The family Felidae
(the felids) includes the lion
, the tiger
, the domestic cat
, and other felines
as its members. All of the fifteen families in the order Carnivora
are recognized as obligate carnivores
lacking the necessary enzymes required for the digestion and metabolism of plant matter. The first felids emerged during the Eocene
, about 40 million years ago. The most familiar feline is the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus
), which first became associated with humans about 10,000 years ago. Its wild relative, the wildcat
, still lives in Europe, Africa and western Asia, although habitat destruction
has restricted their range.
The domestic cat (or simply "cat", although the term can refer to all felids) is a small carnivorous mammal descended from the African wildcat. The cat is a skilled predator and intelligent animal, known to hunt over 1,000 species for food, and intelligent enough that it can be trained (and can learn by itself) to obey simple commands and manipulate simple mechanisms. It has lived in close association with humans for at least 9,500 years, figuring prominently in the mythology and legends of many cultures.
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The domestic dog
is a mammal
in the canine
family of the Order Carnivora
. Dogs were first domesticated
at about 14,000 years B.C (genetic evidence suggests dogs split from wolves around 100,000 years ago, although it is unclear if this was related to domestication). In this time, the dog has developed into hundreds of breeds with a great degree of variation in height and weight, coat color and texture, anatomical details and behavior. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often trained as working dogs
. For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide range of dog sports
provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. In many countries the most common, and perhaps most important, role of dogs is as companions
. Dogs have lived with and worked with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the sobriquet
"man's best friend."
Wikipedia Books: Dog
Education encompasses teaching
, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge
, good judgement
. Education has as one of its fundamental goals the imparting of culture
from generation to generation (see socialization
). Education is 'to draw out'. This means facilitating realisation of self-potential and latent talents of an individual.
The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child's development. For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Mark Twain's admonition to "never let school interfere with your education"). Family members may have a profound educational effect — often more profound than they realize — though family teaching may function very informally; but formality only proves the education outside the family that is also being taught.
Wikipedia Books: Education; Purdue University – System, Academics, Athletics, Campus, Student life, and People
is the 19th U.S. state
and is located in the Midwest
region of the United States of America
. With over six million residents, it is ranked 15th
in population density. It is 38th
in land area. Indiana is bounded on the north by Lake Michigan
and the state of Michigan
; on the east by Ohio
; on the south by Kentucky
, with which it shares the Ohio River
as a border; and on the west by Illinois
. Indiana is one of the Great Lakes
states. As of 2006, Indiana has an estimated population of 6,313,520, which is an increase of 47,501, or 0.8%, from the prior year and an increase of 233,003, or 3.8%, since the year 2000
. The total gross state product in 2005 was US$214 billion in 2000 chained dollars. Indiana's per capita income, as of 2005, was US$31,150. The Calumet
region of northwest Indiana is the largest steel producing area in the U.S.
Indiana is a diverse state with a few large urban areas and a number of smaller industrial cities. It is best known for the Indianapolis 500 American automobile race, held annually over the Memorial Day weekend, and a strong basketball tradition, often called Hoosier Hysteria. Residents of Indiana are called Hoosiers. The state's name means "Land of the Indians" and Angel Mounds State Historic Site, one of the best preserved prehistoric Native American sites in the United States, can be found in southern Indiana.
Wikipedia Books: Indiana
The 'philosophy of science' is the branch of philosophy
that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science
, including the formal sciences
, natural sciences
, and social sciences
. In this respect, the philosophy of science is closely related to epistemology
and the philosophy of language
. Note that issues of scientific ethics
are not usually considered to be part of the philosophy of science; they are studied in such fields as bioethics
and science studies
In particular, the philosophy of science considers the following topics: the character and the development of concepts and terms, propositions and hypotheses, arguments and conclusions, as they function in science; the manner in which science explains natural phenomena and predicts natural occurrences; the types of reasoning that are used to arrive at scientific conclusions; the formulation, scope, and limits of scientific method; the means that should be used for determining when scientific information has adequate objective support; and the implications of scientific methods and models, along with the technology that arises from scientific knowledge for the larger society.
Philosophy of science – Wikipedia book
is an academic and applied discipline
that involves the scientific study
of mental functions
. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner
or researcher is called a psychologist
and can be classified as a social
, or cognitive scientist
. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior
, while also exploring the physiological
processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.
Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science", with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy. (Full article...)
Wikipedia Books: Psychology
Science is formed from methodical study of nature stemming from testable explanations and predictions. An older and closely related current meaning emerged from Aristotle, whereby "science" referred to the body of reliable knowledge that is logically and rationally explained (see "History and etymology" section below).
Since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. During the Islamic Golden Age, the foundation for the scientific method was laid, which emphasized experimental data and reproducibility of results. In the West during the early modern period, the words "science" and "philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably. Not until the 17th century did natural philosophy emerge as a separate branch of philosophy, which is today called "natural science". "Science" continued to denote reliable knowledge about a topic; it remains in use in modern terms such as library science or political science.
The ever-evolving term "science" contemporarily refers to the pursuit of knowledge, not the knowledge itself. It is often synonymous with "natural and physical science" and often restricted to those branches of study relating to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws. Although the term implies exclusion of pure mathematics, many university faculties include Mathematics Departments within their Faculty of Science. The dominant sense in ordinary use has a narrower use for the term "science." It developed as a part of science becoming a distinct enterprise of defining the "laws of nature"; early examples include Kepler's laws, Galileo's laws, and Newton's laws of motion. In this period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as "natural science." Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the disciplined study of the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science. For example, psychology evolved from philosophy, and has grown into an area of study.
Currently, there are both "hard" (e.g. biological psychology) and "soft" science (e.g. social psychology) fields within the discipline. As a result, and as is consistent with the unfolding of the study of knowledge and development of methods to establish facts, each area of psychology employs a scientific method. Reflecting the evolution of the development of knowledge and established facts and the use of the scientific method, Psychology Departments in universities are found within: Faculty of Arts and Science, Faculty of Arts, and a Faculty of Science. Similarly, several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of "science", such as formal science and applied science.
Wikipedia Books: Science
|Scheme of sustainable development:
at the confluence of three preoccupations. Clickable.
Sustainable development has been defined as balancing the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of the natural environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. The term was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
The field of sustainable development can be conceptually divided into four general dimensions: social, economic, environmental and institutional. The first three dimensions address key principles of sustainability, while the final dimension addresses key institutional policy and capacity issues.
Wikipedia Books: Sustainability
is the adherence to codified beliefs
that generally involve a faith
in a spiritual nature
and a study of inherited ancestral traditions
related to understanding human life
. The term "religion" refers to both the personal practices related to faith as well as to the larger shared systems of belief.
In the larger sense, religion is a communal system for the coherence of belief—typically focused on a system of thought, unseen being, person, or object, that is considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine, or of the highest truth. Moral codes, practices, values, institutions, traditions, and rituals are often traditionally associated with the core belief, and these may have some overlap with concepts in secular philosophy. Religion can also be described as a way of life.
The development of religion has taken many forms in various cultures. "Organized religion" generally refers to an organization of people supporting the exercise of some religion with a prescribed set of beliefs, often taking the form of a legal entity (see religion-supporting organization). Other religions believe in personal revelation and responsibility. "Religion" is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system," but is more socially defined than that of personal convictions.
Wikipedia Books: Religion