User:Royalmate1

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Scott Christopher Cox
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Scott Cox
Born March 13, 1996 CE
Mayfield Heights, Ohio
Era Contemporary philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School
Main interests

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I am related to Emperor Charlemagne (/ˈʃɑrlɨmn/; 2 April 742/747/748[1] – 28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (Latin: Carolus or Karolus Magnus, French: Charles Le Grand or Charlemagne, German: Karl der Große,[2] Italian: Carlo Magno or Carlomagno) or Charles I, who was King of the Franks, known for uniting most of Western Europe during the Middle Ages and laying the foundations for modern France and Germany. He took the Frankish throne from 768, became King of Italy from 774, and from 800 was the first recognized Roman emperor in Western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state he founded is called the Carolingian Empire.
The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, Charlemagne became king in 768 following the death of his father. He was initially co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy, and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death, at times leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St. Peter's Basilica.
Called the "Father of Europe" (pater Europae),[3] Charlemagne united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of cultural and intellectual activity within the Catholic Church. Both the French and German monarchies considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire.
Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for just over thirteen years. He was laid to rest in his imperial capital of Aachen in what is today Germany. His son Louis the Pious succeeded him. Thus I am of royal descent. William Brewster is my direct genealogical ancestor.
I am an Ignostic theological non-cognivitivist anti-clerical atheist and scientific materialist rationalist. I am also a Maronite Catholic and I find no mutual exclusion between religion and atheism. I do not plan on dying from biological age (or natural causes) and I support the concept of the Technological Singularity and people like Ray Kurzweil and the contributors of the Singularity Weblog [2]; I believe the goal of mankind should be the end of death for humanity and the creation of a technological collective at some point in the future through continued technological advancement and the social and cultural promotion of scientific rationalism and secularization and the militant and social opposition to religious and pseudo-scientific movements; thus I am a Singularitarianist futurist and artificial intelligence enthusiast, and I believe the singularity will occur sometime around the year 2045. Therefore I am a Singularitarian philosopher and historian. I am also a Nietzschean nihilist and an Anglo-Saxon classically liberal capitalist. I am however quite sympathetic to the tenets of scientific socialism, Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought, Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, and Hoxhaism. I am an American philosopher. I also plan to be an author and playwright.
I am a member of the Society for Creative Anachronism. I am a member of American Atheists, the Secular Student Alliance, the Democratic Party, and College Democrats of America. I am also a member of the Knights of Columbus. I plan to become either a member of Alcor Life Extension Foundation or the Cryonics Institute, as well as organizations such as the Immortalist Society and other cryonics societies. I am an active premium member of the MMORPG RuneScape. Sign my guestbook on this page for free WikiLove.
Ignosticism or igtheism is the idea that every theological position assumes too much about the concept of God and other theological concepts; including (but not limited to) concepts of faith, spirituality, heaven, hell, afterlife, damnation, salvation, sin and the soul. Ignosticism is the view that any religious term or theological concept presented must be accompanied by a coherent definition. Without a clear definition such terms cannot be meaningfully discussed. Such terms or concepts must also be falsifiable. Lacking this, an ignostic takes the theological noncognitivist position that the existence or nature of the terms presented (and all matters of debate) is meaningless. For example, if the term "God" does not refer to anything reasonably defined then there is no conceivable method to test against the existence of god. Therefore, the term "God" has no literal significance and need not be debated or discussed. Some philosophers have seen ignosticism as a variation of agnosticism or atheism,[4] whereas others have considered it to be distinct.
The technological singularity is the hypothesis that accelerating progress in technologies will cause a runaway effect wherein artificial intelligence will exceed human intellectual capacity and control, thus radically changing civilization in an event called the singularity.[5] Because the capabilities of such an intelligence may be impossible for a human to comprehend, the technological singularity is an occurrence beyond which events may become unpredictable, unfavorable, or even unfathomable.[6]
Ufology is an interesting study, however it is largely pseduoscience. The incidents listed in List of reported UFO sightings can all be refuted. That, being said, I do believe in extraterrestrial life.




I am ignostic about the existence of the Invisible Pink Unicorn in the same way that I am ignostic about the existence of God. The IPU does not make any logical sense, and therefore cannot physically exist in any way. The same thing goes for God, for the concept of God is not only undefined but also logically contradictory and impossible.
Ray Kurzweil writes that, due to paradigm shifts, a trend of exponential growth extends Moore's law from integrated circuits to earlier transistors, vacuum tubes, relays, and electromechanical computers. He predicts that the exponential growth will continue, and that in a few decades the computing power of all computers will exceed that of ("unenhanced") human brains, with superhuman artificial intelligence appearing around the same time.
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THIS USER KNOWS EVERYTHING!
It's just that some things are misfiled...
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Scott Cox, candidate for Valencia College West Campus Vice President
Our lord and savior, Ray Kurzweil. Technology be upon him.
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Contents

- Articles I have created[edit]

Articles[edit]

  1. Craig B. Lloyd
  2. Ruth Kasirye
  3. United States Ambassador to San Marino
  4. David B. Dunn
  5. Seal of Bihar
  6. Gregory W. Engle
  7. Karl W. Hofmann
  8. Brenda Schoonover
  9. Harmon Elwood Kirby
  10. Rush Walker Taylor, Jr.
  11. David A. Korn
  12. Owen W. Roberts
  13. Howard Kent Walker
  14. Marilyn P. Johnson
  15. Nancy V. Rawls
  16. Akbugdaý District
  17. Babadaýhan District
  18. Baharly District
  19. Gökdepe District
  20. Kaka District
  21. Ruhabat District
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Ignosticism and its Relationship to other views about God[edit]

Ignosticism and theological noncognitivism are generally synonymous,[8] but the relationship of ignosticism to other nontheistic views is less clear. While Paul Kurtz finds the view to be compatible with both weak atheism and agnosticism,[9] other philosophers consider ignosticism to be distinct.

The term ignosticism was coined in the 1960s by Sherwin Wine, a rabbi and a founding figure of Humanistic Judaism. The term igtheism was coined by the secular humanist Paul Kurtz in his 1992 book The New Skepticism.[10]

In a chapter of his 1936 book Language, Truth, and Logic, A. J. Ayer argued that one could not speak of God's existence, or even the probability of God's existence, since the concept itself was unverifiable and thus nonsensical.[11] Ayer wrote that this ruled out atheism and agnosticism as well as theism because all three positions assume that the sentence "God exists" is meaningful.[12] Given the meaninglessness of theistic claims, Ayer opined that there was "no logical ground for antagonism between religion and natural science",[13] as theism alone does not entail any propositions which the scientific method can falsify.

Like Ayer, Theodore Drange sees atheism and agnosticism as positions that accept "God exists" as a meaningful proposition: atheists judge it to be "false or probably false" while agnostics consider it to be inconclusive until further evidence is met.[14] If Drange's definitions are accepted, ignostics are neither atheists nor agnostics. A simplified maxim on the subject states "An atheist would say, 'I don't believe God exists'; an agnostic would say, 'I don't know whether or not God exists'; and an ignostic would say, 'I don't know what you mean when you say, "God exists" .

Although often described as one of the New Atheists, Sam Harris has expressed frustration with the label and often employs ignostic arguments criticizing the ambiguous and inconsistent definitions of "God". Harris finds the label of atheism as extraneous as needing to label oneself a non-racist or a non-believer in Zeus.[15] In this sense, Harris finds debating about the existence of God to be both absurd and ascientific yet still an inconvenient necessity when speaking in defense of reason and science.

Ignosticism is not to be confused with apatheism, a position of apathy toward the existence of God. An apatheist may see the statement "God exists" as insignificant; yet they may also see it as having semantic value, and perhaps being true.[16]

Dependence on a particular view concerning the word God[edit]

Drange emphasizes that any stance on "Does God exist?" is made with respect to a particular concept of what one claims to consider "God" to represent:

Since the word "God" has many different meanings, it is possible for the sentence "God exists" to express many different propositions. What we need to do is to focus on each proposition separately. … For each different sense of the term "God," there will be theists, atheists, and agnostics relative to that concept of God.[14]

Some, such as Drange above, claim that God means different things to different people, and thus when God is spoken or written, an ignostic may seek to determine if something like a child's concept of a material god is meant or if a theologian's purported definition is intended instead. A theistic child's concept generally has a simple and coherent meaning, based on an anthropomorphic conception of a god.[17] Many philosophers and theologians have rejected this conception of a deity to label "God" while claiming belief in another conception of a deity, including St. Augustine, Maimonides, St. Thomas Aquinas, Baruch Spinoza, and Søren Kierkegaard.

See also[edit]

Theological Noncognitivism[edit]

Theological noncognitivism is the argument that religious language – specifically, words such as "God" – are not cognitively meaningful. It is sometimes considered as synonymous with ignosticism.

Overview[edit]

Theological noncognitivists claim that words are only useful for speaking or writing of what can be philosophically conceived, and that nothing can be conceived to label "God". They claim that word constructs such as "creator of the universe" do not refer to anything conceivable, and are thus meaningless. ["Unicorn" is not meaningless because unicorns can be imagined, but "God" does not refer to anything imaginable or conceivable, and is thus meaningless].

In a nutshell, those who claim to be theological noncognitivists claim:

  1. "God" does not refer to anything that exists.
  2. "God" does not refer to anything that does not exist.
  3. "God" does not refer to anything that may or may not exist.
  4. "God" has no literal significance, just as "Fod" has no literal significance.

The term God was chosen for this example, obviously any theological term [such as "Yahweh" and "Allah"] that is not falsifiable is subject to scrutiny.

Many people who label themselves "theological noncognitivists" claim that all alleged definitions for the term "God" are circular, for instance, "God is that which caused everything but God", defines "God" in terms of "God". They also claim that in Anselm's definition "God is that than which nothing greater can be conceived", that the pronoun "which" refers back to "God" rendering it circular as well.

Others who label themselves "theological noncognitivists" argue in different ways, depending on what one considers the "theory of meaning" to be. Michael Martin, writing from a verificationist perspective, concludes that religious language is meaningless because it is not verifiable.[18][19]

George H. Smith uses an attribute-based approach in an attempt to prove that there is no concept for the term "God": he argues that there are no meaningful attributes, only negatively defined or relational attributes, making the term meaningless.

Another way of expressing theological noncognitivism is, for any sentence S, S is cognitively meaningless if and only if S expresses an unthinkable proposition or S does not express a proposition. [original research?] The sentence X is a four-sided triangle that exists outside of space and time, cannot be seen or measured and it actively hates blue spheres is an example of an unthinkable proposition. Although some may say that the sentence expresses an idea, that idea is incoherent and so cannot be entertained in thought. It is unthinkable and unverifiable. Similarly, Y is what it is does not express a meaningful proposition except in a familiar conversational context. In this sense to claim to believe in X or Y is a meaningless assertion in the same way as I believe that colorless green ideas sleep furiously is grammatically correct but without meaning.

Some theological noncognitivists assert that to be a strong atheist is to give credence to the concept of God because it assumes that there actually is something understandable to not believe in. This can be confusing because of the widespread claim of "belief in God" and the common use of the series of letters G-o-d as if it is already understood that it has some cognitively understandable meaning. From this view strong atheists have made the assumption that the concept of God actually contains an expressible or thinkable proposition. However, this depends on the specific definition of God being used.[20] However, most theological noncognitivists do not believe that any of the definitions used by modern day theists are coherent.

As with ignosticism, many theological noncognitivists claim to await a coherent definition of the word God (or of any other metaphysical utterance purported to be discussable) before being able to engage in arguments for or against God's existence.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Fate of the Atheists[edit]

The fate of the unlearned, also known as the destiny of the unevangelized, is an eschatological question about the ultimate destiny of people who have not been exposed to a particular theology or doctrine and thus have no opportunity to embrace it. The question is whether those who never hear of requirements issued through divine revelations will be punished for failure to abide by those requirements.

