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Edit from friday July 16th[edit]

Intro[edit]

The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples), is a unequivocal reference to a period of human migration, i.e. 'migration', taking place roughly between AD 300 to 700 in Europe, [1] and marking a societal transition. This has been reflected in historiography also as the periodization known as Late Antiquity respectively the Early Middle Ages. These societal changes, that notably included the physical movement of groups of people, were catalyzed by the profound tension between the Roman Empire and the tribal enclaves surrounding that empire, paraphrased as the 'barbarian frontier'. Genuinely migrating peoples during this period is today a contestable theme. [2] Definitely migrating people include the Huns [3] and Goths [4] whereas it is popularly held that Vandals, Bulgars, Alans, Suebi, Frisians, and Franks, as well as other Germanic and Slavic tribes migrated.

Migrations of peoples, although not strictly part of the 'Migration Age', continued beyond AD 1000, marked by Viking, Magyar, Turkic and Mongol invasions, and these also had significant effects, especially in Central and Eastern Europe.

Chronology[edit]

(See also: Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians, Alans, Langobards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi, Alamanni, Vandals).

The periodization may be divided into two phases:

The first phase,

between AD 300 and 500, somewhat documented in the Mediterranean litterary sources of Greek and Latin historians, and significantly difficult to verify in archaeology, put Germanic peoples in control of most areas of the then Western Roman Empire. [5]

Famously to formally enter Roman territory — after a clash with the Huns — were the Visigoths in 376. Their subsequent deditio was probably not acceptable. During a dramatic incident the following year in Marcianopolis, their leader was killed while meeting with Lupicinus. [6] They rebelled, eventually invading Italy and sacking Rome itself in 410, before settling in Iberia and founding a kingdom there that endured for 300 years. They were followed into Roman territory by the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric the Great, who settled in Italy itself.

In Gaul, the Franks, a fusion of western Germanic tribes whose leaders had been strongly aligned with Rome since the 3rd century, subsequently entered Roman lands more gradually and peacefully during the 5th century, and were generally endured as rulers by the Roman-Gaulish population. Fending off challenges from the Allemanni, Burgundians and Visigoths, the Frankish kingdom became the nucleus of the future states of France and Germany.

The initial Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain took place in the 5th century, at a time where Roman Britain was for all purposes no longer existing.[7]

The second phase,

between AD 500 and 700, saw Slavic tribes settling in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in eastern Magna Germania, and gradually making it predominantly Slavic.[citation needed] The Bulgars, a now-Slavicized people possibly of Turkic origin who had been present in far Eastern Europe since the 2nd century, conquered the eastern Balkan territory of the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century. The Lombards, a Germanic people, settled northern Italy in the region now known as Lombardy.

During the early Byzantine–Arab Wars, the Arab armies attempted to invade Southeastern Europe via Asia Minor in the second half of the 7th century and the early 8th century, but were eventually defeated at the siege of Constantinople by the joint forces of Byzantium and the Bulgars in 717–718. During the Khazar–Arab Wars, the Khazars stopped the Arab expansion into Eastern Europe across the Caucasus. At the same time, the Moors (consisting of Arabs and Berbers) invaded Europe via Gibraltar, conquering Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) from the Visigothic Kingdom in 711, before being halted by the Franks at the Battle of Tours in 732. These battles largely fixed the frontier between Christendom and Islam for the next millenia. The following centuries saw the Muslims successful in conquering Sicily and parts of southern Italy from the Christians, although never consolidating it.

During the 8th to 10th centuries, not usually counted as part of the Migration Period but still within the Early Middle Ages, new waves of migration, first of the Magyars and later of the Turkic peoples, as well as Viking expansion from Scandinavia, further unstabilized the established order of the Frankish Empire in Central Europe.

1st proofreading[edit]

The first part of the introduction in its rewritten form

Intro[edit]

The Migration Period, is a historiographic term. Alternative labels are the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples). Although 'Migration Period' semantically implies a period of human migration, it is nowadays contestable as to how exactly these migrations occurred, and which ethnic labels should be used to describe the migrations. The Migration Period is used to label historic descriptions of events taking place roughly between AD 300 to 700 in Europe. [8] The period between AD 300 to 700 in Europe is a time of societal transition, and this has been reflected in historiography also as the periodizations known as Late Antiquity, ending somewhere around year 400, respectively the Early Middle Ages, starting somewhere around year 400. These societal changes, that notably included the physical movement of groups of people, were catalyzed by the profound tension between the Roman Empire and the tribal enclaves surrounding that empire, paraphrased as the 'barbarian frontier'.

2nd proofreading[edit]

Intro[edit]

The Migration Period is a historiographic term. The Migration Period is used to label historic descriptions of events taking place roughly between AD 300 to 700 in Europe. [9] Definitely migrating people include the Huns [10] and Goths [11] whereas it is popularly held that Vandals, Bulgars, Alans, Suebi, Frisians, and Franks, as well as other Germanic and Slavic tribes migrated.

