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The following is a list of significant men and women known in history for being the father, mother, or considered the founders of something, listed by category. In some fields the title of being the "father" is debatable.

Arts[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Danish painting Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard[1]
Oil painting Jan van Eyck[2] For experimenting with the medium to remarkable effect

Church[edit]

Main article: Church Fathers

Economics[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Communism Karl Marx[citation needed]
Friedrich Engels
David Ricardo[3]
Economics (early) Ibn Khaldun[4] Publication: Muqaddimah (1370)
Economics (modern) Adam Smith[5] Publication: The Wealth of Nations (1776)
International finance Mayer Amschel Rothschild[6]
Modern portfolio theory Harry Markowitz[7]

Games[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Miniature wargaming H.G. Wells[8]
Role-playing games Gary Gygax[9] Creator of Dungeons & Dragons
Wargaming Charles S. Roberts[10]

Humanities[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
American folklore Richard Dorson[11]
Anthropology Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[12][13]
Demography Ibn Khaldun[14] Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)
Egyptology Father Athanasius Kircher[15]

Jean-François Champollion[citation needed]

First to identify the phoenetic importance of the hieroglyph, and he demonstrated Coptic as a vestige of early Egyptian, before the Rosetta stone's discovery.
Translated parts of the Rosetta Stone.
Indology Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[16] Wrote the Indica and Critical study of what India says
Informatics Pāṇini[17] Wrote the Ashtadhyayi
Microcredit Muhammad Yunus[18] Founded Grameen Bank
Political science (modern) Niccolò Machiavelli[19] Discussion of and concern with how people actually behave, as opposed to how people should behave.
Sociology Ibn Khaldun[14][20]
Auguste Comte[21]
Wrote the first sociological book, the Muqaddimah (Prolegomena).
Introduced the scientific method into sociology.

History[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Ecclesiastical History Eusebius of Caesarea[22] Because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church
French history André Duchesne[22]
Historiography Ibn Khaldun[23] Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)
History Herodotus[24][25]
Thucidydes
The Histories
History of the Peloponnesian War
History of science George Sarton[26] Founded Isis (1912) and wrote Introduction to the History of Science (1927)
Modern history Leonardo Bruni[27]
Philosophy of history Ibn Khaldun[20] Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)

Language and literature[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
American literature Mark Twain[28]
English literature Geoffrey Chaucer[29]
English poetry Geoffrey Chaucer[22]
Epic poetry Homer[25][22]
Finnish written language Mikael Agricola[30]
German Literature Gotthold Ephraim Lessing[22]
Grammar Pāṇini[31] Wrote the Ashtadhyayi
Greek Tragedy Aeschylus[22]
Letters (messages) Francis I of France[22]
Linguistics (early) Pāṇini[32] Wrote the Ashtadhyayi
Linguistics (modern) Noam Chomsky[33][34]
Modern fantasy literature J. R. R. Tolkien[35]
Novel Homer[36]
Science fiction Lucian of Samosata[37]

Jules Verne[38][39]

HG Wells[38][39]

Science fiction magazine Hugo Gernsback[40][39]
Urdu Maulvi Abdul Haq[41]

Law[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
European patent law Kurt Haertel[42] [43]
International Law Francisco de Vitoria[44]
Hugo Grotius[citation needed]
For speculating on human rights and the proper relations that ought to exist between nations
United States Constitution James Madison[45]

Nations[edit]

Military[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Atomic bomb Robert Oppenheimer.[46]
Leó Szilárd[47]
Blitzkrieg Heinz Guderian[citation needed]
Hydrogen bomb Edward Teller[48]
Atomic submarine and "nuclear navy" Hyman G. Rickover[49] [50] [51]
Fourth Generation Warfare William S. Lind[citation needed]
Military strategy Hannibal[52] Pioneered double envelopement manoeuver at Battle of Cannae
The Soviet Union's hydrogen bomb Andrei Sakharov[53]
United States Navy John Paul Jones[54]

Music[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Ambient music Erik Satie[55]
American piano manufacture Jonas Chickering[56]
Blues Ma Rainey[57]
Bluegrass music Bill Monroe[58]
Chicago blues / electric blues Muddy Waters[59]
Country music Jimmie Rodgers[60][61][62]
English Cathedral Music Thomas Tallis[22]
Funk George Clinton ("Godfather of Funk")[63]
Greek music Terpander[22]
Grunge Kurt Cobain[64]
Heavy Metal Ozzy Osbourne ("Godfather of Metal")[65]
Punk rock Patti Smith ("Godmother of Punk")[66]
Jazz Buddy Bolden[67]
Jelly Roll Morton[68]
Theodore August Metz[69]
modern jazz piano Earl "Fatha" Hines[70]
Soul music James Brown (godfather)[71]
Symphony and string quartet Joseph Haydn[72][73][74]

