User:Rowan Adams/Sandbox

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Climate-Friendly Gardening is gardening in ways which reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from the garden itself and which absorb carbon dioxide into the garden's soil and plants, so that the garden helps to reduce rather than cause global warming.[1] [2] To be a climate-friendly gardener means considering both what happens in the garden itself and also the plants and other materials brought into the garden and the impact they have on land use and climate.[3] It can also include garden features or activities in the garden that help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions elsewhere.[4] [5]

Land use and greenhouse gases[edit]

Most of the excess greenhouse gases causing climate change have come from burning fossil fuel. But a special report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated that in the last 150 years fossil fuels and cement production were responsible for only about two-thirds of climate change: the other third has been caused by human land use.[6]

The three main greenhouse gases produced by unsustainable land use are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.[4] Black carbon or soot, although it is not a gas, can also be caused by unsustainable land use, behave like a greenhouse gas, and contribute to climate change.[7] [8]

Carbon dioxide[edit]

Carbon dioxide, CO2, is a natural part of the carbon cycle, but human land uses often add more, especially from habitat destruction and the cultivation of soil. When we turn woodlands, wetlands, and other natural habitats into pasture, arable fields, buildings and roads, the carbon held in the soil and vegetation becomes extra carbon dioxide and methane to trap more heat in the atmosphere.[6]

Gardeners may cause extra carbon dioxide to be added to the atmosphere in several ways:

• using peat or potting compost containing peat;[4] [9] [2] [10] [11]

• buying garden furniture or other wooden products made from woodland which has been destroyed rather than taken as a renewable crop from sustainably managed woodland;[3]

• digging soil and leaving it bare so that the carbon in soil organic matter is oxidised;[4] [2]

• using power tools which burn fossil fuel or electricity generated by burning fossil fuel;[4] [2] [11] [12]

• using patio heaters;

• heating greenhouses by burning fossil fuel or electricity generated by burning fossil fuel;[4]

• burning garden prunings and weeds on a bonfire;

• buying tools, synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and other materials which have been manufactured using fossil fuel;[3] [4] [2] [11] [13] [14] [15]

• heating and treating swimming pools by burning fossil fuel or electricity generated by burning fossil fuel;[3]

watering their gardens with tapwater, which has been treated and pumped by burning fossil fuel, with a greenhouse gas impact of about 1kg CO2e/m3 water.[16] [17] [4] [11] [3]

Gardeners will also be responsible for extra carbon dioxide when they buy garden products which have been transported by vehicles powered by fossil fuel.[3]

Methane[edit]

Methane, CH4, is a natural part of the carbon cycle, but human land uses often add more, especially from anaerobic soil, artificial wetlands such as rice fields, and from the guts of farm animals, especially ruminants such as cattle and sheep.[18]

Gardeners may cause extra methane to be added to the atmosphere in several ways:

compacting soil so that it becomes anaerobic, for example by treading on soil when it's wet;

• allowing compost heaps to become compacted and anaerobic;[4] [19]

• creating homemade liquid feed by putting the leaves of plants such as comfrey under water, with the unintended consequence that the plants may release methane as they decay;

• killing pernicious weeds by covering them with water, with the unintended consequence that the plants may release methane as they decay;

• allowing ponds to become anaerobic, for example by adding unsuitable fish species which stir up sediment that then blocks light from and kills submerged oxygenating plants.[20]

Nitrous oxide[edit]

Nitrous oxide, N2O, is a natural part of the nitrogen cycle, but human land uses often add more.[21] [22]

Gardeners may cause extra nitrous oxide to be added to the atmosphere:

• using synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, for example 'weed and feed' on lawns, especially if it's applied when plants are not actively growing, the soil is compacted, or when other factors are limiting so that the plants cannot make use of the nitrogen;[23] [24] [25]

• compacting the soil (for example by working in the garden when the soil is wet) which will increase the conversion of nitrates to nitrous oxide by soil bacteria;[24]

• burning garden waste on bonfires.

Black carbon[edit]

Black carbon is not a gas, but it acts like a greenhouse gas because it can be suspended in the atmosphere and absorb heat.[26] [27]

Gardeners may cause extra black carbon to be added to the atmosphere: burning garden prunings and weeds on bonfires, especially if the 'waste' is wet and becomes black carbon in the form of soot.[5] Gardeners will also be responsible for extra black carbon produced when they buy garden products which have been transported by vehicles powered by fossil fuel especially the diesel used in most lorries.