It is sometimes addressed in combination with the similar question of the fate of the unbeliever. Differing faith traditions have different responses to the question; in Christianity the fate of the unlearned is related to the question of original sin. As some suggest that rigid readings of religious texts require harsh punishment for those who have never heard of that religion, it is sometimes raised as an argument against the existence of God, and is generally accepted to be an extension or sub-section of the problem of evil.

- Why I Call Myself a Catholic Christian Ignostic Atheist[edit]

Catholic[edit]

Catholicism's general view on salvation and those who are not Catholic or legitimately unaware of Christianity or Catholic teaching is that they may still be able to be saved despite not being Catholic. The best example of this is the concept of virtuous pagans, such as Virgil in the Divine Comedy. I am an ignostic because God cannot logically or metaphysically exist; this is also why I accept the term "atheist". If I am somehow wrong, my eternal soul should still be saved, because although I reject God's existence and Jesus' divinity, I still live my life as though I do not, as a Maronite Catholic. Thus because I live my life based on my understanding of God, I cannot be eternally damned for my ignosticism, as I do not reject the teachings of God and Jesus Christ as tought by the Catholic Church, only the existence of God and the divinity of Jesus Christ. That being said, Hell doesn't exist, nor does the afterlife, so I really only say this for the purpose of debate. I have also been baptized.

The Catholic Church believes that Jesus Christ attained salvation "for all men by his death on the cross, but that some may choose to reject it.[21] It teaches that salvation comes from "God alone", but that the Church is the "mother" and "teacher" of the faithful.[22] Thus, "all salvation comes through the Church", and the Catholic Church mediates Christ's salvation through the sacraments. Specifically, it teaches that Christian baptism is necessary for salvation,[23] and that the Catholic Church is also necessary as "the universal sacrament of salvation", but that some may be joined to the Church by baptism of desire or by baptism of blood (martyrdom) in absence of ritual baptism, and thus attain salvation also through the Church. "Divine and Catholic faith", untainted by willful heresy, and love are also necessary for salvation, as is dying in a state of grace. Catholic teaching allows for the salvation of one with genuine ignorance of the Catholic Church, who "seeks the truth and does the will of God in accordance with his understanding of it",[24] and that God would supernaturally reveal the Catholic faith to them before death, in order for them to possess "divine and Catholic faith", as well as divine love, before death in order to bring them to salvation. Unbaptized catechumens can be saved, in the Catholic view, because the desire to receive the sacrament of baptism, together with sincere repentance for one's sins, together with the attainment of "divine and Catholic faith" assures salvation.[25] In the case of the righteous unlearned, "It may be supposed that such persons would have desired Baptism explicitly if they had known its necessity" and, by extension, God may permit them to attain salvation, even supernaturally revealing to them the truth of the Catholic faith before death if necessary.[24]

Protestant[edit]

I used to be a Methodist until I was five, so Protestant views on salvation are also applicable, as are all religious views on the subject.

In Protestantism, the issue centers on whether those who have not heard the Gospel receive salvation or damnation.[26][27] There are some who believe that those who died without an opportunity to learn of or understand the Christian message are destined to Hell, which may include those who lived before Jesus' time, those who lived in remote places and never learned of it, those who die in infancy or before birth, and the mentally disabled. Some Protestants agree with Augustine that people in these categories will be damned to Hell for original sin, whereas others argue that God needs no human help in delivering salvation.[26][27] The French reformer John Calvin, writing his Institutes of the Christian Religion at the time of the Reformation, wrote "beyond the pale of the Church no forgiveness of sins, no salvation, can be hoped for" [IV.i.iv]. Calvin wrote also that "those to whom he is a Father, the Church must also be a mother", echoing the words of the originator of the Latin phrase himself, Cyprian: "He can no longer have God for his Father who has not the Church for his mother." The idea is further affirmed in the Puritan, Anglican Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 that "the visible Church ... is the Kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ, the house and family of God, out of which there is no ordinary possibility of salvation".

It is not necessarily a commonly held belief within modern Protestantism, especially Evangelicalism and those denominations which believe in the autonomy of the local church. The dogma is related to the universal Protestant dogma that the church is the body of all believers and debates within Protestantism usually centre on the meaning of "church" (ecclesiam) and "apart" (extra). Theologian John Sanders noted that "Although God's decision on this issue is final, the church has never agreed on the nature of that decision."[26] Sanders and Clark Pinnock propose a position known as "inclusivism", under which many of the unevangelized will receive salvation because they have faith in God as they know him (as Hindus or Muslims, for example), and they are saved by Christ's work.[28]

Latter-day Saints[edit]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (LDS Church) or Mormonism, teaches that those who die without knowledge of LDS theology will have the opportunity to receive a knowledge of the gospel of Jesus Christ in the spirit world.[29] Latter-day Saints believe that God has provided a way so that all of mankind will have an opportunity to hear the message of the gospel, and can thereby choose whether to accept it or not.[30] Mormons assert that modern day revelation has clarified and confirmed the Biblical accounts that during the three days between his death and resurrection, Christ "went and preached unto the spirits in prison" (1 Peter 3:19, see also 1 Peter 4:6), at which time he also commissioned other spirits to "go forth and carry the light of the gospel to them that were in darkness, even to all the spirits of men" (Doctrine and Covenants 138:30 [31]). Since Latter-day Saints believe that all people must receive the proper ordinances in order to enter into the Kingdom of Heaven, today members of the LDS Church participate in a massive genealogical effort to compile names of their kindred dead, and then act as proxies in ordinances performed on behalf of their deceased ancestors within LDS temples.[32][33] The beneficiaries of this temple work are then free to accept or reject the vicarious ordinances performed on their behalf.

Mormons do not believe that children come into the world with any guilt,[34] because Jesus Christ atoned for "original guilt";[35][36] therefore no one is condemned by original sin[37] and people are responsible only for their own sins once they have reached the age of accountability.[38] Those incapable of understanding right from wrong, such as the mentally handicapped, are also saved under the atonement of Jesus Christ without baptism.[38][39]

In Mormon belief, only "sons of perdition" who choose to reject Jesus after receiving a sure knowledge of him are destined for a form of Hell called outer darkness.[40]

Islam[edit]

A similar issue exists in Islam, as different authorities within the faith have issued different theories as to the destiny of those who do not know of Muhammad or Allah. Islam generally rejects the possibility that those who have never heard of the revelations embodied in the Qur'an might automatically merit punishment.[41]

According to Qur'an, the basic criteria for salvation in afterlife are the belief in one God, Last Judgment, acceptance and obedience of what is in the Qur'an and ordained by the prophet and good deeds.[42] As the Qur'an states:

Surely those who believe (Muslims) and those who are Jews and the Sabians and the Christians whoever believes in Allah (God) and the last day and does good – they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve.[43]

The Qur'an also asserts that those who reject the Messengers of God with their best knowledge are damned in afterlife[42] and if they reject in front of the Messenger of God, then they also face dreadful fate in this world and in afterlife (see Itmam al-hujjah). Conversely, a person who discovers monotheism without having been reached by a messenger is called Hanif. But it should be remembered, Islam also states every community in the world, no matter how isolated, had been sent at least one prophet to teach them. So, this belief limits the possibility of people not hearing God's message. Part of Ibrahim's story in the Qur'an [Quran 6:74] also suggests every man is capable of finding the one true God by his own common sense.

To reduce the broad scope of the Islamic tradition to a single answer, however, would be as problematic as to do the same for Christianity – different Muslims have answered this question in different ways at different times. Some Muslims have maintained – and still do – that paradise is only available to those who accept Islam as is suggested by some verses of the Qur'an, and this is a very commonly held view. It is also believed that following religions such as Judaism or Christianity is acceptable only prior to the advent of Islam and only in their original unaltered form in the way they were revealed to their messengers without any distortion or idolatry like present day Christianity.[citation needed]

One view is that "A person who has never heard of Islam or the Prophet... and who has never heard the message in its correct and true form, will not be punished by Allah if he dies in a state of disbelief. If it were asked what his fate will be, the answer will be that Allah will test him on the Day of Resurrection: if he obeys, he will enter Paradise and if he disobeys he will enter Hell."[44] But, even those who have not heard the message will be held to some standard of conduct: "Because everyone is a born Muslim, those who have never heard of Islam are only responsible for not doing what common sense tells him or her to do. Those who knowingly violate God's laws will be punished for their wrongdoing."[45] Under this view, those who have not heard the message are "excused," and Allah "rewards such people for the good they have done, and they enjoy the blessings of Paradise."[41] A similar view is that "if such people find the Creator through the use of reason, even though they do not know His Names or Attributes, they will be saved. If they do not do this, they will not be saved."[41]

Some would extend this mercy to the incompetently evangelized, that is, to people "who have been reached by the name of Muhammad but who have been given a false account," and for whom it is then said that they "have not rejected true Islam but only a distorted version of it and they will therefore be judged in the same category as those people who never heard of Islam in the first place."[45]

The more complicated question of what will happen, for example, to people of religions other than Judaism and Christianity is significantly more controversial. There is particularly controversy over the meaning of the word "Sabians". The long presence of Islam in South Asia, however, has engendered many debates about the status of Hindus, which has run the whole gamut between a more standard dismissal of Hinduism as shirk, or polytheism, to some Muslims, such as Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan[46] even going so far as to recognize Rama and Krishna as Prophets of Islam not explicitly mentioned in Muslim scripture – thereby making Hindus equivalent to Christians or Jews.

Other positions[edit]

The problem of the unevangelized does not arise in religious or spiritual traditions such as Deism, Pandeism, and Pantheism, which do not include any revelation or require obedience to revealed rules. In Deism, some believe that individuals will be judged by one's obedience to natural laws of right and wrong to be obtained by the exercise of reason alone, and so, failure to exercise reason in the effort to make this determination is itself the cause for punishment.

In Buddhism, all souls, whether evangelized or not, will continue to be reincarnated until they have achieved Nirvana. However, Buddhist scholars[who?] have said that "any suggestion that enlightenment is immediately available to anyone who really wants it, even if he has never heard of Buddhism, is likely to be received with incredulity or even resentment."[47]

Dante attempted to answer this question with the first level of Hell in the Divine Comedy, where the virtuous pagans live. They are described as those who lived before the time of Jesus and therefore unable to enter Purgatory or Heaven. Amongst them is Virgil, Dante's guide through Hell and Purgatory.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

On Why There Cannot be Ignostic Theists[edit]

Ietsism (Dutch: ietsisme (pronounced [itsˈɪsmə]) – "somethingism") is an unspecified belief in an undetermined higher force. In some Eastern European censuses (Albanian, for example), those having ietsistic beliefs are counted as believers without religion. It is a Dutch term for a range of beliefs held by people who, on the one hand, inwardly suspect – or indeed believe – that there is “More between Heaven and Earth” than we know about, but on the other hand do not necessarily accept or subscribe to the established belief system, dogma or view of the nature of God offered by any particular religion. Some of the English language equivalent terms are agnostic theism and deism.

Etymology[edit]

The name derives from the Dutch equivalent of the question: "Do you believe in the conventional 'Christian' God?", a typical 'ietsist' answer being "No, but there must be something (something being "iets" in Dutch)".

The term became known in the Netherlands after the atheist political columnist Ronald Plasterk (who later served as the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science) used it in a feature for the television programme Buitenhof. But the term possibly existed already.[48]

In October 2005, the word “ietsisme” was included in the 14th edition of the Dutch Language Dictionary 'Dikke Van Dale', but has also recently begun to circulate among English-speakers as a loanword. More recently; the word "ietsers" (somethingers) has emerged in the Netherlands to describe people of this viewpoint, but this has not yet been borrowed into English.

