribe: Helicini
Genus: Helix
Species: H. figulina
Binomial name
Helix figulina
Rossmässler, 1839 [1]

Helix figulina is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Helicidae, the typical snails.[1]


Their shells are dirty whiteish to yellow brownish, usually 21-27×20-26 mm in size. Large shells are about 29-31×29-30 mm.[4]


The species is present in Greece, Bulgaria and Macedonia,[5] except, perhaps, the island of Skyros in the Aegean sea where only empty shells of the species have been found, suggesting a recent extinction in the area.[6] There have been reports of the species in western Turkey, however, it seems that these are actually Helix nucula, a related and similar species.


It is found in a variety of habitats including dry, open shrubland areas and ranging from coastal areas (dunes) up to 700m above sea level. On the continent, it lives in areas where there are enough sediment, as it is a soil-dwelling species. It buries itself deep into the soil, at least 700 m in south west Bulgaria.[1][4]


  1. ^ a b c d Neubert, E. & Triantis, K. 2011. Helix figulina. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <>. Downloaded on 11 July 2013.
  2. ^ Fauna Europaea — Helix figulina
  3. ^ European Environment AgencyHelix figulina
  4. ^ a b AnimalBase :: Helix Figulina
  5. ^ Fauna Europaea — European Distribution Map of Helix Figulina (Java required)
  6. ^ IUCN Red ListDistribution Map of Helix figulina

External Links[edit]

Carlo Bourlet[edit]

Carlo Bourlet

Charles Emile Ernest Bourlet, known as Carlo Bourlet, (Strasbourg, 25th April 1866 — Annecy, 12th August 1913) was a French Mathematician, Scientist and Esperantist.

Internaciaj Floraj Ludoj[edit]

The Internaciaj Floraj Ludoj (International Floral Games) were an annual Catalonia-based Esperanto literary contest inspired by the Barcelonan Floral Games. It was started by Frederic Pujulà i Vallès in 1908 from the drafts of La Revuo (The Journal) at the 5th annual World Congress of Esperanto. The first winner was the German Poet, Marie Hankel.

After it's founding in 1910 by Catalan Federation of Esperanto, the games were held by Catalan Esperanto Congress. They soon gained participation and support. They are often held to be the most prestigious Esperanto event in the era before World War II.

Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, the games ceased for 42 years until 1978, after the fall of the Franco Regime. They ended entirely in 1993.


The winners were awarded the Natural Flower. Winners who had participated in the games thrice were awarded the title of Master of the Floral Games. Some of the Masters of the Floral Games were: Timothy Brian Carr, Bernard Golden, Giorgio Silfer and Krys Ungar.


Number Year Location Natural Flower Work Speech
1 1911 Tarragona Vicente Inglada i Ors La blinda bovino, translation of The Blind Cow by Joan Maragall Unknown
2 1912 Terrassa Clarence Bicknell Versaĵo pri Amo (Poem about Love) Unknown
3 1913 Olot Eulalia and Teresa Rosell Vi, kial ne venas? (You, why not come?) Carlo Bourlet
4 1914 Sant Feliu de Guixols Artur Domènech i Mas Amo (Love) Unknown
5 1915 Vilanova i la Geltrú Josep Grau Casas La sunhorloĝo (The sundial) Unknown
6 1916 Reus Artur Domènech i Mas En krepusko (Vesperkanto de maristo) (At twilight (Evensong of a sailor)) Unknown
7 1919 Manlleu Jaume Grau Casas Soneto al la Reĝino de niaj Floraj Ludoj (Sonnet for the Queen of our Floral Games) Unknown
8 1921 Girona Artur Domènech i Mas Al rozo (To a rose) Unknown
9 1923 Manresa Julio Baghy Dolora deziro (Painful desire) Unknown
10 1924 Vic Kalman Kalocsay Kisoj (Kisses) Unknown
11 1925 Ciutat de Mallorca Artur Domènech i Mas Viaj okuloj (Your eyes) Edmond Privat
12 1926 Santa Coloma de Farners Example Example Example
13 1927 Soller Example Example Example
14 1928 Vinaròs Example Example Example
15 1933 El Vendrell Example Example Example
16 1935 Ripoll Example Example Example
17 1936 Manresa Example Example Example
18 1978 Tortosa Example Example Example
19 1979 Rubí Example Example Example
20 1980 Vilanova i la Geltrú Example Example Example
21 1981 Moià Example Example Example
22 1982 Reus Example Example Example
23 1983 Sabadell Example Example Example
24 1984 Olot Example Example Example
25 1985 Sant Cugat del Vallès Example Example Example
26 1986 Lleida Example Example Example
27 1987 Barcelona Example Example Example
28 1988 Barcelona Example Example Example
29 1989 Perpinyà Example Example Example
30 1990 Palamós Example Example Example
31 1991 Tarragona Example Example Example
32 1992 Terrassa Example Example Example
33 1993 Alcúdia Example Example Example