Philosophy and religion[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Anarchism Mikhail Bakunin[75]
Behaviorism John B. Watson[76]
Existentialism Søren Kierkegaard[77]
Feminism Mary Wollstonecraft[78][79]
Faith missions Anthony Norris Groves[80]
Humanism Petrarch[81][82]
Logical positivism Moritz Schlick[83]
Methodism John Wesley[84]
Moral Philosophy Thomas Aquinas[22]
Protestantism (Lutheranism) Martin Luther[85]
Thomism Thomas Aquinas[22]
Zionism Theodor Herzl[86]

Sciences[edit]

Sports[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Angling Izaak Walton[22] author of The Compleat Angler
Baseball Henry Chadwick[87][88][89][90]
Canadian rodeo O. Raymond Knight[91]
Karting Art Ingels[92] Developed the world's first kart (1956)
lacrosse William George Beers[93][94][95][96]
Modern Boxing James J. Corbett[citation needed]
modern sabre fencing Italo Santelli[97]

Technology[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
Aerodynamics (modern) Nikolai Zhukovsky Founding father of modern Aerodynamics. The first to undertake the study of airflow. He established the world's first Aerodynamic Institute. The first to explaine the origin of aerodynamic lift
Air conditioning Willis Carrier [98]
Architecture Imhotep[99] Built the first pyramid
Astronautics Robert H. Goddard[100]
Hermann Oberth[101]
Aviation Father Francesco Lana-Terzi[102] Book: Prodromo alla Arte Maestra (1670). First to describe the geometry and physics of a flying vessel.
Compact Disc Kees Immink[103]
Computing Charles Babbage[104] Inventor of the Analytical Engine which was never constructed in his lifetime.
Computer Andre Truong Trong Thi

Konrad Zuse[105] Alan Turing[106] John von Neumann[107] John V. Atanasoff[108]

Father of the personal computer.
Invented world's first functional program-controlled computer.
Was a secret code breaker during WWII and invented the Turing machine (1936)
Became "intrigued" with Turing's universal machine and later emphasised the importance of the stored-program concept for electronic computing (1945), including the possibility of allowing the machine to modify its own program in useful ways while running
Invented the digital computer in the 1930s
Computer Program Ada Lovelace[109] Recognized by historians as the writer of the world's first computer program which was for the Charles Babbage Analytical Engine, but was never complete within either her or his lifetime.
Cosmonautics Konstantin Tsiolkovsky[110]
Cybernetics Norbert Wiener[111][112]
Engineering (modern) Al-Jazari[113] Invented devices fundamental to modern engineering, including the crankshaft, connecting rod, reciprocating piston suction pump, valve, combination lock, etc.
Ekranoplan Rostislav Alexeev
Helicopter Igor Sikorsky [114] Invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based.
Internet Vinton Cerf[115][116][117]
Robert E. Kahn[118]
Japanese television Kenjiro Takayanagi[119][120]
Jet engine Frank Whittle[121][122]
Lightning prediction system Alexander Stepanovich Popov The first lightning prediction system, the Lightning detector, was invented in 1894 by Alexander Stepanovich Popov. It also was the first Radio receiver in the world.
Marine chronometer John Harrison[123]
Pentium microprocessor Vinod Dham[124][125]
Perfumery[126] Al-Kindi (Alkindus) Founded the perfume industry.
Personal computer Steve Wozniak[127]
Photography Louis Daguerre[128]
Nicéphore Niépce[129]
William Henry Fox Talbot[130]
Thomas Wedgwood[131]
Programmable logic controller Dick Morley[citation needed]
Radio Alexander Stepanovich Popov [132]
Lee De Forest[133][134][135]
Guglielmo Marconi[136]
Jagdish Chandra Bose[137]
Nikola Tesla[138]
The research of these pioneers led to the development of the radio
Radio (Radio broadcasting) Reginald Fessenden[citation needed]
David Sarnoff[citation needed]
Radio (FM radio) Edwin H. Armstrong[citation needed] Obtained the first FCC license to operate an FM station in Alpine, New Jersey at approximately 50 megahertz (1939)
radiotelephony Reginald Fessenden[139][140]
Robotics Al-Jazari[141] Invented the first programmable humanoid robot.
SGML Charles Goldfarb[142]
Telephone Antonio Meucci [143],