The period between AD 300 to 700 in Europe is a time of societal transition, and this has been reflected in historiography also as the periodizations known as Late Antiquity, respectively the Early Middle Ages. The societal changes, that notably included the physical movement of groups of people, were catalyzed by the profound tension between the Roman Empire and the tribal enclaves surrounding that empire, paraphrased as the 'barbarian frontier'. Although 'Migration Period' directly implies a period of human migration, it is nowadays contestable as to how exactly these migrations occurred or differed from previous ages, and which ethnic labels should be used when describing the migrations. Migrations of peoples, although not part of the 'Migration Age', continued beyond AD 1000, marked by Viking, Magyar, Turkic and Mongol invasions, and these also had significant effects, especially in Central and Eastern Europe.

Alternative names for 'Migration Period' are the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples).

Chronology[edit]

(See also: Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians, Alans, Langobards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi, Alamanni, Vandals).

The periodization may be divided into two phases:

The first phase,

between AD 300 and 500, somewhat documented in the Mediterranean litterary sources of Greek and Latin historians, and significantly difficult to verify in archaeology, put Germanic peoples in control of most areas of the then Western Roman Empire. [12]

Famously to formally enter Roman territory — after a clash with the Huns — were the Visigoths in 376. Their subsequent deditio was probably not acceptable. During a dramatic incident the following year in Marcianopolis, the escort to Fritigern, their leader, was killed while meeting with Lupicinus. [13] The Visigoths rebelled, eventually invading Italy and sacking Rome itself in 410, before settling in Iberia and founding a kingdom there that endured for 300 years. They were followed into Roman territory by the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric the Great, who settled in Italy itself.

In Gaul, the Franks, a fusion of western Germanic tribes whose leaders had been strongly aligned with Rome since the 3rd century, subsequently entered Roman lands more gradually and peacefully during the 5th century, and were generally endured as rulers by the Roman-Gaulish population. Fending off challenges from the Allemanni, Burgundians and Visigoths, the Frankish kingdom became the nucleus of the future states of France and Germany.

The initial Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain took place in the 5th century, at a time where Roman Britain was for all purposes no longer existing.[14]

The second phase,

between AD 500 and 700, saw Slavic tribes settling in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in eastern Magna Germania, and gradually making it predominantly Slavic.[citation needed] The Bulgars, a now-Slavicized people possibly of Turkic origin who had been present in far Eastern Europe since the 2nd century, conquered the eastern Balkan territory of the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century. The Lombards, a Germanic people, settled in northern Italy in the region now known as Lombardy.

During the early Byzantine–Arab Wars, the Arab armies attempted to invade Southeastern Europe via Asia Minor in the second half of the 7th century and the early 8th century, but were eventually defeated at the siege of Constantinople by the joint forces of Byzantium and the Bulgars in 717–718. During the Khazar–Arab Wars, the Khazars stopped the Arab expansion into Eastern Europe across the Caucasus. At the same time, the Moors (consisting of Arabs and Berbers) invaded Europe via Gibraltar, conquering Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) from the Visigothic Kingdom in 711, before being halted by the Franks at the Battle of Tours in 732. These battles largely fixed the frontier between Christendom and Islam for the next millenia. The following centuries saw the Muslims successful in conquering Sicily and parts of southern Italy from the Christians, although never consolidating it.

During the 8th to 10th centuries, not counted as part of the Migration Period but within the Early Middle Ages, new waves of migration, first of the Magyars and later of the Turkic peoples, as well as Viking expansion from Scandinavia, further unstabilized the established order of the Frankish Empire in Central Europe.

Comments[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Precise dates given may vary; often cited is 410, the sack of Rome by Alaric I and 751, the accession of Pippin the Short and the establishment of the Carolingian dynasty.
  2. ^ cf. Halsall (2007)
  3. ^ cf. Wirth (1999), noting that these are nomadic peoples.
  4. ^ cf. Bierbrauer (1994). He conclude the migration to take place in the centuries preceding the year 400.
  5. ^ As a matter of fact Jordanes(6th century), an Alan or Goth by birth, wrote in Latin.
  6. ^ cf. Wolfram (2001, pp. 127ff.)
  7. ^ cf. Dumville (1990)
  8. ^ Precise dates given may vary; often cited is 410, the sack of Rome by Alaric I and 751, the accession of Pippin the Short and the establishment of the Carolingian dynasty.
  9. ^ Precise dates given may vary; often cited is 410, the sack of Rome by Alaric I and 751, the accession of Pippin the Short and the establishment of the Carolingian dynasty.
  10. ^ cf. Wirth (1999), noting that these are nomadic peoples.
  11. ^ cf. Bierbrauer (1994). He conclude the migration to take place in the centuries preceding the year 400.
  12. ^ Also Jordanes(6th century), an Alan or Goth by birth, wrote in Latin.
  13. ^ cf. Wolfram (2001, pp. 127ff.)
  14. ^ cf. Dumville (1990)

Literature[edit]

  • Wirth, Gerhard (1999), Attila . Das Hunnenreich und Europa, Berlin, Köln: Kohlhammer, ISBN 3-17-014232-1 
  • Wolfram, Herwig (2001), Die Goten . Von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des sechsten Jahrhunderts ., München: C.H.Beck 
  • Bierbrauer, Volker (1994), Archäologie und Geschichte der Goten vom 1.-7. Jahrhundert . Versuch einer Bilanz, Frühmittelalterliche Studien ; Jahrbuch des Instituts für Frühmittelalterforscung der Universität Münster 28, Berlin, New Zork: de Gruyter 
  • Dumville, David (1990), Histories and pseudo-histories of the insular Middle Ages, Aldershot, Hampshire: Variorum