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Edits for Impact of the Korean War on the economy of the United States

The impact of the Korean War on the economy of the United States refers to the ways in which the American economy was affected by the Korean experience from 1950 to 1953. While the cost of the Korean War was less significant than that of World War II, it still changed the structure of the American growth as a result of its financing.[1] The Korean War boosted GDP growth through government spending, which in turn constrained investment and consumption.[1] While taxes were raised significantly to finance the war, the Federal Reserve followed an anti-inflationary policy.[2] Though there was a large increase in prices at the outset of the war, price and wage controls ultimately stabilized prices by the end of the war.[2] Consumption and investment continued to grow after the war, but below the trend rate prior to the war.[3]

Financing[edit]

While the United States usually finances wars using a combination of direct contemporaneous taxes, debt, and money creation, with taxation comprising a relatively small fraction of expenses, the Korean War was financed mostly via taxation.[4] This focus on taxation was significant change in economic policy, as President Harry S. Truman focused on maintaining a balanced budget.[5] He favored pay-as-you-go taxation which was supported by Congress. In 1950, the House of Representatives, in an overwhelming majoring, voted 328 to 7 to raise personal income taxes, corporate income taxes, and excise taxes.[2]

Capital taxation reached their highest levels in the history of the US during the Korean War, rising to an average of about 62 percent.[4] Sin and luxury taxes, such as those on furs, jewelry, and coin-operated gambling machines were increased and well as new taxes on television and household freezers, which represented goods that used materials and manufacturing facilities that were potentially important to the war effort.[6] Taxes were again increased under the Revenue Act of 1951.[7] Although the Revenue Acts during the Korean War were unable to prevent a deficit in the federal budget, the deficits produced were manageable, averaging about 6.5 percent of revenues on a monthly basis during the war.[7] Through such measures, President Truman depended mostly on taxation and a decrease in non-military expenses, rather than from borrowing from the public or money creation policies.[1]

Monetary policy[edit]

Monetary policy during the Korean War centered around the issue of whether or not the Federal Reserve should continue its prewar policy of setting a floor under the prices of government bonds or whether it should allow prices to drop, in order to restrict money and credit growth to restrict inflation.[8] Truman and his Treasury Secretary, John W. Snyder strongly favored of the former strategy of pegging government bond prices, but the Federal Reserve saw the need to encourage "macroeconomic stability", meaning fighting inflation.[9] At the outbreak of the war, prices surged. By February 1951, the monthly increase in the consumer price index was almost 20 percent annually.[9] Ultimately, the Federal Reserve followed an anti-inflationary policy.[10]

Typically the first nine months of war are characterized by expansion and strong inflationary pressure due to abnormally large consumption in anticipation of possible future shortages.[11] The outbreak of the Korean War led to a sharp increase in consumer expenditure, as consumers hurried to buy automobile tires, sugar, nylons, etc. In response to all the consumer purchases and in anticipation of war orders, manufacturers also began buying more raw materials.[12] The spurt in sales lasted two months and then declined for several months as United Nations forces advanced northward in Korea. This lasted until there was a second buying wave in the winter of 1951, which followed the Chinese attacks along the Yalu River and United Nations forces retreating.[13]

Price freeze[edit]

On January 26, 1951, a price freeze was introduced.[14] From the onset of the war to the start of the price freeze, prices increased at a rate of 11.1 percent annually.[14] During the period from the price freeze to the end of price controls, prices rose at rate of 2.1 percent annually.[14] Overall, inflation increased by 5.3 percent.[3] This inflation growth was much lower than that of World War II, during which wholesale prices increased about 70 percent.[5] While money growth was very high and volatile during World War II, averaging 18 percent between 1940 and 1946, the average money growth rate during the Korean War was 4 percent.[5] In response to this growth in inflation, the government implemented price and wage controls.[3] Increases in taxes and new price and wage controls that constrained private sector consumption and investment affected overall material well-being.[3] In the years after the war, consumption and investment continued to be impacted by war as they did not return to pre-war levels.[3]

Military spending[edit]