Alexander Graham Bell[144]

See Invention of the telephone
Television Philo T. Farnsworth[145],

Vladimir Zworykin[146], [147]

Co-Inventors of the Electronic Television. Farnsworth invented the Image dissector while Zworykin created the Iconoscope, both fully electronic forms of Television.
Tokamak Lev Artsimovich
World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee[148]
Visual Basic Alan Cooper[149]
XML Jon Bosak[150]

Transport[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
American Interstate Highway System Dwight D. Eisenhower[151]
Route 66 Cyrus Avery[152]
Traffic safety William Phelps Eno[153]
Yellow school bus Frank W. Cyr[154]

Miscellaneous[edit]

Subject Father / Mother of ... Reason
American political cartoon Thomas Nast[155]
Baby carrot Mike Yurosek[156]
Clyde shipbuilding Robert Napier[157]
California cuisine Alice Waters[158]
Europe Benedict of Nursia[44]
International folk dance
in the United States
Vytautas Beliajus[159]
LSD Albert Hofmann[160]
"gravity" (the rollercoaster) LaMarcus Adna Thompson[161]
Green revolution Norman Borlaug[citation needed]
Modern improv comedy Del Close[162]
Pokémon Tsunekazu Ishihara[163]
public-access television George C. Stoney[164]
public relations Edward Bernays[165]
Ivy Lee[166]
UN peacekeeping Lester B. Pearson[167]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Abildgaard, Nikolaj Abraham," entry in 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, online[1]: "ABILDGAARD, NIKOLAJ ABRAHAM (1744–1800), called 'the Father of Danish Painting,' ... a cold theorist... As a technical painter he attained remarkable success, his tone being very harmonious and even, but the effect, to a foreigner's eye, is rarely interesting. His works are scarcely known out of Copenhagen, where he won an immense fame in his own generation."
  2. ^ [2]. "that van Eyck—"the father of oil painting"—exploited the new medium and his own patient talent to paint Arnolfini by traditional methods."
  3. ^ Karl Marx (1863): Theories of Surplus Value, Chapter 10:

    Carey (the passage to be looked up later) therefore denounces him as the father of communism.

    “Mr. Ricardo’s system is one of discords …its whole tends to the production of hostility among classes and nations… His hook is the true manual of the demagogue, who seeks power by means of agrarianism, war, and plunder.” (H. C. Carey, The Past, the Present, and the Future, Philadelphia, 1848, pp. 74–75.)