Gardening to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to absorb carbon dioxide[edit]

There are many ways in which climate-friendly gardeners may reduce their contribution to climate change, and help their gardens to actively absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.[28] [4] [2] [11] [3] [24]

Climate-friendly gardeners can find good ideas in many other sustainable approaches:

agroforestry;

forest gardening;

orchard;

organic gardening;

permaculture;

rain garden;

vegan organic gardening;

water-wise gardening;

wildlife garden.

Protecting and enhancing carbon stores[edit]

Protecting carbon stores in land beyond gardens[edit]

Climate-friendly gardening includes actions which protect carbon stores outside gardens. The biggest carbon stores in land are in soil; the two habitat types with the biggest carbon stores per hectare are woods and wetlands; and woods absorb more carbon dioxide per hectare per year than most other habitats. Climate-friendly gardeners therefore aim to ensure that nothing they do will harm these habitats.

According to 'Plant Growth and Climate Change' edited by James I. L. Morison and Michael D. Morecroft, the net primary productivity (the net amount of carbon absorbed each year) of various habitats (they don't give a figure for wetlands) is:

tropical forests: 12.5 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year;

temperate forests: 7.7 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year;

temperate grasslands: 3.7 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year;

croplands: 3.1 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year.[29]

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report 'Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry' says that the carbon contained in different global habitats is:

wetlands: 643 tonnes carbon per hectare in soil + 43 tonnes carbon per hectare in vegetation = total 686 tonnes carbon per hectare;

tropical forests: 123 tonnes carbon per hectare in soil + 120 tonnes carbon per hectare in vegetation = total 243 tonnes carbon per hectare;

temperate forests: 96 tonnes carbon per hectare in soil + 57 tonnes carbon per hectare in vegetation = total 153 tonnes carbon per hectare;

temperate grasslands: 164 tonnes carbon per hectare in soil + 7 tonnes carbon per hectare in vegetation = total 171 tonnes carbon per hectare;

croplands: 80 tonnes carbon per hectare in soil + 2 tonnes carbon per hectare in vegetation = total 82 tonnes carbon per hectare.[6]

The figures quoted above are global averages. More recent research in 2009 has found that the habitat with the world's highest known total carbon density - 1,867 tonnes of carbon per hectare - is temperate moist forest of Eucalyptus regnans in the Central Highlands of south-east Australia, and that in general temperate forests contain more carbon than either boreal forests or tropical forests.[30]

Carbon stores in Britain[edit]

According to a paper by R. Milne and T. A. Brown, 'Carbon in the vegetation and soils of Great Britain', published in 1997, Britain's vegetation and soil are estimated to contain 9952 million tonnes of carbon, of which almost all is in the soil, and most of that in Scottish peatland soil:

soils in Scotland: 6948 million tonnes carbon;

soils in England and Wales: 2890 million tonnes carbon;

vegetation in British woods and plantations (which cover only 11% of Britain's land area): 91 million tonnes carbon;

other vegetation: 23 million tonnes carbon.[31]

A 2005 report said that British woodland soil may contain as much as 250 tonnes of carbon per hectare.[32]

Many studies of soil carbon only study the carbon in the top 30 centimetres, but soil is often much deeper than that, especially below woodland. One 2009 study of the United Kingdom's carbon stores by Keith Dyson and others gives figures for soil carbon down to 100 cm below the habitats, including 'Forestland', 'Cropland' and 'Grassland', covered by the Kyoto Protocol reporting requirements.[33]

For 'Forestland' soils, the average figures in tonnes carbon per hectare are 160 (England), 428 (Scotland), 203 (Wales), and 366 (Northern Ireland).

For 'Grassland' soils, the average figures in tonnes carbon per hectare are 148 (England), 386 (Scotland), 171 (Wales), and 304 (Northern Ireland).

For 'Cropland' soils, the average figures in tonnes carbon per hectare are 110 (England), 159 (Scotland), 108 (Wales), and 222 (Northern Ireland).