Beliefs[edit]

Ietsism may roughly be described as a belief in an end-in-itself or similar concept, without further assumption to exactly what object or objects have such a property, like intrinsic aliquidism without further specification. Other aliquidistic lifestances include the acceptance of "there is something – that is, some meaning of life, something that is an end-in-itself or something more to existence – and it is...", assuming various objects or "truths", while ietsism, on the other hand simply accepts "there is something", without further assumption to it.

In contrast to traditional agnostics who often hold a skeptical view about gods or other metaphysical entities (i.e. “We can't or don't know for sure that there is a God"), “ietsists” take a viewpoint along the lines of, “And yet it feels like there is something out there...." It is a form of religious liberalism or non-denominationalism. Ietsism may also be described as the minimal counterpart of nihilism, since it accepts that there is something, but yet, assumes as little further as possible without any more substantial evidence.

Ietsism also shares many attributes with similar viewpoints such as Deism and the so-called 'God of the Gaps', whose origins lie more in questions about the nature and origin of the physical universe. It could be said that ietsism is 'Deism for the spiritually-inclined'.[49]

An opinion poll conducted by the Dutch daily newspaper Trouw in October 2004 indicated that some 40% of its readership felt broadly this way.

As the ietsist will not have found any of the 'pre-packaged' gods offered by traditional religions satisfactory, each ietsist's conception of God will be different. This can range from the Judeo/Christian/Islamic concept of God as a force / intelligence that exists outside the world, to a position similar to the Buddhist "world view" with collective spiritual power existing within the world. Other ietsists will take a truly agnostic viewpoint – that the actual nature of God is totally unknown.

See also[edit]

Interstellar Medium[edit]

The distribution of ionized hydrogen (known by astronomers as H II from old spectroscopic terminology) in the parts of the Galactic interstellar medium visible from the Earth's northern hemisphere as observed with the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (Haffner et al. 2003).
Voyager 1 is the first artificial object to reach the ISM

Directly after the technological singularity and the solar systemic exploration (which can be done in a pre-transhumanist society) we will begin to explore the interstellar medium, or the Milky Way Galaxy. After this we will begin to explore intergalactic space, within our Virgo Supercluster, and then interclustular space, and then the rest of the observable universe.

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space. The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field.

The interstellar medium is composed of multiple phases, distinguished by whether matter is ionic, atomic, or molecular, and the temperature and density of the matter. The interstellar medium is composed primarily by hydrogen followed by helium with trace amounts of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen comparatively to hydrogen.[50] The thermal pressures of these phases are in rough equilibrium with one another. Magnetic fields and turbulent motions also provide pressure in the ISM, and are typically more important dynamically than the thermal pressure is.

In all phases, the interstellar medium is extremely tenuous by terrestrial standards. In cool, dense regions of the ISM, matter is primarily in molecular form, and reaches number densities of 106 molecules per cm3. In hot, diffuse regions of the ISM, matter is primarily ionized, and the density may be as low as 10−4 ions per cm3. Compare this with a number density of roughly 1019 molecules per cm3 for air, and 1010 molecules per cm3 for a laboratory high-vacuum chamber. By mass, 99% of the ISM is gas in any form, and 1% is dust.[51] Of the gas in the ISM, by number 91% of atoms are hydrogen and 9% are helium, with 0.1% being atoms of elements heavier than hydrogen or helium,[52] known as "metals" in astronomical parlance. By mass this amounts to 70% hydrogen, 28% helium, and 1.5% heavier elements. The hydrogen and helium are primarily a result of primordial nucleosynthesis, while the heavier elements in the ISM are mostly a result of enrichment in the process of stellar evolution.

The ISM plays a crucial role in astrophysics precisely because of its intermediate role between stellar and galactic scales. Stars form within the densest regions of the ISM, molecular clouds, and replenish the ISM with matter and energy through planetary nebulae, stellar winds, and supernovae. This interplay between stars and the ISM helps determine the rate at which a galaxy depletes its gaseous content, and therefore its lifespan of active star formation.

On September 12, 2013, NASA officially announced that Voyager 1 had reached the ISM on August 25, 2012, making it the first artificial object to do so. Interstellar plasma and dust will be studied until the mission's end in 2025.

- Cryonics[edit]

Further information: [[25]]

There is absolutely no reason everyone alive today should not continue living indefinitely, from the very young to the impossibly old. We live close enough to the singularity for this to be a possibility thanks to organizations like the Cryonics Institute that use cryonics (frequently erroneously called cryogenics) to freeze living people or the deceased until technological advancements allow for their rejuvenation and reincarnation. While technology may be the future, cryonics may allow you to see the future, especially if you cannot biologically live to the year 2045.

The Cryonic Process[edit]

Cryonics patients are stored in liquid nitrogen either in cryostats (Cryonics Institute) or dewars (Alcor). Cryostats and dewars are like big thermos bottles, with liquid nitrogen in the middle rather than coffee. Because cryostats and dewars are like thermos bottles, they are not dependent upon electricity. When there is a blackout or power failure the cryonics patients remain at liquid nitrogen temperature.

As of early 2009 the Cryonics Institute had thirteen cryostats in service for storage of cryonics patients in liquid nitrogen. Three rectangular and ten cylindrical. Cryogenics (a word often confused with "cryonic") refers to temperatures less than −100ºC (−150ºF). Liquid nitrogen temperature is −196ºC ( −321ºF).

We call our custom-made fiberglass HSSVs (Hard-Shell, Soft-Vacuum) units cryostats to distinguish them from the HSHVs (Hard-Shell, Hard-Vacuum) steel dewars manufactured by companies such as Minnesota Valley Engineering (MVE, acquired by Chart Denver in 1999). Dewars have a very high vacuum ("hard vacuum") in a two-inch space between steel walls. A vacuum prevents heat transfer by conduction and convection, but radiation can only be reduced by the use of radiation barriers made of aluminum or aluminized mylar film.

Our cryostats have inner and outer walls made of fiberglass-resin composite that is very much stronger than either fiberglass or resin would be alone. I have been told by a cryogenics fabrication company salesman/engineer that steel dewars cannot possibly compete with fiberglass for efficiency, and that steel dewars the size of our cryostats would have about twice the liquid nitrogen boil-off. The distance between the inner and outer walls of our cryostats is about a foot for the entire circumference of a cylindrical cryostat (or perimeter of a rectangular cryostat). Within that foot of space is perlite insulation packed loosely enough that a soft vacuum can be applied. There is no detectable difference between room temperature and the outer walls of the cryostats, but the cryostat lids are about 2ºC to 3ºC lower temperature than room temperature.

Perlite is a non-corrosive, non-combustible, naturally-occurring volcanic glass that can be used as an inexpensive insulator. Perlite ore is a silicon-dioxide-rich volcanic glass containing 2 to 5 percent water. When rapidly heated above 870ºC (1600ºF) the rapid vaporization of the water makes the rock pop like popcorn to form countless tiny bubbles that expand the volume up to 20 times — reducing the density and thermal conductivity by a like amount.

The resulting thermal conductivity for perlite at low temperature and pressure and is about 0.0007 Watts per meter-Kelvin — roughly one-thousandth the thermal conductivity of water or brick and about one-fortieth the thermal conductivity of extruded polystyrene foam boards, such as Styrofoam® or Foamular®. Unlike extruded polystyrene, however, which is chemically hydrophobic and impervious to moisture because of closed cells, the expanded perlite has open cells which can be infiltrated with moisture. Moisture must be maintained below 0.1 percent by weight or the insulating capability is degraded — due to the much higher thermal conductivity of water. The Cryonics Institute obtains its perlite from Grefco Minerals, Inc (HP 500 grade).

Vacuum is measured in units of air pressure — similar to mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) used for blood pressure, but orders of magnitude lower — zero microns Hg for a perfect vacuum. Some people use the term hard vacuum to refer to a pressure of one-third or less of atmospheric pressure (atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg), whereas soft vacuum is any pressure less than atmospheric, but greater than hard-vacuum. Others (including cryonicists) restrict the term "hard vacuum" to pressures of a few microns or less, and "soft vacuum" to pressures greater than hard vacuum, but up-to but not greater-than a few orders of magnitude higher.

A strong vacuum-pump creates the hard vacuum for a dewar at the time of manufacture — a vacuum intended to last for 10 years. The vacuum is reinforced by getters, chemically-reactive metals (usually barium, zirconium or their alloys) which react with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor to further harden the vacuum and keep it hard. The vacuums in our soft-vacuum cryostats are reinforced by our Welsh-Sargent DuoSeal Pumps every two months.

The perlite insulation of the cryostats provides a backup for the soft vacuum. An armor-piercing bullet from a high-powered rifle could travel through the entire diameter of a cryostat or dewar. But a pistol bullet or forklift puncture would likely only put a hole in the outer wall of a cryostat. For a dewar, such a puncture would be an emergency demanding immediate removal of the patients. Even a dent can create a "hotspot" in a dewar. (A "hotspot" is paradoxically noticeable as a frosty-spot on the outside — corresponding to a warm-spot on the inner wall of the dewar). But the loss of vacuum in a cryostat might not be much of a problem because of the perlite insulation. There would be plenty of time to patch the fiberglass and restore the vacuum.

Although we have some patients who are quite tall and/or obese, we have not yet experienced any problem fitting six patients into one of our cylinders. There would be even less problem in the rectangular units where the patients lay flat and are simply stacked on top of each other 3 or 4 layers deep (the patients are in sleeping bags and are very buoyant in liquid nitrogen, so there is no crushing weight or injury). In the cylinders the most crowding occurs in the area of the chest, with general narrowing toward the feet (partly due to the variation of abdomen and hip girth for men and women). There is plenty of leg-room.

The cylinders are filled weekly, whereas the rectangular units are filled twice weekly. The depth of liquid nitrogen ranges from 7.5 feet at the lowest to about 8 feet just after a refill. The level of liquid nitrogen in the most efficient cylinders drops only a bit more than 2 inches in a week. So in the cylinders our tallest patients, at about six-and-a-half feet have at least a foot of liquid nitrogen above their toes at all times. Should a disaster occur — which has not happened since we began service in 1976 — the feet would be the first to suffer exposure and the head the last.

The first cryostat built was designated HSSV−1, signifying that it is a Hard-Shell Soft-Vacuum unit holding one whole body patient. Hard-Shell means that the shell is hard enough to maintain shape when a vacuum is applied (ie, the walls do not collapse due to external or internal pressure). The HSSV−1 was taken out of service in the mid-1990s, around the time when CI moved to its current building in Clinton Township, Michigan. But the HSSV−2 (holding two whole body patients) remained in service a decade longer. HSSV−2 looked like a big gelatin capsule propped-up at a 20-degree angle (or looked like a spaceship ready for launch). HSSV−2 was tilted so that the patients' heads can be down, but it couldn't be built to be vertical because the ceiling of the old building wasn't high enough. The HSSV−2 was removed from service in December, 2004 — with the two patients it contained moved to one of our new HSSV−6 cryostats.

CI has three rectangular cryostats, designated HSSV−R7, HSSV−R10 and HSSV−R14, which hold 7, 10 and 14 whole-body patients respectively. HSSV−R7 is actually soft-shelled rather than hard-shelled because it only maintains its shape under vacuum due to wooden supports between the walls. Like HSSV−2, all of the rectangular units were built by CI facilities manager Andy Zawacki using epoxy fiberglass for the inner walls, polyester fiberglass for the outer walls and wood for structural support. The HSSV−R10 and HSSV−R14 were built in such a way as to avoid the use of wood between the walls — because wood conducts heat.