  4. ^ I. M. Oweiss (1988), "Ibn Khaldun, the Father of Economics", Arab Civilization: Challenges and Responses, New York University Press, ISBN 0887066984.
  5. ^ Steven Pressman. Fifty Major Economists. (1999). Routledge. ISBN 0415134811 p.20
  6. ^ [url =http://www.forbes.com/2005/07/29/most-influential-businessmen-cx_mn_0729bizmenintro.html]
  7. ^ Harry Markowitz, "the father of Modern Portfolio Theory," To Highlight Investment Consultants Conference
  8. ^ The Miniatures Page. The World of Miniatures - An Overview.
  9. ^ Rausch, Allen (August 15, 2004). "Gary Gygax Interview - Part I". GameSpy. Retrieved 2005-01-03.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ "Charles S. Roberts: The Founding Father"
  11. ^ Nichols, Amber M. Richard M. Dorson. Minnesota State University, Mankato eMuseum. URL accessed April 21 2006.
  12. ^ Akbar S. Ahmed (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist", RAIN 60, p. 9-10.
  13. ^ Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshhold Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
  14. ^ a b H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
  15. ^ Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, p 4 & 109. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
  16. ^ Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshhold Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
  17. ^ Prof. Gerard Huet, Contemporary Relevance of Panini, INRIA, France.
  18. ^ Expanding Microcredit in India: A Great Opportunity for Poverty Alleviation, Grameen Dialogue.
  19. ^ Hart, Michael H. (1989). "The 100: A ranking of the most influential persons in history", New York: Carol Publishing group. pg. 465
  20. ^ a b Dr. S. W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture 12 (3).
  21. ^ Auguste Comte, Britannica Student Encyclopedia. Accessed October 5, 2006.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l New International Encyclopedia. New York City: Dodd, Mead and Company. 1914. pp. Fathers. 
  23. ^ S. Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1850653569.
  24. ^ Cicero, De legibus I,5.
  25. ^ a b Strong, W.F.; Cook, John A. (July 2007), "Reviving the Dead Greek Guys", Global Media Journal, Indian Edition, ISSN: 1550-7521 
  26. ^ E. Garfield (2003). "The life and career of George Sarton: the father of the history of science", J Hist Behav Sci 21 (2), p. 107-117.
  27. ^ James Hankins (ed.). History of the Florentine People, See "Editor Introduction".
  28. ^ William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature". Jelliffe, Robert A. (1956). Faulkner at Nagano. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, Ltd. 
  29. ^ Geoffrey Chaucer
  30. ^ A Great Man of Finland's History, at "Agricola 2007 Anniversary" site (in Finnish) of University of Turku, Finland
  31. ^ Grammar Development Process. Xambala: The Semantic Processing Company.
  32. ^ Mark Brasher, PhD. Different language / different epistemology?, TransPacific Hawaii College.
  33. ^ Clark, Neil (2003-07-14). "Great thinkers of our time - Noam Chomsky". New Statesman. Retrieved 2007-03-24. Regarded as the father of modern linguistics, founder of the field of transformational-generative grammar, which relies heavily on logic and philosophy.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  34. ^ Fox, Margalit (1998-12-05). "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-24. … Noam Chomsky, father of modern linguistics and the field's most influential practitioner; …  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  35. ^ Mitchell, Christopher. "J. R. R. Tolkien: Father of Modern Fantasy Literature" (GOOGLE VIDEO). "Let There Be Light" series. University of California Television. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  36. ^ Homer (1999) [700 B.C.]. The Odyssey: The Story of Odysseus. Signet Classic. ISBN 0-451-52736-4.  p. 1, introduction says T. E. Lawrence and W. H. D. Rouse (the translator) "found him the father of the modern novel."
  37. ^ Roberts, Adam (2006). The History of Science Fiction. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-97022-5. , p. 27: "The classical author most consistently cited as a 'father of science fiction' is Lucian..."
  38. ^ a b Adam Charles Roberts (2000), "The History of Science Fiction": Page 48 in Science Fiction, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-19204-8
  39. ^ a b c Magic Dragon Multimedia. Timeline of 19th Century Science Fiction.
  40. ^ Siegel, Mark Richard (1988). Hugo Gernsback, Father of Modern Science Fiction: With Essays on Frank Herbert and Bram Stoker. Borgo Pr. ISBN 0-89370-174-2. 
  41. ^ [3]: "(Baba-e-Urdu) Maulvi Abdul Haq"
  42. ^ (German) Munich's official internet site, Straßenneubenennung Kurt-Haertel-Passage. Consulted on June 19, 2007.
  43. ^ (German) Web site of the Kurt-Haertel-Institut für geistiges Eigentum an der FernUniversität in Hagen, Kurt Haertel. Consulted on June 19, 2007.