Protecting carbon stores in wetland[edit]

Climate-friendly gardeners choose peat-free composts[2] [4] [11] because some of the planet's biggest carbon stores are in soil, and especially in the peatland soil of wetlands. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report 'Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry' gives a figure of 2011 gigatonnes of carbon for global carbon stocks in the top 1 metre of soils, much more than the carbon stores in the vegetation or the atmosphere.[6]

Climate-friendly gardeners also avoid using tapwater not only because of the greenhouse gases emitted when fossil fuels are burnt to treat and pump water,[2] but because if water is taken from wetlands then carbon stores are more likely to be oxidised to carbon dioxide.[6]

A climate-friendly garden therefore does not contain large irrigated lawns, but instead includes water-butts to collect rainwater, water-thrifty plants which survive on rainwater and do not need watering after they're established, trees, shrubs and hedges to shelter gardens from the drying effects of sun and wind, and groundcover plants and organic mulch to protect the soil and keep it moist.[3] [11] [4] [5]

Climate-friendly gardeners will ensure that any paved surfaces in their gardens (which are kept to a minimum to increase carbon stores) are permeable[11], and may also make rain gardens, sunken areas into which rainwater from buildings and paving is directed, so that the rain can then be fed back into groundwater rather than going into storm drains. The plants in rain gardens must be able to grow in both dry and wet soils.[34] [3]

Protecting carbon stores in woodland[edit]

Wetlands may store the most carbon in their soils, but woods store more carbon in their living biomass than any other type of vegetation, and their soils store the most carbon after wetlands.[6] Climate-friendly gardeners therefore ensure that any wooden products they buy, such as garden furniture, have been made of wood from sustainably managed woodland.

Protecting and increasing carbon stores in gardens[edit]

After rocks containing carbonate compounds, soil is the biggest store of carbon on land.[6] Carbon is found in soil organic matter, including living organisms (plant roots, fungi, animals, protists, bacteria), dead organisms, and humus.[4] One study of the environmental benefits of gardens estimates that 86% of carbon stores in gardens is in the soil.[35]

The first priorities for climate-friendly gardeners are therefore to:

• protect the soil's existing carbon stores

• increase the soil's carbon stores.

(Note to myself - insert ground-cover photo here when page launched.)

To protect the soil, climate-friendly gardens

• are based on plants rather than buildings and paving;[35] [12]

• the soil is kept at a relatively stable temperature by shelter from trees and/or shrubs and/or hedges[36]

• the soil is always kept covered and therefore moist and at a relatively stable temperature by groundcover plants, fast-growing green manures (which can be used as an intercrop in kitchen gardens of annual vegetables) and/or organic mulches.[2] [37] [36]

Climate-friendly gardeners avoid things which may harm soil. They do not tread on the soil when it's wet, because it is then most vulnerable to compaction. They dig as little is possible, and only when the soil is moist rather than wet, because cultivation increases the oxidation of soil organic matter and produces carbon dioxide.[36] [35] [38] [3] [11]

To increase soil carbon stores, climate-friendly gardeners ensure that their gardens create optimal conditions for vigorous healthy growth of plants, and other garden organisms above and below ground, and reduce the impact of any limiting factors.

In general, the more biomass that the plants can create each year, the more carbon will be added to the soil.[37] [11] However only some biomass each year becomes long-term soil carbon or humus. In a 2009 report for the Soil Association, 'Soil Carbon and Organic Farming', Gundula Azeez discusses several factors which increase how much biomass is turned into humus. These include good soil structure, soil organisms such as fine root hairs, microorganisms, mycorrhizas and earthworms which increase soil aggregation, residues from plants (such as trees and shrubs) which have a high content of resistant chemicals such as lignin, and plant residues with a carbon to nitrogen ratio lower than about 32:1.[39]

Climate-friendly gardens therefore include:

• hedges for shelter from wind[37] [36];

• a light canopy of late-leafing deciduous trees to let in enough sunlight for growth but not so much that the garden becomes too hot and dry[37] (this is one of the principles behind many agroforestry systems, such as Paulownia's use in China partly because it is late-leafing and its canopy is sparse so that crops below it get shelter but also enough light[40]);