The HSSV−R14 unit ("the largest cryostat in the world") took Andy two years to build. He was too busy with the pressures and projects of running the CI facility and he was having problems with rashes from the epoxy fiberglass which is needed to hold the liquid nitrogen. So it was decided that it would be necessary to contract with a manufacturer to build fiberglass cryostats. Robert Ettinger favored an upright cylindrical design for units that would hold up to six patients.

The first upright cylindrical unit, the HSSV−6−1, had structural defects. First Andy found a hole which he had to plug in order for the unit to hold a vacuum. When he put liquid nitrogen into the unit, it cracked — forcing him to reline the inside with fiberglass. The thick top conducts too much heat. Another manufacturer had to be found. The second manufacturer uses a type of fiberglass resin which is the same as one they use for liquid nitrogen testing of cruise missiles. They gave CI good warranties on the quality of their work, which has been (for the most part) very good.

Prior to getting the bulk liquid nitrogen tank we were paying 50 cents per liter for liquid nitrogen. But with the bulk tank, which holds 3000 gallons (11,000 liters), we are only paying about 13 cents per liter (just over 50 cents per gallon). A liquid nitrogen delivery truck that looks like a gasoline tank truck fills the bulk tank with 2000 gallons approximately once every two weeks. A guage on the tank reads liquid nitrogen levels in inches and centimeters. A fill of 2100 gallons would raise the reading from about 40 inches to about 130 inches — or about 105 centimeters to about 325 centimeters. It takes just over half an hour to load the liquid nitrogen into the tank. From the bulk tank the cryostats are filled with liquid nitrogen through insulated pipes and hoses.

Twice each week the rectangular cryostats are topped-off, and all cryostats are topped-off once per week. Topping-off the rectangular cryostats results in a 20 cm drop in the level of the bulk tank, whereas topping-off all cryostats results in a 65 cm drop. At 36 liters per centimeter (cm) the partial fill requires 720 liters and the full fill requires 2340 liters of liquid nitrogen.

The bulk tank has pressure relief valves of 175 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch) and the line from the bulk tank into the building has a pressure relief valve of 150 PSI (all other lines have 400 PSI relief valves). Pressure increases with time in the bulk tank, but with two fillings per week, bulk tank pressure is generally below 100 PSI. Just before a filling, a valve on the bulk tank will be opened to release gas to drop pressure below 50 PSI.[53]

See Also[edit]

- Death[edit]

I regard death as a disease. It is 100% fatal, and 100% virulent. It affects almost all living beings, notable exceptions being the Turritopsis dohrnii, or the immortal jellyfish, the only known case case of an animal capable of reverting completely to a sexually immature, colonial stage after having reached sexual maturity as a solitary stage.

Why Do We Die?[edit]

Before we get into a moral or supplemental argument about death, let's just automatically assume that death is unnecessary, for the purpose of getting my point across. If we didn't suffer from biological aging, the average lifespan for homo sapiens sapiens would still be approximately 1,000 years, due to accidents. This raises the question as to why we age in the first place, then, in terms of biology, as well as why we are able to be destroyed. First we must recognize that humans are not made of any special matter-energy in any way. There is no soul that gives us life; neurology and biology are the givers of life for humanity, formed by naturalistic evolution from our environment. Not to get into deistic arguments, let's get back to biology. The average global life expectancy is about 65 to 75 years of age. In Japan it's around 82 or 83 years, and in Zimbabwe its somewhere around 35 to 40. We are biologically restricted to about 130 years of age; most people never live to see the age of 110, and if they do they are known as supercentenarians. So what's the deal with the age of 130? This is why we need to understand the aging process and what causes it. Ultimately, it is a by-product of unintelligent evolution; aging itself is a disease and everyone on Earth has it. Now we'll get into the causes and reasons for aging and how to prevent and treat it.

Biological aging is present in all species. Some have simply been more adaptive than others in combating it over the billions of years evolution has taken place on our planet. The most long-lived species are typically tree species such as redwoods, which have lifespans into the thousands of years. Most animalistic species only live decades or centuries, tortoises being known for having particularly long lifespans of 150 to 250 years. Because most living things use DNA replication to reproduce, the resulting problems associated with this account for what we observe to be biological aging.

Telomere Cell Division[edit]

Human chromosomes (grey) capped by telomeres (white)
Telomere

A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromatid, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighbouring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) 'end' and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) 'part.' For vertebrates, the sequence of nucleotides in telomeres is TTAGGG.

During chromosome replication, the enzymes that duplicate DNA cannot continue their duplication all the way to the end of a chromosome, so in each duplication the end of the chromosome is shortened[54] (this is because the synthesis of Okazaki fragments requires RNA primers attaching ahead on the lagging strand). The telomeres are disposable buffers at the ends of chromosomes which are truncated during cell division; their presence protects the genes before them on the chromosome from being truncated instead.

Over time, due to each cell division, the telomere ends become shorter.[55] They are replenished by an enzyme, telomerase reverse transcriptase.

Information-theoretic death[edit]

Information-theoretic death is the destruction of the information within a human brain (or any cognitive structure that may constitute a person) to such an extent that recovery of the original person is theoretically impossible by any physical means. The concept of information-theoretic death emerged in the 1990s as a response to the progress of medical technology since conditions previously considered as death, such as cardiac arrest, are now reversible, so they can no longer define death.[56]

The term information-theoretic death is intended to mean death that is absolutely irreversible by any technology, as distinct from clinical death and legal death, which denote limitations to contextually-available medical care rather than the true theoretical limits of survival. In particular, the prospect of brain repair using molecular nanotechnology raises the possibility that medicine might someday be able to resuscitate patients even hours after the heart stops.

The paper Molecular Repair of the Brain by Ralph Merkle defined information-theoretic death as follows:[57]

A person is dead according to the information-theoretic criterion if their memories, personality, hopes, dreams, etc. have been destroyed in the information-theoretic sense. That is, if the structures in the brain that encode memory and personality have been so disrupted that it is no longer possible in principle to restore them to an appropriate functional state, then the person is dead. If the structures that encode memory and personality are sufficiently intact that inference of the memory and personality are feasible in principle, and therefore restoration to an appropriate functional state is likewise feasible in principle, then the person is not dead.

The exact timing of information-theoretic death is currently unknown. It has been speculated[by whom?] to occur gradually after many hours of clinical death at room temperature as the brain undergoes autolysis. It may also occur more rapidly if there is no blood flow to the brain during life support, leading to the decomposition stage of brain death, or during the progression of degenerative brain diseases that cause extensive loss of brain structure. Exactly when complete and total information-theoretic death might occur with respect to different types of preservation and decomposition might also be relevant to the speculative field of mind uploading. Taken to the limits imposed by physical laws, it is not known that information-theoretic death ever occurs. Physical information is not known to be destroyed, except by the controversial black hole information paradox; and as such, resuscitation is not specifically ruled out by the laws of physics, unless information critical to that resuscitation passes beyond the event horizon of a black hole. Additionally dispersion of information may make resuscitation physically impossible, if it is to such an extent that the precision required for its retrieval is beyond that allowed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

"Information-theoretic death" also arises in the context of cryonics, which can be viewed as the use of cryopreservation to attempt to prevent information-theoretic death. The use of information-theoretic criteria has formed the basis of ethical arguments that state that cryonics is an attempt to save lives rather than being an interment method for the dead. In contrast, if cryonics cannot be applied before information-theoretic death occurs, or if the cryopreservation procedure itself causes information-theoretic death, then cryonics is not feasible.

External links[edit]


- Introduction to Quantum Mechanics[edit]

Click to see animation. The evolution of an initially very localized gaussian wave function of a free particle in two-dimensional space, with colour and intensity indicating phase and amplitude. The spreading of the wave function in all directions shows that the initial momentum has a spread of values, unmodified in time; while the spread in position increases in time: as a result, the uncertainty Δx Δp increases in time.
The superposition of several plane waves to form a wave packet. This wave packet becomes increasingly localized with the addition of many waves. The Fourier transform is a mathematical operation that separates a wave packet into its individual plane waves. Note that the waves shown here are real for illustrative purposes only, whereas in quantum mechanics the wave function is generally complex.

As a principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty relationship must be something that is in accord with all experience. However, humans do not form an intuitive understanding of this indeterminacy in everyday life, so it may be helpful to demonstrate how it is integral to more easily understood physical situations. Two alternative conceptualizations of quantum physics can be examined with the goal of demonstrating the key role the uncertainty principle plays. A wave mechanics picture of the uncertainty principle provides for a more visually intuitive demonstration, and the somewhat more abstract matrix mechanics picture provides for a demonstration of the uncertainty principle that is more easily generalized to cover a multitude of physical contexts.[citation needed]

Mathematically, in wave mechanics, the uncertainty relation between position and momentum arises because the expressions of the wavefunction in the two corresponding orthonormal bases in Hilbert space are Fourier transforms of one another (i.e., position and momentum are conjugate variables). A nonzero function and its Fourier transform cannot both be sharply localized. A similar tradeoff between the variances of Fourier conjugates arises in all systems underlain by Fourier analysis, for example in sound waves: A pure tone is a sharp spike at a single frequency, while its Fourier transform gives the shape of the sound wave in the time domain, which is a completely delocalized sine wave. In quantum mechanics, the two key points are that the position of the particle takes the form of a matter wave, and momentum is its Fourier conjugate, assured by the de Broglie relation p = ħk, where k is the wavenumber.[citation needed]

In matrix mechanics, the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, any pair of non-commuting self-adjoint operators representing observables are subject to similar uncertainty limits. An eigenstate of an observable represents the state of the wavefunction for a certain measurement value (the eigenvalue). For example, if a measurement of an observable A is performed, then the system is in a particular eigenstate Ψ of that observable. However, the particular eigenstate of the observable A need not be an eigenstate of another observable B: If so, then it does not have a unique associated measurement for it, as the system is not in an eigenstate of that observable.[58]

Wave mechanics interpretation[59][page needed][edit]

Propagation of de Broglie waves in 1d—real part of the complex amplitude is blue, imaginary part is green. The probability (shown as the colour opacity) of finding the particle at a given point x is spread out like a waveform, there is no definite position of the particle. As the amplitude increases above zero the curvature reverses sign, so the amplitude begins to decrease again, and vice versa—the result is an alternating amplitude: a wave.
Main article: Wave packet
Main article: Schrödinger equation

According to the de Broglie hypothesis, every object in the universe is a wave, a situation which gives rise to this phenomenon. The position of the particle is described by a wave function \Psi(x,t). The time-independent wave function of a single-moded plane wave of wavenumber k0 or momentum p0 is

\psi(x) \propto e^{ik_0 x} = e^{ip_0 x/\hbar} ~.

The Born rule states that this should be interpreted as a probability density function in the sense that the probability of finding the particle between a and b is

 \operatorname P [a \leq X \leq b] = \int_a^b |\psi(x)|^2 \, \mathrm{d}x ~.

In the case of the single-moded plane wave, |\psi(x)|^2 is a uniform distribution. In other words, the particle position is extremely uncertain in the sense that it could be essentially anywhere along the wave packet. Consider a wave function that is a sum of many waves, however, we may write this as

\psi(x) \propto \sum_{n} A_n e^{i p_n x/\hbar}~,

where An represents the relative contribution of the mode pn to the overall total. The figures to the right show how with the addition of many plane waves, the wave packet can become more localized. We may take this a step further to the continuum limit, where the wave function is an integral over all possible modes

\psi(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi \hbar}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \phi(p) \cdot e^{i p x/\hbar}\, dp ~,

with \phi(p) representing the amplitude of these modes and is called the wave function in momentum space. In mathematical terms, we say that \phi(p) is the Fourier transform of \psi(x) and that x and p are conjugate variables. Adding together all of these plane waves comes at a cost, namely the momentum has become less precise, having become a mixture of waves of many different momenta.