  44. ^ a b Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, p 5. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
  45. ^ See, e.g., Brant, Irving. James Madison: Father of the Constitution, 1787–1800. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1950.
  46. ^ J Robert Oppenheimer
  47. ^ Bernstein, Barton J: "Introduction" to The Voice of the Dolphins and Other Stories (expanded edition), by Leo Szilard. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992, p.5: "Its author, Leo Szilard, now dead nearly three decades, was a Hunganian émigré scientist and one of many putative fathers of the A-bomb."
  48. ^ "'Father of H-Bomb' Agrees to Rally Scientific Talent." The New York Times, December 31, 1965, p.19. Story opens: "Albany, Dec. 30—Governor Rockefeller will make an intensified attack on air pollution with the help of Dr. Edward Teller, the 'father of the hydrogen bomb.'"
  49. ^ Jeffries, John (2001). Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 0-8232-2110-5. , p.162: "'Admiral Rickover', said Powell, '"father of the atomic submarine", is a a great naval officer... It is not equally clear that he is a careful and thorough student of American education.'"
  50. ^ "Submarine Range Called Unlimited; Rickover Says Atomic Craft Can Cruise Under Ice To North Pole and Beyond," The New York Times, December 6, 1957, p.33: "The admiral, who is often called the 'Father of the Atomic Submarine'..."
  51. ^ Galantin, I. J. (1997). Submarine Admiral: From Battlewagons to Ballistic Missiles. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06675-8. , p. 217: "Chet Holifield... member of the JCAE... said 'Of all the men I dealt with in public service, at least one will go down in history: Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, the father of the nuclear Navy.'"
  52. ^ D. Billau, D. Graczyk (2003). "Hannibal: The Father of Strategy Reconsidered", Comparative Strategy 22 (4), p. 335-353. Routledge.
  53. ^ "Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights". Center for the History of Physics. American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  54. ^ Hoover Library, "Revolutionary America! Where Did We Go From There? The Continental Navy -- John Paul Jones"
  55. ^ CD Baby: ALESSANDRA CELLETTI PLAYS SATIE: Esotérik Satie
  56. ^ http://www.npg.si.edu/docs/aapexplorers.pdf
  57. ^ Lieb, Sandra R. (1983). Mother of the Blues. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-8050-7459-7. , p. 10, "Years later, as a Paramount recording star, Ma Rainey would be touted as 'the Mother of the Blues,' a title no doubt dreamed up by some press agent, but generally true in historical terms."
  58. ^ Country Music Hall of Fame article on Monroe.
  59. ^ "McKinley Morganfield a/k/a “Muddy Waters” was the 'Father of Chicago Blues'", [4]
  60. ^ the official Jimmie Rodgers website
  61. ^ Father of Country Music - Amazon.com (record)
  62. ^ Jimmie Rodgers: The Father of Country Music - Mississippi History Now
  63. ^ Johnson, Jeff. (2001). "Godfather of Funk still tears the roof off", Chicago Sun-Time, 01 July.
  64. ^ Neil Young: Godfather of Grunge?
  65. ^ Gabriella (2008-06). "Ozzy Osbourne: The Godfather of Metal". NY ROCK. Retrieved 2008-06-9.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  66. ^ Chiu, David (2004-12-29). "Critics' Top Ten Lists". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  67. ^ Koster, Rick (2002). Louisiana Music: A Journey from R&B to Zydeco, Jazz to Country, Blues to Gospel, Cajun Music. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81003-4. , p. 5: "Anyone seriously interested in the history of music will hear many times that Buddy Bolden was the father of jazz, or that Jelly Roll Morton claimed he was the father of jazz (in 1902, in fact)..." See also Theodore August Metz, Jelly Roll Morton
  68. ^ Groppa, Carlos C. (2002). The Tango in the United States: A History. McFarland and Compay. ISBN 0-7864-1406-5. , p.62: "Morton, a pool shark, composer, piano player and part-time pimp, called by many the Father of Jazz...". See also Buddy Bolden, Theodore August Metz.
  69. ^ "Theatrical Notes," The New York Times, April 26, 1932, p.25: "Theodore August Metz, who is often called the father of jazz and is the composer of the song 'There'll Be A Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight,' is scheduled to attend a reception backstage at Loew's State Theatre...'" See also Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton.
  70. ^ Pareles, Jon (1983): "Earl Hines Dead; Top Jazz Pianist—Redefined the Style in the 1920s Working with Armstrong—Later Led Major Band", The New York Times, April 23, 1983, p.10: "Earl (Fatha) Hines, the father of modern jazz piano, died yesterday in Oakland, Calif. after a heart attack."
  71. ^ Godfather of Soul - website
  72. ^ Larsen, Jens Peter; Georg Fede (1950). The New Grove Haydn. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-30359-4.  p.79: "For years, the name 'Papa Haydn' has characterized the composer."