• groundcover plants and organic mulches (such as woodchips over compost made from kitchen and garden 'waste') to keep soil moist and at relatively stable temperatures[37] [36];

nitrogen-fixing plants because soil nitrogen may be a limiting factor (but climate-friendly gardeners avoid synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, because these may cause mycorrhizal associations to break down)[37];

• many layers[37] of plants - woody plants such as trees and shrubs, other perennials, groundcover plants, deep-rooted plants - all chosen according to 'right plant, right place',[41] [42]so that they are suited to their growing conditions and will grow well;

• a wide diversity of disease-resistant, vigorous plants for resilience and to make the most of all available ecological niches;[37] [35]

• plants to feed and shelter wildlife, to increase total biomass, and to ensure biological control of pests and diseases.[43] [12] [11]

Lawns, like other grasslands, can build up good levels of soil carbon[39], but they will grow more vigorously and store more carbon if besides grasses they also contain nitrogen-fixing plants such as clover[4], and if they are cut using a mulching mower which returns finely-chopped mowings to the lawn. However because lawn mowers powered by fossil fuel (or electricity generated by burning fossil fuel, and in drier parts of the world lawns are often irrigated with tapwater, climate-friendly gardeners will reduce the size of their lawns, and/or make the lawn shapes simple so that they can be cut quickly, and/or cut some or all of the lawns only once or twice a year, so that they become meadows, and/or cut them with electric mowers or hand tools such as push mowers (for lawns) or scythes (for meadows).[2] [4] [11] [36]

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions[edit]

Using our gardens to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from elsewhere[edit]

Climate-friendly gardeners can use their gardens in ways which reduce greenhouse gases elsewhere, for example by using the sun and wind to dry washing on washing lines in the garden instead of using electricity generated by fossil fuel to dry washing in tumble dryers.

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from farmland[edit]

Soil is the biggest store of carbon on land. It is therefore important to protect the soil organic matter in farmland. However cultivation of the soil increases the oxidation of soil organic matter into carbon dioxide.[44] Other sources of greenhouse gases from farmland include: compaction caused by farm machinery or overgrazing by farm animals can make soil anaerobic and produce methane; farm animals produce methane; and nitrogen fertilizers can be converted to nitrous oxide.

Most farmland consists of fields growing annual arable crops which are eaten directly by people or fed to farm animals, and grassland used as pasture, hay or silage to feed farm animals. Some perennial food plants are also grown, such as fruits and nuts in orchards, and watercress grown in water.

Although all cultivation of the soil in arable fields produces carbon dioxide, some arable crops cause more damage to soil than others. Root crops such as potatoes and sugar-beet, and crops which are harvested not just once a year but over a long period such as green vegetables and salads, are considered 'high risk' in catchment-sensitive farming.[45] [46] Climate-friendly gardeners who want to grow food crops may therefore help to keep carbon in farmland soils if they grow such high-risk crops in small vegetable plots in their gardens, where it is easier to protect the soil than in large fields under commercial pressures. Climate-friendly gardeners may grow and eat plants such as sweet cicely which sweeten food, and so reduce the land area needed for sugar-beet.[47] They may also choose to grow perennial food plants to not only reduce their indirect greenhouse gas emissions from farmland, but also to increase carbon stores in their own gardens.[37] [47] [48] [49]

Grassland contains more carbon per hectare than arable fields, but farm animals, especially ruminants such as cattle or sheep, produce large amounts of methane, directly and from manure heaps and slurry.[50] Slurry and manure may also produce nitrous oxide.[51] [25] Gardeners who want to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions can help themselves to eat less meat and dairy produce by growing nut trees which are a good source of tasty, protein-rich food, including walnuts which are an excellent source of the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid.[52].

Researchers and farmers are investigating and improving ways of farming which are more sustainable, such as agroforestry, forest farming, wildlife-friendly farming, soil management, catchment-sensitive farming (or water-friendly farming[53]). For example, the organisation Farming Futures[1] helps farmers in the United Kingdom to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Farmers are aware that consumers are increasingly asking them to demonstrate their 'green credentials'.[54] Gardeners who understand climate-friendly practices can advocate their use by farmers.[2]

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from industry[edit]

Greenhouse gases are produced in the manufacture of many materials and products used by gardeners. For example, it takes a lot of energy to produce synthetic fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers: ammonium nitrate has an embodied energy of 67000 kilojoules/kilogramme.[3] so climate-friendly gardeners will choose alternative ways of ensuring the soil in their gardens has optimal levels of nitrogen, for example by using nitrogen-fixing plants.