One way to quantify the precision of the position and momentum is the standard deviation σ. Since |\psi(x)|^2 is a probability density function for position, we calculate its standard deviation.

The precision of the position is improved, i.e. reduced σx, by using many plane waves, thereby weakening the precision of the momentum, i.e. increased σp. Another way of stating this is that σx and σp have an inverse relationship or are at least bounded from below. This is the uncertainty principle, the exact limit of which is the Kennard bound. Click the show button below to see a semi-formal derivation of the Kennard inequality using wave mechanics.

Matrix mechanics interpretation[59][page needed][edit]

Main article: Matrix mechanics

In matrix mechanics, observables such as position and momentum are represented by self-adjoint operators. When considering pairs of observables, an important quantity is the commutator. For a pair of operators  and , one defines their commutator as

[\hat{A},\hat{B}]=\hat{A}\hat{B}-\hat{B}\hat{A}.

In the case of position and momentum, the commutator is the canonical commutation relation

[\hat{x},\hat{p}]=i \hbar.

The physical meaning of the non-commutativity can be understood by considering the effect of the commutator on position and momentum eigenstates. Let |\psi\rangle be a right eigenstate of position with a constant eigenvalue x0. By definition, this means that \hat{x}|\psi\rangle = x_0 |\psi\rangle. Applying the commutator to |\psi\rangle yields

[\hat{x},\hat{p}] | \psi \rangle = (\hat{x}\hat{p}-\hat{p}\hat{x}) | \psi \rangle = (\hat{x} - x_0 \hat{I}) \cdot \hat{p} \, | \psi \rangle = i \hbar | \psi \rangle,

where Î is the identity operator.

Suppose, for the sake of proof by contradiction, that |\psi\rangle is also a right eigenstate of momentum, with constant eigenvalue p0. If this were true, then one could write

(\hat{x} - x_0 \hat{I}) \cdot \hat{p} \, | \psi \rangle = (\hat{x} - x_0 \hat{I}) \cdot p_0 \, | \psi \rangle = (x_0 \hat{I} - x_0 \hat{I}) \cdot p_0 \, | \psi \rangle=0.

On the other hand, the above canonical commutation relation requires that

[\hat{x},\hat{p}] | \psi \rangle=i \hbar | \psi \rangle \ne 0.

This implies that no quantum state can simultaneously be both a position and a momentum eigenstate.

When a state is measured, it is projected onto an eigenstate in the basis of the relevant observable. For example, if a particle's position is measured, then the state amounts to a position eigenstate. This means that the state is not a momentum eigenstate, however, but rather it can be represented as a sum of multiple momentum basis eigenstates. In other words, the momentum must be less precise. This precision may be quantified by the standard deviations,

\sigma_{x}=\sqrt{\langle \hat{x}^{2} \rangle-\langle \hat{x}\rangle ^{2}}
\sigma_{p}=\sqrt{\langle \hat{p}^{2} \rangle-\langle \hat{p}\rangle ^{2}}.

As in the wave mechanics interpretation above, one sees a tradeoff between the respective precisions of the two, quantified by the uncertainty principle.

See Also[edit]

See also[edit]

National Liberalism[edit]

National liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining nationalism with some liberal policies, especially regarding education, state-church relations and modern, efficient, bureaucratic management.

The roots of national liberalism are to be found in the 19th century, when conservative liberalism was the ideology of the political classes in most European countries and in particular those of Central Europe, then governed by monarchies. At their origin, national liberals, although pro-business, were not, however, Manchesterian free-traders, that is advocates of economic liberalism, like the mainstream liberals of the 19th century everywhere else in the world, favoring instead cooperation between the government and the national industry by moderate levels of protectionism, the establishment of preferential custom unions, subsidies for infant industry or companies considered of strategic importance for national development, and various forms of incipient industrial planning. In German-speaking countries, national liberals were also in favour of a more authoritarian or conservative political regime because of the multi-ethnic character or heterogeneous nature of countries like the Austrian Empire (later officially renamed Austria-Hungary) or the newly created Germany.

National liberal parties exist today, for instance in Austria, where the ideology is one of the three traditional ideological strains in the country, and Romania, where it is at the base of the oldest and second-largest political party of the country.[citation needed]

Historical national liberalism[edit]

In 19th century Germany believers in national liberalism differed from liberal nationalists in that they believed in a more authoritarian presence in Europe and a strong Germanic Empire. Liberal nationalists, such as Max Weber, were looking towards a democratic Germany in cooperation with the other European powers.[60]

The term 'national liberalism' was mainly used in German-speaking countries such as Germany and Austria during the 19th century,[61][62][63] where "National-Liberal" parties were long in government. It also became very influential in nearby countries, like Romania, where German industriousness and discipline, among other things, were highly regarded.

Modern national liberalism[edit]

In Austria, national liberalism has remained the basis of one of the three Lager, or ideological camps, in the country. Historically, this has been represented by the Freedom Party,[64] but they have recently been joined by a splinter, the Alliance for the Future of Austria.

Germany's Free Democratic Party continues to have a national liberal faction,[65] which holds a more eurosceptic position to the rest of the party.[66]

In Romania, national liberals are represented by the National Liberal Party (PNL)[citation needed], which was founded in 1875 and played a very prominent role in the political history of the country until the instauration of the communist regime, in late 1947. The PNL was revived after the fall of communism, in 1990, and it is now the second largest political party in the country. Since 2010 it has allied itself with the centre-left Social Democratic Party (PSD), forming the Social Liberal Union which is governing Romania as of 2013.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Karl Ferdinand Werner: Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 1, 1973, pp. 115–157 (online);
    Matthias Becher: Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 19/1, 1992, pp. 37-60 (online);
    R. McKitterick: Charlemagne. Cambridge 2008, p. 72.
  2. ^ "Charlemagne". Britannica.com. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  3. ^ Papst Johannes Paul II (2004). "Ansprache von seiner Heiligkeit Papst Johannes Paul II" (in German). Internationaler Karlspreis zu Aachen. 
  4. ^ "The Argument From Non-Cognitivism". Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  5. ^ Eden, Amnon; Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric, eds. (2013). Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment. Springer. p. 1. 
  6. ^ Carvalko, Joseph (2012). The Techno-human Shell-A Jump in the Evolutionary Gap. Sunbury Press. ISBN 978-1620061657. 
  7. ^ Anarcho-primitivism[full citation needed]
  8. ^ Conifer, Theological Noncognitivism: "Theological noncognitivism is usually taken to be the view that the sentence 'God exists' is cognitively meaningless."
  9. ^ Kurtz, New Skepticism, 220: "Both [atheism and agnosticism] are consistent with igtheism, which finds the belief in a metaphysical, transcendent being basically incoherent and unintelligible."
  10. ^ "isms of the week: Agnosticism and Ignosticism". The Economist. 2010-07-28. Retrieved December 19, 2011. 
  11. ^ Ayer, Language, 115: "There can be no way of proving that the existence of a God … is even probable. … For if the existence of such a god were probable, then the proposition that he existed would be an empirical hypothesis. And in that case it would be possible to deduce from it, and other empirical hypotheses, certain experimental propositions which were not deducible from those other hypotheses alone. But in fact this is not possible."
  12. ^ Ayer, Language, 115–16
  13. ^ Ayer, Language, 117
  14. ^ a b Drange, Atheism
  15. ^ Sam Harris on the "dangers" of "atheism" on YouTube
  16. ^ Rauch, Let It Be: "… many apatheists are believers. … Even regular churchgoers can, and often do, rank quite high on the apatheism scale."
  17. ^ Hanisch, Drawings
  18. ^ Martin, Michael. Atheism: A Philosophical Justification. Temple University Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-87722-642-0
  19. ^ Martin, Michael. "Positive Atheism and The Meaninglessness of Theism", Infidels.org
  20. ^ Conifer, Steven J. "Theological Noncognitivism Examined" (archive)
  21. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd ed., para. 1741
  22. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd ed., para. 169.
  23. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd ed., para. 1257 et seq.
  24. ^ a b Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd ed., para. 1260.
  25. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd ed., para. 1259
  26. ^ a b c Sanders, John (14 May 1990). "The Perennial Debate". Christianity Today (Christianity Today International). 
  27. ^ a b Stackhouse Jr., John G. (8 September 1993). "No Other Name: An Investigation into the Destiny of the Unevangelized. – book reviews". Christian Century. Retrieved 9 January 2010.  [dead link]
  28. ^ Stackhouse Jr., John G. (3 September 2001). "What Has Jerusalem to Do with Mecca?". Christianity Today. 
  29. ^ Fugal, Elma W. (1992), "Salvation of the Dead", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1257–1259, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  30. ^ Lund, Gerald N. (1992), "Plan of Salvation, Plan of Redemption", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1088–1091, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  31. ^ http://www.lds.org/scriptures/dc-testament/dc/138?lang=eng
  32. ^ Rozsa, Allen Claire (1992), "Temple Ordinances", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1444–, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  33. ^ Burton, H. David (1992), "Baptism for the dead: LDS practice", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 95–97, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  34. ^ Rudd, Calvin P. (1992), "Children: Salvation of Children", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 268–269, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  35. ^ Pearl of Great Price, Moses 6:53-54
  36. ^ Holland, Jeffrey R. (1992), "Atonement of Jesus Christ", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 82–86, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  37. ^ Merrill, Byron R. (1992), "Original sin", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1052–1053, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  38. ^ a b Warner, C. Terry (1992), "Accountability", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, p. 13, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  39. ^ Book of Mormon, Moroni 8:22-24
  40. ^ Turner, Rodney (1992), "Sons of Perdition", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1391–1392, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140 .
  41. ^ a b c Fethullah Gülen (2006). Questions & Answers About Islam, Volume 1. (London). 
  42. ^ a b Moiz Amjad. Will Christians enter Paradise or go to Hell?. Renaissance – Monthly Islamic journal 11(6), June, 2001.
  43. ^ [Quran 5:69]
  44. ^ Muhamm Abdul-Rahman (2003). Islam: Questions and Answers, Volume 1. 
  45. ^ a b Abubakr Asadulla (2005). Islam Vs. West: Fact Or Fiction?. 
  46. ^ Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan Biography, Biography of Urdu Writers
  47. ^ Buddhist Society (London, England)The Middle way, 1943, Volumes 45–47, p. 18.
  48. ^ (Dutch) wayback.archive.org (permalink) - Ronald Plasterk: ietsisme, the site “weblog.nl” is archived and transferred to wordpress.com
  49. ^ amazon.com - Born-Again Deist (e-book)
  50. ^ Herdst, Eric (1995). "Chemistry in The Interstellar Medium". Annual Review Physical Chemistry. doi:10.1146/annurev.pc.46.100195.000331. Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  51. ^ Boulanger, F.; Cox, P.; and Jones, A. P. (2000). "Course 7: Dust in the Interstellar Medium". In F. Casoli, J. Lequeux, & F. David. Infrared Space Astronomy, Today and Tomorrow. p. 251. Bibcode:2000isat.conf..251B. 
  52. ^ Ferriere (2001)
  53. ^ http://www.cryonics.org/resources/ci-cryostats
  54. ^ AtGoogleTalks, August 20, 2008 Molecular biologist Elizabeth Blackburn
  55. ^ Passarge, Eberhard. Color atlas of genetics, 2007.
  56. ^ IMR (International Medical Rights)
  57. ^ Merkle, Ralph (January–April 1994), "Molecular Repair of the Brain", Cryonics, retrieved 2014-12-27 – via Alcor library online 
  58. ^ Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Bernard Diu, Franck Laloë (1996), Quantum mechanics, Wiley-Interscience: Wiley, pp. 231–233, ISBN 978-0-471-56952-7 
  59. ^ a b L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz (1977). Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory. Vol. 3 (3rd ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020940-1.  Online copy.
  60. ^ af Malmborg, Mikael; Stråth, Bo (2002). The meaning of Europe: variety and contention within and among nations. Berg Publishers. p. 297. ISBN 1-85973-581-9. Retrieved 31 October 2009. 
  61. ^ Verlag C.H. Beck, Germany from Napoléon to Bismarck, 1800-1866, Princeton University Press
  62. ^ Alfred Wahl, Les forces politiques en Allemagne, Armand Colin
  63. ^ Lucien Calvié, Unité nationale et liberté politique chez quelques libéraux allemands au début des années 30 and Naissance et évolution du libéralisme allemand, in Françoise Knopper et Gilbert Merlio (edited by), Notices politiques et littéraires sur l'Allemagne, Presses Universitaires du Mirail, Paris, 1835
  64. ^ Luther, K. R. (1988). "The Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs: protest party or governing party". In Kirchner, Emil Joseph. Liberal Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-521-32394-9. 
  65. ^ Kirchner, Emil Joseph (1988). Liberal Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-521-32394-9. 
  66. ^ Taggart, Paul; Szczerbiak, Aleks. "The Party Politics of Euroscepticism in EU Member and Candidate States". SEI Working Paper 51. Sussex European Institute. p. 11. 