  73. ^ Schonberg, Harold C. (1997). The Lives of the Great Composers by Schonberg, Harold C. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-03857-2.  p.83: "It is not for nothing that he is called the Father of the Symphony. With equal justice he could be called the Father of the String Quartet, or the Father of Sonata Form."
  74. ^
  75. ^ Masters, Anthony (1974). Bakunin, the Father of Anarchism. Saturday Review Press. ISBN 0-8415-0295-1. 
  76. ^ Wozniak, R. H. (1997). "Behaviorism," In Bringmann, W.G., Luck, H.E., Miller, R., & Early, C.E. (Eds.). A Pictorial History of Psychology. Chicago: Quintessence. "To later generations of psychologists... Watson would become known as the 'father of behaviorism'."
  77. ^ Bretall, Robert Ed. "A Kierkegaard Anthology". Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973. p. xviii.
  78. ^ Wozniak, Jone Johnson Lewis "Women's History Guide."
  79. ^ Cork Multitext Project, The History Department, University College Cork "Movements for Political & Social Reform, 1870–1914."
  80. ^ Dann, Robert Bernard (2004). Father of Faith Missions: The Life and Times of Anthony Norris Groves. Paternoster, Authentic Media. ISBN 1-884543-90-1. 
  81. ^ Petrarch
  82. ^ Rereading the Renaissance: Petrarch, Augustine, and the Language of Humanism
  83. ^ Murzi, Mauro (2006). Philosophy of Logical Positivism. Page 26. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
  84. ^ General Board of Discipleship of the United Methodist Church, A List of Books and Other Resources About John Wesley [5], "John Wesley, the Father of Methodism..."
  85. ^ Losch, Richard R. (2002). The Many Faces of Faith: A Guide to World Religions and Christian Traditions. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-0521-3. , p. 93: "Martin Luther (1483–1546) is generally identified as the father of Protestantism. While he was not the first to confront the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, it was he who crystallized the growing unrest and began what is known as the Protestant Reformation."
  86. ^ Binyamin Ze-ev (Theodor) Herzl - Father of Zionism
  87. ^ "Henry Chadwick, Chad, The Father of Base Ball [sic]"; National Baseball Hall of Fame bio,[6]. Not a player, but a journalist and organizer, the Hall of Fame credits him as "inventor of the box score" and "author of the first rule-book."
  88. ^
  89. ^ "Matty" at Harvard; The New York Times, February 16, 1909, p. 7: "Charles H. Ebbets, Chairman of the Chadwick Monument Committee, has announced that the contract has been awarded for a suitable monument to be placed on the plot in Greenwood[sic] Cemetery where the remains of the late Henry Chadwick, 'the Father of Baseball,' repose."
  90. ^ Collins, Glen (2004): "Ground as Hallowed as Cooperstown," The New York Times, April 1, 2004. (Article on baseball notables interred in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn) "Among the nearly 600,000 people buried there are no less than four pioneers who were accorded the title 'Father of Baseball' in the popular press: Henry Chadwick, Duncan Curry, William Tucker and William Wheaton....The memorial for Henry Chadwick bears a 'Father of Base Ball' inscription.... [Duncan] Curry, first president of the Knickerbocker Baseball Club, is immortalized with a monument that proudly dubs him 'Father of Baseball' because he headed the club that scholars say first codified many of the game's rules...."
  91. ^ Hicken, J.O. Ed. "Raymond Roundup 1902–1967". Lethbridge, Alberta Canada: The Lethbridge Herald Company, Ltd., 1967. pages 243 and 519.
  92. ^ http://www.vintagekarts.com/ingels.htm - vintagekarts.com
  93. ^ STX Lacrosse
  94. ^ HickokSports.com - History - Lacrosse
  95. ^ Lacrosse History. Historical Facts About Lacrosse
  96. ^ http://www.schoolnet.ca/aboriginal/handbook/arts_lacrosse.html
  97. ^ Santelli bio including several references backing up the statement, including a quote from Dr. William Gaugler Dec. 1997: "I am, in fact, only two generations removed from the 'father of modern sabre' [referring to Santelli]".
  98. ^ The Father of Cool - Willis Haviland Carrier and Air Conditioning
  99. ^ Albert Gallatin Mackey, The Builder Magazine, December 1922, Volume VIII, Number 12, Part XVI.
  100. ^ Goddard
  101. ^ Oberth
  102. ^ Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, p 36. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
  103. ^ Untitled Document
  104. ^ Lee, J.A.N. (1995). International Biographical Dictionary of Computer Pioneers. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1-884964-47-8. 
  105. ^ Konrad Zuse's versus John von Neumann's Computer Concepts
  106. ^ 'Father of the computer' honoured - BBC News, Monday, 7 June, 2004
  107. ^ The Modern History of Computing - Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  108. ^ Bruner, Jeffrey. "Atanasoff, father of the computer, dies at 91". Rebuilding the ABC. Ames Laboratory. Retrieved 2006-07-28. 
  109. ^ Ada Lovelace
  110. ^ Tsiolkovskiy