Climate-friendly gardeners will also aim to follow 'cradle-to-cradle design' and 'circular economy' principles: when they choose to buy or make something, it should be possible to take it apart again and recycle or compost every part, so that there is no waste, only raw materials to be made into something else, manufactured or living.[55] This will of course not eliminate all energy use in manufacture, but will reduce the greenhouse gases produced in extracting raw materials.

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport[edit]

Gardeners can reduce not only their food miles by growing some of their own food, but also their 'gardening miles' by reducing the amount of plants and other materials they import, and obtaining them as locally as possible, and with as little packaging as possible. This might include ordering plants by mail order from a specialist nursery if the plants are sent out bare-root, keeping down transport impacts as well as the impacts of peat-based compost; or growing plants from seed, which will also increase genetic diversity and therefore resilience; or growing plants vegetatively from cuttings or offsets from other local gardeners; or buying reclaimed materials from salvage firms.[11]

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from our houses[edit]

Climate-friendly gardeners can use their gardens in ways which reduce greenhouse gases elsewhere:

• using the sun and wind to dry washing on washing lines in the garden instead of using electricity generated by fossil fuel to dry washing in tumble dryers;

• planting deciduous climbers on houses and planting deciduous trees at suitable distances from the house, so that they shade the house in high summer and reduce the electricity used for air conditioning, but so that at other, cooler times of year sunlight can reach and warm the house and help to keep down heating costs;[5] [35]

• planting hedges, trees, shrubs, and climbers to shelter houses from wind and so reduce heating costs in the winter as long as any planting does not create a wind-tunnel effect.[5] [35]

Climate-friendly gardeners may also choose to reduce their own personal greenhouse gas emissions by growing and eating carminative plants such as fennel and garlic which reduce intestinal gases such as methane.[56]

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from gardens[edit]

There are some obvious sources of greenhouse gas emissions in gardens, and some not so obvious.

Power tools powered by diesel or petrol, or electricity generated by burning other fossil fuels, emit carbon dioxide. Climate-friendly gardeners may therefore choose to use hand tools rather than power tools, or design their gardens to reduce the need to use power tools. For example, they may replace lawns by other permanent planting such as trees and shrubs which don't need to be maintained with power tools, or choose dense slow-growing species for hedges so that the hedges only need to be cut once a year.[12]

Climate-friendly gardeners will not put woody prunings on bonfires, which will emit carbon dioxide and black carbon,[5] but instead burn them indoors in a wood-burning stove and therefore cut emissions from fossil fuel, cut them up to use as mulch and increase soil carbon stores,[11] or add the smaller prunings to compost heaps to keep them aerated and therefore cut methane emissions.[57] To reduce the risk of fire, they will also choose fire-resistant plants from habitats which are not prone to wildfires and which do not catch fire easily, rather than fire-adapted plants from fire-prone habitats which are flammable and adapted to encourage fires and then gain a competitive advantage over less resistant species.

Climate-friendly gardeners may use deep-rooted plants such as comfrey to bring nutrients closer to the surface topsoil, but will do so without making the leaves into a liquid feed, because the rotting leaves in the anaerobic conditions under water may emit methane.