References[edit]

  • Verlag Beck, Germany from Napoléon to Bismarck, 1800-1866, Princeton University Press
  • Lucien Calvié, Unité nationale et liberté politique chez quelques libéraux allemands au début des années 30 and Naissance et évolution du libéralisme allemand, in Françoise Knopper and Gilbert Merlio (edited by), Notices politiques et littéraires sur l'Allemagne, Presses Universitaires du Mirail, Paris, 1835
  • Alfred Wahl, Les forces politiques en Allemagne, Armand Colin

=See also[edit]

- Political positions of Joseph Biden[edit]

Joe Biden's ratings from advocacy organizations
Group Advocacy issue(s) Ratings
Lifetime Recent[1]
Rating Date
AFL-CIO labor unions 85%[2] 100% 2003
AUSCS church-state separation 100% 2006
APHA public health 100% 2003
CTJ progressive taxation 100% 2006
NAACP minorities & affirmative action 100% 2006
LCV environmental protection 83%[3] 95% 2003
NEA public education 91% 2003
ARA senior citizens 89% 2003
CAF energy security 83% 2006
PA peace and disarmament 80% 2003
HRC gay and lesbian rights 78% 2006
NARAL abortion rights ~72%[4] 75%[5] 2007
CURE criminal rehabilitation 71% 2000
ACLU civil and political rights 80%[6] 60% 2002
Cato free trade and libertarianism 42% 2002
US CoC corporate interests 32% 2003
CCA Christian family values 16% 2003
NTU lowering taxes 15% 2003
USBC immigration controls 8% 2006
NRLC restrictions on abortion 0% 2006
NRA gun ownership F 2003

Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden, Jr. (/ˈsɨf rɒbɨˈnɛt ˈbdən/; born November 20, 1942) is the 47th and current Vice President of the United States, jointly elected twice with President Barack Obama and in office since 2009. He is a member of the Democratic Party and was a United States Senator from Delaware from 1973 until 2009.

Biden has supported campaign finance reform including the McCain-Feingold Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act and banning contributions of issue ads and gifts;[7] capital punishment as his 1993 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act created several new capital offenses;[8] deficit spending on fiscal stimulus in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009;[9][10] tax credits for the working poor and students;[11] carbon emissions cap and trade;[12] the increased infrastructure spending proposed by the Obama administration;[10] mass transit, supporting Amtrak, bus, and subway subsidies for decades;[13] renewable energy subsidies;[12] same-sex marriage;[14] student loan forgiveness;[15] increased taxation of the wealthy;[16] and universal health care.[17] He opposes marijuana legalization[18] and prefers the reduced military spending proposed in the Obama Administration's fiscal year 2014 budget.[19][20]

A method that political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[21] Biden has a lifetime liberal 72 percent score from the ADA through 2004, while the ACU awarded Biden a lifetime conservative rating of 13 percent through 2008.[22] Using another metric, Biden has a lifetime average liberal score of 77.5 percent, according to a National Journal analysis that places him ideologically among the center of Senate Democrats.[23] The Almanac of American Politics rates congressional votes as liberal or conservative on the political spectrum, in three policy areas: economic, social, and foreign. For 2005–2006, Biden's average ratings were as follows: the economic rating was 80 percent liberal and 13 percent conservative, the social rating was 78 percent liberal and 18 percent conservative, and the foreign rating was 71 percent liberal and 25 percent conservative.[24] This has not changed much over time; his liberal ratings in the mid-1980s were also in the 70–80 percent range.[25]

Various advocacy groups have given Biden scores or grades as to how well his votes align with the positions of each group. The American Civil Liberties Union gives him an 86 percent lifetime score, with a 91 percent score for the 110th Congress.[26] Biden opposes drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and supports governmental funding to find new energy sources.[27] Biden believes action must be taken on global warming. He co-sponsored the Sense of the Senate resolution calling on the United States to be a part of the United Nations climate negotiations and the Boxer-Sanders Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act, the most stringent climate bill in the United States Senate.[28] Biden cites high health care and energy costs as two major threats to the prosperity of American businesses, and believes that addressing these issues will improve American economic competitiveness. Biden was given an 85 percent lifetime approval rating from AFL-CIO,[2] and he voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).[29]

Biography of Joe Biden[edit]

Biden was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, and lived there for ten years before moving to Delaware. He became an attorney in 1969, and was elected to the New Castle County council in 1970. Biden was first elected to the Senate in 1972 and became the sixth-youngest senator in U.S. history. He was re-elected to the Senate six times, and was the fourth most senior senator at the time of his resignation. Biden was a long-time member and former chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. His strong advocacy helped bring about U.S. military assistance and intervention during the Bosnian War. He opposed the Gulf War in 1991. He voted in favor of the Iraq War Resolution in 2002, but later proposed resolutions to alter U.S. strategy there. He has also served as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, dealing with issues related to drug policy, crime prevention, and civil liberties, and led creation of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act and Violence Against Women Act. He chaired the Judiciary Committee during the contentious U.S. Supreme Court nominations of Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas.

Biden unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988 and 2008, both times dropping out early in the race. Obama selected Biden to be the Democratic Party nominee for Vice President in the 2008 U.S. presidential election, which they won. Biden is the first Roman Catholic and the first Delawarean to become Vice President of the United States. As Vice President, Biden has been heavily involved in Obama's decision-making process and held the oversight role for infrastructure spending from the Obama stimulus package aimed at counteracting the late-2000s recession. His ability to negotiate with Congressional Republicans played a key role in bringing about the bipartisan deals that resulted in the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 that resolved a taxation deadlock, the Budget Control Act of 2011 that resolved that year's debt ceiling crisis, and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 that addressed the impending "fiscal cliff". Obama and Biden were re-elected in 2012.

Electoral History of Joe Biden[edit]

U.S. Senators are popularly elected and take office January 3 for a six-year term (except when appointed to fill existing vacancies).

Election results
Year Office Election Votes for Biden % Opponent Party Votes %
1970 County Councilman General 10,573 55% Lawrence T. Messick Republican 8,192 43%
1972 U.S. Senator General 116,006 50% J. Caleb Boggs Republican 112,844 49%
1978 General 93,930 58% James H. Baxter, Jr. Republican 66,479 41%
1984 General 147,831 60% John M. Burris Republican 98,101 40%
1990 General 112,918 63% M. Jane Brady Republican 64,554 36%
1996 General 165,465 60% Raymond J. Clatworthy Republican 105,088 38%
2002 General 135,253 58% Raymond J. Clatworthy Republican 94,793 41%
2008 General 257,484 65% Christine O'Donnell Republican 140,584 35%
2008 Vice President General 69,498,516 53% Sarah Palin Republican 59,948,323 46%
2012 General 65,915,796 51% Paul Ryan Republican 60,933,500 47%
Joe Biden
Joe Biden official portrait crop2.jpg
47th Vice President of the United States
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 20, 2009
President Barack Obama
Preceded by Dick Cheney
United States Senator
from Delaware
In office
January 3, 1973 – January 15, 2009
Preceded by Caleb Boggs
Succeeded by Ted Kaufman
Chairperson of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
In office
January 4, 2007 – January 3, 2009
Preceded by Richard Lugar
Succeeded by John Kerry
In office
June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003
Preceded by Jesse Helms
Succeeded by Richard Lugar
In office
January 3, 2001 – January 20, 2001
Preceded by Jesse Helms
Succeeded by Jesse Helms
Chairperson of the International Narcotics Control Caucus
In office
January 4, 2007 – January 3, 2009
Preceded by Chuck Grassley
Succeeded by Dianne Feinstein
Chairperson of the Senate Judiciary Committee
In office
January 6, 1987 – January 3, 1995
Preceded by Strom Thurmond
Succeeded by Orrin Hatch
Personal details
Born Joseph Robinette Biden, Jr.
(1942-11-20) November 20, 1942 (age 72)
Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Neilia Hunter (1966–1972)
Jill Jacobs (1977–present)
Children Beau
Hunter
Naomi
Ashley
Residence Number One Observatory Circle (Official)
Wilmington, Delaware (Private)
Alma mater University of Delaware (B.A.)
Syracuse University (J.D.)
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature
Website Official website
Official Facebook
Official Twitter
Msc 2009-Saturday, 11.00 - 13.00 Uhr-Dett 004 Biden.jpg This article is part of a series on
Joe Biden
Beau Biden
Beau Biden 2013 (cropped).jpg
44th Attorney General of Delaware
In office
January 2, 2007 – January 6, 2015
Governor Ruth Ann Minner
Jack Markell
Preceded by Carl Danberg
Succeeded by Matthew Denn
Personal details
Born Joseph Robinette Biden III
(1969-02-03) February 3, 1969 (age 46)
Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Hallie Biden
Children Natalie
Hunter
Alma mater University of Pennsylvania
Syracuse University
Religion Roman Catholicism
Website Personal website
Government website
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 2002–present
Rank US-O4 insignia.svg Major
Unit NGARMY.PNG Delaware Army National Guard
Battles/wars Iraq War

Electoral History of Beau Biden[edit]

Joseph Robinette "Beau" Biden III (born February 3, 1969) is an American attorney, Army JAG officer, and politician from Wilmington, Delaware. He served as the Attorney General of Delaware and a major in the Delaware Army National Guard. He is a member of the Democratic Party; and is also the older son of U.S. Vice President Joe Biden and older step-son of Second Lady of the United States Jill Biden.