  111. ^ Belzer, Belzer (1977). Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 7 - Curve Fitting to Early Development... Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-262-73009-X. , p. 55: "It is probably not an accident that the 'father of cybernetics,' Norbert Wiener, ..."
  112. ^ Wiener, Norbert (1965) [1948]. Cybernetics, Second Edition: or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. MIT Press. ISBN 0-8247-2257-4.  (Wiener is credited with coining the term in its common modern usage)
  113. ^ 1000 Years of Knowledge Rediscovered at Ibn Battuta Mall, MTE Studios.
  114. ^ Igor Sikorsky is considered to be the "father" of helicopters not because he invented the first. He is called that because he invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based, an artilce from inventors.About.com by Mary Bellis
  115. ^ Gore Deserves Internet Credit, Some Say, a March 1999 Washington Post article
  116. ^ Making Televised Emergency Information Accessible from the Gallaudet University website
  117. ^ Although its a title he objects to (see Interview with Vinton Cerf, from a January 2006 article in Government Computer News), Cerf is willing to call himself one of the Internet's fathers, citing Bob Kahn in particularly as being someone with whom he should share that title.
  118. ^ Kahn do, No (2007). " Father of internet warns against Net Neutrality", The Register, Thursday 18th January
  119. ^ "Kenjiro Takayanagi: The Father of Japanese Television". NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  120. ^ "Kenjiro Takayanagi, Electrical Engineer, 91 (obituary)". New York Times. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  121. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | England | Coventry/Warwickshire | Sculpture to jet engine inventor
  122. ^ Aircraft Engine
  123. ^ John Harrison
  124. ^ The Technology Trailblazer: Vinod Dham. University of Cincinnati.
  125. ^ Priya Ganapati at Techfest 99, IIT Bombay. Rediff.com.
  126. ^ Martin Levey (1973), Early Arabic Pharmacology, EJ Brill, Leiden.
    Dunlop, D.M. (1975), Arab Civilization, Librairie du Liban.
    (cf. Womens Arabian Perfume)
  127. ^ [7]
  128. ^ Barger, M. Susan; William B. White (2000). The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth-Century Technology and Modern Science. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6458-5.  p. 20, "Louis Jacques Monde Daguerre: The second father of photography is Daguerre..."
  129. ^ Barger, M. Susan; William B. White (2000). The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth-Century Technology and Modern Science. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6458-5.  p. 17, "The first father of photography was Nicéphore Niépce...."
  130. ^ Ellis, Roger (2001). Who's Who in Victorian Britain. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1640-6. , p. 116: cites book title: "A. H. Booth: William Henry Fox Talbot: father of photography, 1965".
  131. ^ Booth, Martin (1999). Opium: A History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-20667-4.  p. 30 "Robert Hall, the divine, was addicted [to opium], as was Thomas Wedgwood, the father of photography."
  132. ^ The "The First Electronic Church of America" Web site poses the question: "Russia's Popov: Did he 'invent' radio?" According to this account, Alexander Popov is the "radio man." Among other things, it notes that Popov reported sending and receiving a wireless signal across a 600 yards distance in 1895. Two years later, it says, he set up a shore station at Kronstadt and equipped the Russian navy cruiser Africa with his wireless communications apparatus to provide ship-to-shore communication., an article by Stan Horzepa wondering who is the father of the radio
  133. ^ De Forest, Lee (1950). Father of Radio: The Autobiography of Lee de Forest. Chicago: Wilcox & Follett.  (This book sold fewer than a thousand copies and is accordingly rare and expensive today).
  134. ^ Dennis, Everette E..; Edward Pease (1994). Radio—The Forgotten Medium. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56593-873-9.  , p. 198: "the egotistical Lee De Forest who discovered, however unwittingly, the audion tube that allowed him to proclaim himself 'the father of radio'"
  135. ^ Shurkin, Joseph (1996). Engines of the Mind: The Evolution of the Computer from the Mainframes to Microprocessors. W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-31471-5. , p. 132: "De Forest, who was not a modest man, called himself the 'Father of Radio,' an epithet whose accuracy is debatable."
  136. ^ Guglielmo Marconi - the "father of radio"
  137. ^ A. K. Sen (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science", Microwave Symposium Digest 2 (8-13), p. 557-560.
  138. ^ Ask the average person "Who invented radio?" and the average answer will be "Marconi." Ask the same question on the Internet, and the average answer will not likely be "Marconi." Instead, try one of the following on for size: Nikola Tesla, Alexander Popov, Oliver Lodge, Reginald Fessenden, Heinrich Hertz, Mahlon Loomis, Nathan Stubblefield, James Clerk Maxwell and even Thomas Edison, among others, an article by Stan Horzepa wondering who is the father of the radio