Nitrogen fertilizers may be oxidised to nitrous oxide, especially if fertilizer is applied in excess, or when plants are not actively growing. Climate-friendly gardeners may choose instead to use nitrogen-fixing plants which will add nitrogen to the soil without increasing nitrous oxide emissions.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rowan Adams (2015). Soil and Sky: How to be a climate-friendly gardener. Dartington, Devon: Green Books. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Union of Concerned Scientists. "The Climate-Friendly Gardener: A guide to combating global warming from the ground up". Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rob Cross; Roger Spencer (2009). Sustainable Gardens. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO. ISBN 9780643094222. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o David S. Ingram; Daphne Vince-Prue and Peter J. Gregory. Science and the Garden: The scientific basis for horticultural practice. Chichester, Sussex, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9781405160636. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Steven B. Carroll; Steven B. Salt (2004). Ecology for Gardeners. Portland, USA and Cambridge, UK: Timber Press. ISBN 0881926116. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Robert T. Watson; Ian R. Noble, Bert Bolin, N. H. Ravindranath, David J. Verardo and David J. Dokken (2000). Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521800839. 
  7. ^ Ullstein (editor), Bart (2011). Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision-Makers. United Nations Environment Programme and World Meteorological Organisation. ISBN 978-92-807-3142-2. 
  8. ^ Bond, T. C.; S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofi, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, C. S. Zender (2013). "Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171. 
  9. ^ Royal Horticultural Society (2009). Peat and the Gardener: Conservation and Environment Guidelines. Royal Horticultural Society, Wisley, United Kingdom. 
  10. ^ Knight, Alan (2013). Towards Sustainable Growing Media: Chairman's Report and Roadmap. Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), London. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Walker, John (2011). How to Create an Eco Garden: The Practical Guide to Greener, Planet-Friendly Gardening. Wigston, Leicester: Aquamarine. ISBN 978-1903141892. 
  12. ^ a b c d Cunningham, Sally (2009). Ecological Gardening. Marlborough: The Crowood Press. ISBN 978 1 84797 125 8. 
  13. ^ Julian Allwood; Jonathan Cullen (2011). Sustainable Materials - with both eyes open. Cambridge: UIT. ISBN 9781906860059. 
  14. ^ Hammond, G. P.; C. I. Jones (2008). "Embodied energy and carbon in construction materials". Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy 161 (2): 87–98. 
  15. ^ Institute of Civil Engineers. "Embodied Energy and Carbon". Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  16. ^ Alan Clarke; Nick Grant and Judith Thornton (2009). Quantifying the energy and carbon effects of water saving full technical report. Environment Agency and Energy Saving Trust. 
  17. ^ Livesley, S.; B. Dougherty, A. Smith, D. Navaud, L. Wylie, and S. Arndt (2010). "Soil-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in urban garden systems: impact of irrigation, fertilizer and mulch". Urban Ecosystems 13: 273–293. 
  18. ^ Dave Reay; Pete Smith and Andre van Amstel (2010). Methane and Climate Change. London: Earthscan. ISBN 978-1844078233. 
  19. ^ Harriet Kopinska; Jane Griffiths, Heather Jackson, and Pauline Pears (2011). The Garden Organic Book of Compost. London: New Holland. ISBN 978 1 84773 437 2. 
  20. ^ Pond Conservation (2011). Creating a Garden Pond for Wildlife. Oxford: Freshwater Habitats Trust. ISBN 978-0-9537971-2-7. 
  21. ^ Smith (editor), Keith (2010). Nitrous Oxide and Climate Change. London: Earthscan. ISBN 978-1844077571. 
  22. ^ Mark Sutton; Stefan Reis (2011). The nitrogen cycle and its influence on the European greenhouse gas balance. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. ISBN 978-1-906698-21-8. 
  23. ^ Livesley, S.; B. Dougherty, A. Smith, D. Navaud, L. Wylie, and S. Arndt (2010). "Soil-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in urban garden systems: impact of irrigation, fertilizer and mulch". Urban Ecosystems 13: 273–293. 
  24. ^ a b c Farming Futures. "Climate change: be part of the solution Focus on: soil management (Fact Sheet 20)". Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  25. ^ a b Farming Futures. "Climate change: be part of the solution Focus on: nutrient management (Fact Sheet 21)". Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  26. ^ Ullstein (editor), Bart (2011). Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision-Makers. United Nations Environment Programme and World Meteorological Organisation. ISBN 978-92-807-3142-2. 
  27. ^ Bond, T. C.; S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofi, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, C. S. Zender (2013). "Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171. 
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  29. ^ James I. L. Morison; Michael D. Morecroft (2006). Plant Growth and Climate Change. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-14051-3192-6. 
  30. ^ Keith, Heather; Brendan G. Mackey and David B. Lindenmaye (2009). "Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world's most carbon-dense forests". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (28). 
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  32. ^ Mark Broadmeadow; Duncan Ray (2005). Climate Change and British Woodland. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission. ISBN 0-85538-658-4. 
  33. ^ Dyson, Keith; A. M. Thomson, D. C.. Mobbs, R. Milne, U. Skiba, A. Clark, P. E. Levy, S. K. Jones, M. F. Billett, K. J. Dinsmore, M. van Oijen, N. Ostle, B. Foeried, P. Smith, R. W. Matthews, E. Mackie, P. Bellamy, M. Rivas-Casado, C. Jordan, A. Higgins, R. W. Tomlinson, J. Grace, P. Parrish, M. Williams, R. Clement, J.Moncrieff, and A. Manning (July 2009). Inventory and projections of UK emissions by sources and removals by sinks due to land use, land-use change and forestry Annual Report. London: Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Climate, Energy and Ozone, Science and Analysis Division. 
  34. ^ Nigel Dunnett; Andy Clayden (2007). Rain Gardens: Managing Water Sustainably in the Garden and Designed Landscape. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0881928266. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f Cameron, Ross W. F.; Tijana Blanuša, Jane E. Taylor, Andrew Salisbury, Andrew J. Halstead, Béatrice Henricot, Ken Thompson (2012). "The domestic garden – its contribution to urban green infrastructure". Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 11 (2): 129–137. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f Wilson, Matthew (2007). New Gardening: How to garden in a changing climate. London: Mitchell Beazley, with the Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 9781845333058. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i Crawford, Martin (2010). Creating a Forest Garden: Working with nature to grow edible crops. Hartland, Devon: Green Books. ISBN 9781900322621. 
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Further reading[edit]