In his first bid at political office, Biden ran for Attorney General of Delaware in 2006. Biden's opponent was a veteran state prosecutor and Assistant U.S. Attorney, Ferris Wharton. Major issues in the campaign included the candidates' experience and proposed efforts to address sex offenders, Internet predators, senior abuse, and domestic abuse. Biden won the election by approximately five percentage points.[citation needed]

After being elected, he appointed former Delaware Attorney General and International Judge Richard S. Gebelein as Chief Deputy Attorney General, and former assistant U.S. Attorney Richard G. Andrews was appointed as State Prosecutor. As Attorney General, Biden has supported and enforced stronger registration requirements for sex offenders.[30][31]

Joe Biden's election as Vice President in the 2008 presidential election left a vacancy in the U.S. Senate upon the time he would resign his seat. Beau was once believed to have been a frontrunner for the seat, but, while deployed in Iraq, stated that he would not seek or accept an appointment to the Senate.[32]

On November 24, 2008, Governor Ruth Ann Minner named Ted Kaufman to the seat, but Kaufman indicated he would not be a candidate in the 2010 special election. This fueled speculation Beau would run at that time.[33] Biden's father stated after the announcement of Kaufman's appointment, "It is no secret that I believe my son, Attorney General, would make a great United States Senator just as I believe he has been a great attorney general. But Beau has made it clear from the moment he entered public life that any office he sought he would earn on his own ... [I]f he chooses to run for the Senate in the future, he will have to run and win on his own. He wouldn't have it any other way."[34] In October 2009, Biden stated that he was considering a run for the Senate and that he would make a final decision in January. On January 25, Biden confirmed that he would forgo a Senate run so as to better focus on the prosecution of Earl Bradley, an infamous pedophilia suspect.[35]

On November 2, 2010, he was easily reelected to a second term as Delaware Attorney General, beating Independent Party of Delaware candidate Doug Campbell by a huge margin.[36] He is the first person to have held an elected office while his father was in office as Vice-President.

Biden did not seek re-election to a third term as Attorney General in 2014.[37] He has announced his intention to run for Governor of Delaware in the 2016 election to succeed term-limited Democratic Governor Jack Markell.[38][39]

Public offices
Office Type Location Elected Took office Term ends Notes
Attorney General Executive Dover 2006 January 2, 2007 January 3, 2011
Attorney General Executive Dover 2010 January 3, 2011 January 3, 2015
Election results
Year Office Election Subject Party Votes % Opponent Party Votes %
2006 Attorney General General Joseph R. Biden III Democratic 133,152 52.5% Ferris Wharton Republican 120,062 47.4%
2010 Attorney General General Joseph R. Biden III Democratic 196,799 78.9% Doug Campbell Delaware Independent 52,517 21.1%

- My Electoral History[edit]

- My Public Endorsements[edit]

2015 Elections[edit]

2015 United States elections
Off-year elections
Election day November 3
Congressional special elections
Seats contested TBD
Gubernatorial elections
Seats contested 3
Color coded map of the 2015 gubernatorial races
Map of the 2015 gubernatorial races
Light blue: Term-limited Democrat
Light red: Term-limited Republican
Dark red: Republican incumbent
gubernatorial and state legislative elections in a few states; as well as numerous citizen initiatives, mayoral races, and a variety of other local offices on the ballot.

The United States general elections of 2015 will be held (for the most part) on Tuesday, November 3. This is an off-year election, in which the only seats up for election in the United States Congress will be special elections, should any occur. There will be three gubernatorial races, state legislative elections in four states and judicial elections in three states; as well as numerous citizen initiatives, mayoral races, and a variety of other local offices on the ballot. This year should be rather politically dry and is a precursor to the big Election in 2016.

Special elections to the 114th Congress[edit]

Special Senate elections[edit]

Special Senate elections will arise if Senators vacate their seats during the 114th United States Congress.

Special House elections[edit]

Special House of Representatives elections will be held if Representatives vacate their seats during the 114th United States Congress. These include:

State elections[edit]

Gubernatorial[edit]

At least three states will hold gubernatorial elections in 2015:

If required in a state's constitution, special elections may be held if sitting governors vacate their seats. Otherwise, the constitutional successor would complete the rest of the gubernatorial term.

Statewide executive offices[edit]

Three states will hold elections for statewide executive offices in 2015:

State legislatures[edit]

Legislative elections will be held for four states in 2015: Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey and Virginia.[51]

Local elections[edit]

Various elections will be held for officeholders in numerous cities, counties, school boards, special districts and others around the country.

2016 Elections[edit]

2016 United States elections
Presidential election year
Election day November 8
Senate elections
Seats contested 34 seats of Class III
Color coded map of 2016 Senate races
Map of the 2016 Senate races
Dark blue: Incumbent Democrat
Light blue: Retiring Democrat
Dark red: Incumbent Republican
Light red: Retiring Republican
Black: Unknown incumbent
Gray: no election
House elections
Seats contested All 435 seats to the 115th Congress
Gubernatorial elections
Seats contested 13
Color coded map of 2016 Gubernatorial races
Map of the 2016 gubernatorial races
Light red: Term-limited or Retiring Republican
Dark red: Incumbent Republican
Light blue: Term-limited or Retiring Democrat
Dark blue: Incumbent Democrat
Black: Unknown Incumbent
Gray: no election

The 2016 United States elections will be held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. During this presidential election year, the President of the United States and Vice President will be elected. In addition, all 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives and 34 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate will be contested. 13 state and territorial governorships and numerous other state and local elections will also be contested.

Federal elections[edit]

Presidential election[edit]

The United States presidential election of 2016 will be the 58th quadrennial U.S. presidential election. The current electoral vote distribution was determined by the 2010 census. Presidential electors who will elect the President and Vice President of the United States will be chosen; a simple majority (270) of the 538 electoral votes are required to win the election. The incumbent president, Democrat Barack Obama, is ineligible to be elected to a third term due to term limits established by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution. There are numerous potential candidates in the Republican Party, Democratic Party, and among third parties. Assuming Barack Obama serves out his full term, the winner of this election will become the 45th President of the United States.

Congressional elections[edit]

Senate elections[edit]

All seats in Senate Class III will be up for election. Additionally, special elections may be held to fill vacancies in the other two Senate Classes. Democrats may be better positioned to make gains in this cycle, due to the number of Republican Senators in Democratic-leaning states.[52]

House of Representatives elections[edit]

All 435 voting seats in the United States House of Representatives will be up for election. Additionally, elections will be held to select the Delegate for the District of Columbia as well as the delegates from U.S. territories. This includes the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, who serves a four-year term.

State elections[edit]

Gubernatorial elections[edit]

Elections will be held for the governorships of eleven of the fifty U.S. states and two U.S. territories. Special elections may be held for vacancies in the other states and territories, if required by respective state/territorial constitutions.

Local elections[edit]

2016 Election Resources[edit]

United States presidential election, 2016
United States
2012 ←
November 8, 2016 → 2020

Electoral College 2016.svg

The electoral map for the 2016 election, based on populations from the 2010 census

Incumbent President

Barack Obama
Democratic

United States presidential election of 2016[edit]

The United States presidential election of 2016 will be the 58th quadrennial U.S. presidential election and is scheduled for Tuesday, November 8, 2016. Voters in the election will select presidential electors, who in turn will elect the President and the Vice President of the United States. The incumbent president, Barack Obama, is ineligible to be elected to a third term due to term limits in the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Background[edit]

Article Two of the United States Constitution stipulates that for a person to be elected and serve as President of the United States, the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of no less than 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the various political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf.

Candidates[edit]

The following individuals have filed with the Federal Election Commission to run for President of the United States in 2016 and/or have stated publicly that they are running, though that does not necessarily equate with viability as a candidate. They are listed alphabetically by surname.

Democratic Party[edit]

Republican Party[edit]

Independent[edit]

Potential candidates[edit]

The individuals listed below have been identified by reliable media sources as potential candidates for president in 2016. Those listed under "Formally exploring a candidacy" have taken formal action(s) - such as the formation of an exploratory committee, political action committee (PAC), or a 527 organization - to build the groundwork for a possible presidential campaign. As of February 2015, all others have been the focus of media speculation in reliable secondary sources within the past three months. They are listed alphabetically by surname.

Democratic Party[edit]

Formally exploring a candidacy[edit]

Publicly expressed interest[edit]

Other potential candidates[edit]

Republican Party[edit]

Formally exploring a candidacy[edit]

Publicly expressed interest[edit]

Other potential candidates[edit]

Third party and independent candidates[edit]

Independent[edit]

Formally exploring a candidacy[edit]

Publicly expressed interest[edit]

Green Party[edit]

Formally exploring a candidacy[edit]

Libertarian Party[edit]

Publicly expressed interest[edit]

Potential battleground states[edit]

Further information: Swing state

In every state except Maine and Nebraska, the winner of the popular vote in the state wins all of the electoral votes of the state (although state legislatures can, by law, change how votes are allocated).[132] Recent presidential campaigns have generally focused their resources on a relatively small number of competitive states.[133][134] Potential battleground states include Nevada, Colorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida.[135] Democrats have discussed targeting Arizona, Georgia, and Texas as potentially competitive states.[135] Other states may also become competitive if the close races of 2016 differ from the close races of the 2012 election, or if 2016 becomes a landslide election.

Party conventions[edit]

Democratic Party
  • Week of July 25, 2016: Democratic National Convention to be held in Philadelphia.[136]
Republican Party
Libertarian Party

Polling[edit]

General election polling
Democratic primary polling
Republican primary polling

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Joe Biden possible 2016 presidential run[edit]

Bernie Sanders possible 2016 presidential run[edit]

In a March 6, 2014, interview with The Nation, Sanders stated that he is "prepared to run for President of the United States" in 2016[141] but did not officially announce a campaign. When pressed on the issue, Sanders said, "If the question is am I actively right now organizing and raising money and so forth for a campaign for president, I am not doing that. On the other hand, am I talking to people around the country? Yes, I am. Will I be doing some traveling around the country? Yes, I will be. But I think it’s premature to be talking about a campaign when we still have a 2014 congressional race in front of us."[141]

United States gubernatorial elections, 2016
United States
2015 ←
November 8, 2016 → 2017
13 governorships

United States gubernatorial elections, 2016.png

  Democratic incumbent eligible for re-election
  Term-limited Democrat
  Republican incumbent eligible for re-election
  Unknown incumbent
  No election

The United States gubernatorial elections of 2016 will be held on November 8, 2016 in the states of Montana, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Washington, Indiana, Delaware, Missouri, Vermont, West Virginia, North Dakota, and Utah. The US territories of Puerto Rico and American Samoa will also hold gubernatorial elections. In addition, special elections may take place (depending on state law) if other gubernatorial seats are vacated. The last regular gubernatorial elections for nine of the eleven states took place in 2012. The last gubernatorial elections for New Hampshire and Vermont took place in 2014, as the governors of both states serve two-year terms. The 2016 gubernatorial elections will take place concurrently with several other federal, state, and local elections, including the 2016 presidential election.

United States House of Representatives elections, 2016
United States
2014 ←
November 8, 2016 → 2018

All 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives[Note 1]
218 seats needed for a majority
  John Boehner 113th Congress 2013.jpg Nancy Pelosi 113th Congress 2013.jpg
Leader John Boehner Nancy Pelosi
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Ohio-8th California-12th
Current seats 247 seats 188 seats
Seats needed Decrease 30 Increase 30

Incumbent Speaker

John Boehner
Republican

The 2016 United States House of Representatives elections will be held on November 8, 2016. Elections will be held to elect representatives from all 435 congressional districts across each of the 50 U.S. states. Non-voting delegates from the District of Columbia and the five inhabited U.S. territories[Note 2] will also be elected. The winners of this election will serve in the 115th United States Congress, with seats apportioned among the states based on the 2010 United States Census.

The 2016 Presidential election, 2016 Senate elections, 2016 gubernatorial elections, and many state and local elections will also be held on this date.

Incumbents not seeking re-election[edit]

Vacated during the 114th Congress[edit]

Republicans[edit]

Retiring at the end of the 114th Congress[edit]

Republicans[edit]

Democrats[edit]

Competitive districts[edit]

The following are the predictions for House districts where at least one out of the Cook Political Report, Daily Kos Elections, the Rothenberg Political Report, Sabato's Crystal Ball and Real Clear Politics did not agree that the district was "safe Democratic" or "safe Republican." Incumbents not running for re-election have parentheses around their names, while incumbents with a caret (^) sought re-election, but were defeated in the primary election. Note that safeness of a district is not necessarily a prediction as to outcome.