While military spending in the US was high prior to the Korean War due to ongoing tensions with the Soviet Union, the Korean War further increased it.[15] The Korean War cost the US$30 billion in 1953, which is equivalent to US$341 billion in 2011.[1] During the last year of the war, annual war expenditure comprised about 14.1 percent of GDP.[1] Approximately 34,000 Americans were killed in battle and about another 2,800 died from disease or injury, with total US casualties (including dead, wounded, and missing in action) adding up to 139,860.[16] The [After World War II | "Korean War GI Bill"]] was implemented in 1952, covering veterans between June 27, 1950 and February 1, 1955.[17] This offered the same benefits as the World War II G.I. Bill, including mustering-out pay, financial support for education, home and business loan guarantees, unemployment compensation, and job placement.[17]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Economic Consequences of War, p. 10
  2. ^ a b c "Rockoff, p. 246
  3. ^ a b c d e "Economic Consequences of War, p. 11
  4. ^ a b Ohanian, p. 25
  5. ^ a b c Ohanian, p. 26
  6. ^ "Rockoff, p. 247
  7. ^ a b "Rockoff, p. 248
  8. ^ "Rockoff, p. 249
  9. ^ a b "Rockoff, p. 250
  10. ^ "Rockoff, p. 251
  11. ^ Hickman, p. 2
  12. ^ "Rockoff, p. 252
  13. ^ Hickman, p. 17
  14. ^ a b c "Rockoff, p. 253
  15. ^ "Rockoff", p. 254
  16. ^ "Rockoff, p. 254
  17. ^ a b "Rockoff, p. 256

References[edit]

Category:Korean War Category:Economic history of the United States


Edits for PepsiCo

This page is about the company. For the soft drink, see Pepsi.
PepsiCo Inc.
Type Public
Traded as NYSEPEP
S&P 500 Component
Industry Beverages
Founded New Bern, North Carolina, U.S. (1965)
Founder(s) Donald Kendall
Herman Lay
Headquarters Purchase, New York, U.S.
Area served Worldwide
Key people Indra Nooyi
(Chairman & CEO)[1]
Products See list of PepsiCo products
Revenue Increase US$ 66.504 billion (2011)[2]
Operating income Increase US$ 09.633 billion (2011)[2]
Net income Increase US$ 06.462 billion (2011)[2]
Total assets Increase US$ 72.882 billion (2011)[2]
Total equity Decrease US$ 20.899 billion (2011)[2]
Employees 278,000 (2012)[3]
Subsidiaries List of subsidiaries
Website PepsiCo.com

PepsiCo Inc. is an American multinational food and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York, United States, with interests in the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products. PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with the merger of the Pepsi-Cola Company and Frito-Lay, Inc. PepsiCo has since expanded from its namesake product Pepsi to a broader range of food and beverage brands, the largest of which include an acquisition of Tropicana in 1998 and a merger with Quaker Oats in 2001—which added the Gatorade brand to its portfolio.

As of January 2012, 22 of PepsiCo's product lines generated retail sales of more than $1 billion each,[4] and the company's products were distributed across more than 200 countries, resulting in annual net revenues of $43.3 billion. Based on net revenue, PepsiCo is the second largest food & beverage business in the world. Within North America PepsiCo is ranked (by net revenue) as the largest food and beverage business.

Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi has been the chief executive of PepsiCo since 2006, and the company employed approximately 297,000 people worldwide as of 2011. The company's beverage distribution and bottling is conducted by PepsiCo as well as by licensed bottlers in certain regions. PepsiCo is a SIC 2080 (beverage) company.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The recipe for Pepsi (the soft drink), was first developed in the 1880s by a pharmacist and industrialist from New Bern, North Carolina, named Caleb Bradham – who called it "Pepsi-Cola" in 1898. As the cola developed in popularity, he created the Pepsi-Cola Company in 1902 and registered a patent for his recipe in 1903.[5] The Pepsi-Cola Company was first incorporated in the state of Delaware in 1919.[6] The company went bankrupt in 1931 and on June 8 of that year, the trademark and syrup recipe was bought by Charles Guth who owned a syrup manufacturing business in Baltimore, Maryland. Guth was also the president of Loft, Incorporated, a leading candy manufacturer, and he used the company's labs and chemists to reformulate the syrup. He further contracted to stock the soda in Loft's large chain of candy shops and restaurants, which were known for their soda fountains, used Loft's resources to promote Pepsi, and moved the soda company to a location close to Loft's own facilities in New York City. In 1935, the shareholders of Loft sued Guth for his 91% stake of Pepsi-Cola Company in the landmark Guth v. Loft Inc.. Loft won the suit, and on May 29, 1941 formally absorbed Pepsi into Loft, which was rebranded as Pepsi Cola Company that same year. In the early 1960s, the company product line expanded with the creation of Diet Pepsi and purchase of Mountain Dew.[7]


In 1965, the Pepsi-Cola Company merged with Frito-Lay, Inc. to become PepsiCo, Inc., the company it is known as at present. At the time of its foundation, PepsiCo was incorporated in the state of Delaware and headquartered in Manhattan, New York. The company's headquarters were relocated to its still-current location of Purchase, New York in 1970,[8] and in 1986 PepsiCo was reincorporated in the state of North Carolina.[6]

PepsiCo was the first company to stamp expiration dates, starting in March 1994.[citation needed]

Acquisitions and divestments[edit]

Between the late-1970s and the mid-1990s, PepsiCo expanded via acquisition of businesses outside of its core focus of packaged food and beverage brands. However it exited these non-core business lines largely in 1997, selling some, and spinning off others into a new company named Tricon Global Restaurants, which later became known as Yum! Brands, Inc..[9] According to investment analysts reporting on the divestments in 1997, PepsiCo previously owned several brands that it later sold so it could focus on its primary snack food and beverage lines. [10] Brands formerly owned by PepsiCo include: Pizza Hut,[11] Taco Bell,[11] KFC,[11] Hot 'n Now,[12] East Side Mario's,[13] D'Angelo Sandwich Shops,[14] Chevys Fresh Mex, California Pizza Kitchen,[15] Stolichnaya[16] (via licensed agreement), Wilson Sporting Goods[17] and North American Van Lines.[18]

The divestments concluding in 1997 were followed by multiple large-scale acquisitions, as PepsiCo began to extend its operations beyond soft drinks and snack foods into other lines of foods and beverages. PepsiCo purchased the orange juice company Tropicana Products in 1998,[19] and merged with Quaker Oats Company in 2001,[20] adding with it the Gatorade sports drink line and other Quaker Oats brands such as Chewy Granola Bars and Aunt Jemima.[21]

In August 2009, PepsiCo made a $7 billion offer to acquire the two largest bottlers of its products in North America: Pepsi Bottling Group and PepsiAmericas. In 2010 this acquisition was completed, resulting in the formation of a new wholly owned subsidiary of PepsiCo, Pepsi Beverages Company.[22] In February 2011, the company made its largest international acquisition by purchasing a two-thirds (majority) stake in Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods, a Russian food company that produces milk, yogurt, fruit juices, and dairy products.[23] When it acquired the remaining 23% stake of Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods in October 2011, PepsiCo became the largest food and beverage company in Russia.[24][25]

Restructuring[edit]

In February 2012, CEO of PepsiCo Inc. planed to cut 8,700 jobs (about 3 percent of the PepsiCo's global workforce) and boost marketing spending for its brand by as much as $600 million. This plan may save about $1.5 billion by 2014.[26]

Competition[edit]

The Coca-Cola Company has historically been considered PepsiCo's primary competitor in the beverage market,[27]. In December 2005, PepsiCo surpassed The Coca-Cola Company in market value for the first time in 112 years since both companies began to compete. In 2009, the Coca-Cola Company held a higher market share in carbonated soft drink sales within the U.S.[28] In the same year, PepsiCo maintained a higher share of the U.S. refreshment beverage market, reflecting the differences in product lines between the two companies.[28] As a result of mergers, acquisitions and partnerships pursued by PepsiCo in the 1990s and 2000s, its business has shifted to include a broader product base, including foods, snacks and beverages. The majority of PepsiCo's revenues no longer come from the production and sale of carbonated soft drinks.[29] Beverages accounted for less than 50 percent of its total revenue in 2009. In the same year, slightly more than 60 percent of PepsiCo's beverage sales came from its primary non-carbonated brands, namely Gatorade and Tropicana.[28]