Rowan Adams (2015). Soil and Sky: How to be a climate-friendly gardener. Dartington, Devon: Green Books. ISBN

Union of Concerned Scientists (2010). The Climate-Friendly Gardener: A guide to combating global warming from the ground up. Union of Concerned Scientists.

Rob Cross and Roger Spencer (2009). Sustainable Gardens. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO. ISBN 9780643094222.

Ross W. F. Cameron, Tijana Blanuša, Jane E. Taylor, Andrew Salisbury, Andrew J. Halstead, Béatrice Henricot, and Ken Thompson (2012). "The domestic garden – its contribution to urban green infrastructure". Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 11 (2): 129–137.

Martin Crawford (2010). Creating a Forest Garden: Working with nature to grow edible crops. Hartland, Devon: Green Books. ISBN 9781900322621.

John Walker (2011). How to Create an Eco Garden: The Practical Guide to Greener, Planet-Friendly Gardening. Wigston, Leicestershire: Aquamarine. ISBN 978-1903141892.

Ken Fern (1997). Plants for a Future: Edible and useful plants for a healthier world. Clanfield, Hampshire: Permanent Publications. ISBN 9781856230117.

Sally Cunningham (2009). Ecological Gardening. Marlborough: The Crowood Press. ISBN 9781847971258.

Steven B. Carroll and Steven B. Salt (2004). Ecology for Gardeners. Portland, USA and Cambridge, UK: Timber Press. ISBN 0881926116.

Matthew Wilson (2007). New Gardening: How to garden in a changing climate. London: Mitchell Beazley, with the Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 9781845333058.

David S. Ingram, Daphne Vince-Prue and Peter J. Gregory (2008). Science and the Garden: The scientific basis for horticultural practice. Chichester, Sussex: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9781405160636.

Robert T. Watson, Ian R. Noble, Bert Bolin, N. H. Ravindranath, David J. Verardo and David J. Dokken (2000). Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521800839.

Richard Bisgrove and Paul Hadley (2002). Gardening in the Global Greenhouse: The impacts of climate change on gardens in the UK. Oxford: UK Climate Impacts Programme.

External links[edit]

Union of Concerned Scientists (2010). The Climate-Friendly Gardener: A guide to combating global warming from the ground up. [2]

Royal Horticultural Society. Gardening in a Changing Climate. [3]

Robert T. Watson, Ian R. Noble, Bert Bolin, N. H. Ravindranath, David J. Verardo and David J. Dokken (2000). Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521800839. [4]

Richard Bisgrove and Paul Hadley (2002). Gardening in the Global Greenhouse: The impacts of climate change on gardens in the UK. Oxford: UK Climate Impacts Programme. [5]

Plants for a Future. [6]

Farming Futures [7]

Food Climate Research Network [8]