District CPVI Incumbent First
elected
2014
result
Cook
Dec 12,
2014
[148]
DKE
Nov 4,
2014
[149]
Roth.
Oct 29,
2014
[150]
Sab.
Jan 8,
2015
[151]
RCP
Nov 2,
2014
Winner
Alaska at-large R+12 Don Young (R) 1972 51.0% R Safe R Likely R TBD
Arizona 1 R+4 Ann Kirkpatrick (D) 2012 52.4% D Lean D Lean D TBD
Arizona 2 R+3 Martha McSally (R) 2014 49.8% R Lean R Tossup TBD
Arizona 9 R+1 Kyrsten Sinema (D) 2012 54.6% D Likely D Likely D TBD
California 7 EVEN Ami Bera (D) 2012 50.4% D Lean D Lean D TBD
California 10 R+1 Jeff Denham (R) 2010 56.2% R Lean R Lean R TBD
California 16 D+7 Jim Costa (D) 2004 50.7% D Likely D Likely D TBD
California 21 D+2 David Valadao (R) 2012 57.8% R Lean R Lean R TBD
California 24 D+4 Lois Capps (D) 1998 51.9% D Likely D Likely D TBD
California 26 D+4 Julia Brownley (D) 2012 51.3% D Likely D Likely D TBD
California 31 D+5 Pete Aguilar (D) 2014 51.7% D Safe D Likely D TBD
California 36 R+1 Raul Ruiz (D) 2012 54.2% D Likely D Likely D TBD
California 52 D+2 Scott Peters (D) 2012 51.6% D Likely D Lean D TBD
Colorado 6 D+1 Mike Coffman (R) 2008 51.9% R Lean R Lean R TBD
Connecticut 5 D+3 Elizabeth Esty (D) 2012 53.3% D Likely D Safe D TBD
Florida 2 R+6 Gwen Graham (D) 2014 50.5% R Lean D Lean D TBD
Florida 10 R+7 Daniel A. Webster (R) 2010 61.5% R Likely R Safe R TBD
Florida 13 R+1 David Jolly (R) 2014 75.2% R Likely R Likely R TBD
Florida 18 R+3 Patrick Murphy (D) 2012 59.8% D Likely D Likely D TBD
Florida 26 R+1 Carlos Curbelo (R) 2014 51.5% R Lean R Lean R TBD
Illinois 10 D+8 Robert Dold (R) 2014 51.3% R Tossup Tossup TBD
Illinois 12 EVEN Mike Bost (R) 2014 52.5% R Likely R Likely R TBD
Illinois 13 EVEN Rodney L. Davis (R) 2012 58.7% R Likely R Likely R TBD
Indiana 2 R+6 Jackie Walorski (R) 2012 58.9% R Safe R Likely R TBD
Iowa 1 D+5 Rod Blum (R) 2014 50.7% R Tossup Tossup TBD
Iowa 2 D+4 Dave Loebsack (D) 2006 52.5% D Likely D Likely D TBD
Iowa 3 EVEN David Young (R) 2014 52.7% R Lean R Lean R TBD
Maine 2 D+2 Bruce Poliquin (R) 2014 45.2% R Tossup Lean R TBD
Maryland 6 D+4 John K. Delaney (D) 2012 49.7% D Likely D Likely D TBD
Michigan 1 R+5 Dan Benishek (R) 2010 52.1% R Likely R Lean R TBD
Michigan 7 R+3 Tim Walberg (R) 2010 53.5% R Likely R Likely R TBD
Michigan 8 R+2 Mike Bishop (R) 2014 54.6% R Safe R Likely R TBD
Minnesota 1 R+1 Tim Walz (D) 2006 54.2% D Safe D Likely D TBD
Minnesota 7 R+6 Collin Peterson (D) 1990 54.2% D Lean D Lean D TBD
Minnesota 8 D+1 Rick Nolan (D) 2012 48.5% D Lean D Lean D TBD
Nebraska 2 R+4 Brad Ashford (D) 2014 49.0% D Tossup Tossup TBD
Nevada 3 EVEN Joe Heck (R) 2010 60.8% R Lean R Likely R TBD
Nevada 4 D+4 Cresent Hardy (R) 2014 48.5% R Tossup Tossup TBD
New Hampshire 1 R+1 Frank Guinta (R) 2014 51.8% R Tossup Tossup TBD
New Hampshire 2 D+3 Ann McLane Kuster (D) 2012 54.9% D Safe D Likely D TBD
New Jersey 3 R+1 Tom MacArthur (R) 2014 54.7% R Lean R Likely R TBD
New Jersey 5 R+4 Scott Garrett (R) 2002 55.7% R Likely R Safe R TBD
New Mexico 2 R+5 Steve Pearce (R) 2010 64.4% R Likely R Likely R TBD
New York 1 R+2 Lee Zeldin (R) 2014 53.6% R Lean R Lean R TBD
New York 4 D+3 Kathleen Rice (D) 2014 51.1% D Likely D Safe D TBD
New York 11[Note 3] R+2 Vacant 53.4% R Likely R Likely R TBD
New York 18 EVEN Sean Patrick Maloney (D) 2012 47.6% D Likely D Lean D TBD
New York 19 D+1 (Chris Gibson) (R) 2010 63.1% R Likely R Tossup TBD
New York 21 EVEN Elise Stefanik (R) 2014 53.2% R Likely R Likely R TBD
New York 23 R+3 Tom Reed (R) 2010 59.9% R Safe R Likely R TBD
New York 24 D+5 John Katko (R) 2014 58.6% R Lean R Tossup TBD
New York 25 D+7 Louise Slaughter (D) 1986 49.3% D Likely D Likely D TBD
North Carolina 9 R+8 Robert Pittenger (R) 2012 93.9% R Likely R Safe R TBD
Ohio 14 R+4 David Joyce (R) 2012 63.3% R Safe R Likely R TBD
Pennsylvania 6 R+2 Ryan Costello (R) 2014 56.3% R Likely R Likely R TBD
Pennsylvania 8 R+1 (Mike Fitzpatrick) (R) 2010 61.9% R Tossup Tossup TBD
Texas 23 R+3 Will Hurd (R) 2014 49.8% R Tossup Lean R TBD
Utah 4 R+16 Mia Love (R) 2014 50.9% R Likely R Likely R TBD
Virginia 2 R+2 Scott Rigell (R) 2010 58.7% R Safe R Likely R TBD
Virginia 4 R+4 Randy Forbes (R) 2001 60.2% R Lean R Likely R TBD
Virginia 10 R+2 Barbara Comstock (R) 2014 56.5% R Likely R Likely R TBD
West Virginia 2 R+11 Alex Mooney (R) 2014 47.1% R Likely R Safe R TBD
District CPVI Incumbent First
elected
2014 Cook DKE Roth. Sab. RCP Winner

Special elections[edit]

Date[Note 4] District Incumbent Vacancy Candidates/
Result
TBD[143] New York 11 Michael Grimm (R) Grimm resigned at the beginning of the 114th Congress after pleading guilty to tax evasion. A special election will be scheduled by Governor Andrew Cuomo, likely in the spring of 2015. Each party committee will pick its candidate, with no primary election.[143]
TBD

Full list of regular elections[edit]

Alabama[edit]

Congressional district Incumbent This race
District PVI Representative Party First
elected
Incumbent Status Candidates
Alabama 1 R+15 Bradley Byrne Republican 2013 Undecided or undeclared
Alabama 2 R+17 Martha Roby Republican 2010 Undecided or undeclared
Alabama 3 R+16 Mike Rogers Republican 2002 Undecided or undeclared
Alabama 4 R+28 Robert Aderholt Republican 1996 Undecided or undeclared
Alabama 5 R+17 Mo Brooks Republican 2010 Undecided or undeclared
Alabama 6 R+28 Gary Palmer Republican 2014 Undecided or undeclared
Alabama 7 D+20 Terri Sewell Democratic 2010 Undecided or undeclared

Alaska[edit]

Congressional district Incumbent This race
District PVI Representative Party First
elected
Incumbent Status Candidates
Alaska at-large R+12 Don Young Republican 1972 Undecided or undeclared

Arizona[edit]

Congressional district Incumbent This race
District PVI Representative Party First
elected
Incumbent Status Candidates
Arizona 1 R+4 Ann Kirkpatrick Democratic 2012 Undecided or undeclared
Arizona 2 R+3 Martha McSally Republican 2014 Undecided or undeclared
Arizona 3 D+8 Raúl Grijalva Democratic 2002 Undecided or undeclared
Arizona 4 R+20 Paul Gosar Republican 2010 Undecided or undeclared
Arizona 5 R+17 Matt Salmon Republican 2012 Undecided or undeclared
Arizona 6 R+12 David Schweikert Republican 2010 Undecided or undeclared
Arizona 7 D+16 Ruben Gallego Democratic 2014 Undecided or undeclared
Arizona 8 R+15 Trent Franks Republican 2002 Undecided or undeclared
Arizona 9 R+1 Kyrsten Sinema Democratic 2012 Undecided or undeclared

Arkansas[edit]

Congressional district Incumbent This race
District PVI Representative Party First
elected
Incumbent Status Candidates
Arkansas 1 R+14 Rick Crawford Republican 2010 Undecided or undeclared
Arkansas 2 R+8 French Hill Republican 2014 Undecided or undeclared
Arkansas 3 R+19 Steve Womack Republican 2010 Undecided or undeclared
Arkansas 4 R+15 Bruce Westerman Republican 2014 Undecided or undeclared

California[edit]

Congressional district Incumbent This race
District PVI Representative Party First
elected
Incumbent Status Candidates
California 1 R+10 Doug LaMalfa Republican 2012 Undecided or undeclared
California 2 D+20 Jared Huffman Democratic 2012 Undecided or undeclared
California 3 D+3 John Garamendi Democratic 2009 Undecided or undeclared
California 4 R+10 Tom McClintock Republican 2008 Undecided or undeclared David Peterson (Democratic)[152]
California 5 D+19 Mike Thompson Democratic 1998 Undecided or undeclared
California 6 D+18 Doris Matsui Democratic 2005 Undecided or undeclared
California 7 Even Ami Bera Democratic 2012 Undecided or undeclared
California 8 R+10 Paul Cook Republican 2012 Undecided or undeclared
California 9 D+6 Jerry McNerney Democratic 2006 Undecided or undeclared
California 10 R+1 Jeff Denham Republican 2010 Undecided or undeclared
California 11 D+17 Mark DeSaulnier Democratic 2014 Undecided or undeclared
California 12 D+34 Nancy Pelosi Democratic 1987 Undecided or undeclared
California 13 D+37 Barbara Lee Democratic 1998 Undecided or undeclared
California 14 D+23 Jackie Speier Democratic 2008 Undecided or undeclared
California 15 D+16 Eric Swalwell Democratic 2012 Undecided or undeclared
California 16 D+7 Jim Costa Democratic 2004 Undecided or undeclared
California 17 D+20 Mike Honda Democratic 2000 Undecided or undeclared
California 18 D+18 Anna Eshoo Democratic 1992 Undecided or undeclared
California 19 D+19 Zoe Lofgren Democratic 1994 Undecided or undeclared
California 20 D+21 Sam Farr Democratic 1993 Undecided or undeclared
California 21 D+2 David Valadao Republican 2012 Undecided or undeclared
California 22 R+10 Devin Nunes Republican 2002 Undecided or undeclared
California 23 R+16 Kevin McCarthy Republican 2006 Undecided or undeclared
California 24 D+4 Lois Capps Democratic 1998 Undecided or undeclared
California 25 R+3 Steve Knight Republican