  139. ^ McLuhan, Marshall; Barrington Nevitt (1972). Take Today; the Executive as Dropout. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-187830-7.  "Fessenden, the Forgotten Father of 'Wireless' Telephony" (section heading)[8]
  140. ^ Zuill, William S. (2001): The Forgotten Father of Radio", American Heritage of Science and Technology, 17(1)40–47, as cited in Silverman, Steve (2003). Lindbergh's Artificial Heart: More Fascinating True Stories From Einstein's Refrigerator. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-3340-0.  p. 160
  141. ^ Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, Mar 11, 2006.
  142. ^ XML for Newcomers and Managers - Part I
  143. ^ Meucci was recognised as the first inventor of the telephone by the United States House of Representatives, in its resolution 269 dated 11 June 2002 ("if Meucci had been able to pay the $10 fee to maintain the caveat after 1874, no patent could have been issued to Bell").
  144. ^ Van Meggelen, Jim; Jared Smith, Leif Madsen (2005). Asterisk: The Future of Telephony. O'Reilly. ISBN 0-596-00962-3.  , p.190: "Although Alexander Graham Bell is most famously remembered as the father of the telephone, the reality is that during the latter half of the 1800s dozens of minds were at work on the project of carrying voice over telegraph lines."
  145. ^ http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/F/htmlF/farnsworthp/farnsworthp.htm
    . Society of Television Engineers. URL accessed January 20, 2008. "Isn't it about time that Philo Farnsworth gets some credit???
  146. ^ "Zworykin at IEEE Virtual Museum". Retrieved 2008-03-03. the oft-called Father of Television Vladimir Zworykin 
  147. ^ "Zworykin at Museum.TV". Retrieved 2008-03-03. inventor Vladimir Zworykin is often described as "the father of television".  
  148. ^ Three loud cheers for the father of the web, 28/01/2005, Telegraph.co.uk
  149. ^ Cooper, Alan, Why I am called "the Father of Visual Basic" "Mitchell Waite called me the "father of Visual Basic" in the foreword to what I believe was the first book ever published for VB, called the Visual Basic How-To (now in its second edition, published by The Waite Group Press). I thought the appellation was an appropriate one, and frequently use the quoted phrase as my one-line biography."
  150. ^ XML.com: "XML Father" leaves W3C for OASIS
  151. ^ Federal Highway Administration [9]. URL accessed July 21 2006.
  152. ^ Steil, Tim (2000). Route 66. MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-0747-4. , p. 18, "Avery, though dubbed the 'Father of Route 66' by some, was a political appointee who also left office the next year."
  153. ^ Eno Transportation Foundation [10]. URL accessed August 23 2006.
  154. ^ Watson, Rollin J. (2002). The School As a Safe Haven. Bergen Garvey/Greenwood. ISBN 0-89789-900-8.  p. 30}}: "The modern school bus began in a conference in 1939 called by Frank W. Cyr, the 'Father of the Yellow School' bus, who was a professor at Teachers College, Columbia University. At that meeting, Cyr urged the standardization of the school bus. Participants came up with the standard yellow color and some basic construction standards. Cyr had... found that children were riding in all sorts of vehicles—one district, he found, was painting their busses red, white, and blue to instill patriotism."
  155. ^ The Thomas Nast Society
  156. ^ USATODAY.com - Digging the baby carrot
  157. ^ Biography of Robert Napier
  158. ^ "Food joins academic menu in Berkeley school district credits, not calories—Chez Panisse founder cooks up new 'core curriculum'", San Francisco Chronicle, 29th August 2004 [11] "But this is Alice Waters, food visionary. The mother of California cuisine..."
  159. ^ Vyts Beliajus
  160. ^ Hofmann, Albert. LSD—My Problem Child (McGraw-Hill, 1980). ISBN 0-07-029325-2.
  161. ^ Lindsay, David: "Terror Bound", American Heritage 49(5), September, 1998 [12] "Thompson was an unlikely candidate for the title show people bestowed on him: the father of gravity..."
  162. ^ Helpern, Charna [13]
  163. ^ "The Father of Pokemon". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  164. ^ Democracy Now! | Local Public Access TV Under Attack From Trio of Congressional Bills
  165. ^ Chomsky, Noam; C. P. Otero (2004). Language and Politics. AK Press. ISBN 1-902593-82-0.  , p. 344–5: "...an explicit ideology was constructed justifying what was called... 'the engineering of consent' (Edward Bernays, founding father of the public relations industry in the United States)"
  166. ^ Heath (ed)., Robert L. (2004). Handbook Of Public Relations. Sage Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-4129-0954-6. , p. 391: "Ivy Lee, considered the father of public relations..."
  167. ^ Pearson-Biography-First Among Equals