PepsiCo's Frito-Lay and Quaker Oats brands hold a significant share of the U.S. snack food market, accounting for approximately 39 percent of U.S. snack food sales in 2009.[28] One of PepsiCo's primary competitors in the snack food market is Kraft Foods, which in 2009 held 11 percent of the U.S. snack market share.[28]

Products and brands[edit]

Largest PepsiCo Brands (based on 2009 retail sales)
Brand
Pepsi
  
Mountain Dew
  
Lay's potato chips
  
Gatorade
  
Diet Pepsi
  
Tropicana beverages
  
7 Up (outside U.S.)
  
Doritos tortilla chips
  
Lipton teas (PepsiCo/Unilever partnership)
  
Quaker foods and snacks
  
Cheetos
  
Mirinda
  
Ruffles potato chips
  
Aquafina bottled water
  
Pepsi Max
  
Tostitos tortilla chips
  
Sierra Mist
  
Fritos corn chips
  
Walkers potato crisps
  
Source: 2009 Annual Report[30]              $0               $5b              $10b              $15b                $20b

PepsiCo's product mix as of 2012, based on worldwide net revenue, consists of 63 percent foods, and 37 percent beverages.[28] On a worldwide basis, the company's current products lines include several hundred brands, that in 2009 were estimated to have generated approximately $108 billion in cumulative annual retail sales.[30]

The primary identifier of a food and beverage industry main brand is annual sales over $1 billion. As of 2009, 21 PepsiCo brands met this mark: Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Lay's, Gatorade, Tropicana, 7 Up, Doritos, Lipton Teas, Quaker Foods, Cheetos, Mirinda, Ruffles, Aquafina, Pepsi Max, Tostitos, Sierra Mist, Fritos, and Walkers.[30][31]

Areas of business[edit]

The structure of PepsiCo's global operations has shifted multiple times in its history as a result of international expansion, and as of 2010 it is separated into four main divisions:[32] PepsiCo Americas Foods, PepsiCo Americas Beverages, PepsiCo Europe, and PepsiCo Asia, Middle East and Africa. As of 2009, 71 percent of the company's net revenues came from North and South America, 16 percent from Europe and 13 percent from Asia, the Middle East and Africa.[33] Approximately 285,000 people are employed by PepsiCo worldwide, as of 2010.[34]

PepsiCo Americas Foods[edit]

PepsiCo Americas Foods consists of the company's food and snack operations in North and South America. This operating division is further segmented into Frito-Lay North America, Quaker Foods & Snacks, Sabritas, Gamesa, and Latin America Foods. Food and snack sales in North and South America combined contributed 48 percent of PepsiCo's net revenue in 2009.[30][35][36]

Frito-Lay North America, the result of a merger in 1961 between the Frito Company and the H.W. Lay Company, produces the top selling line of snack foods in the U.S. Its main brands in the U.S., Canada and Mexico include Lay's and Ruffles potato chips, Doritos tortilla chips, Tostitos tortilla chips and dips, Cheetos cheese flavored snacks, Fritos corn chips, Rold Gold pretzels, Sun Chips and Cracker Jack popcorn. Products made by this division are sold to independent distributors and retailers, and are transported from Frito-Lay's manufacturing plants to distribution centers, principally in vehicles owned and operated by the company.[37]

Quaker Foods North America, created following PepsiCo's acquisition of the Quaker Oats Company in 2001, manufactures, markets and sells Quaker Oatmeal, Rice-A-Roni, Cap'n Crunch and Life cereals, as well as Near East side dishes within North America. This division owns and produces the Aunt Jemima brand, which was the top selling line of syrups and pancake mixes within this region in 2009.[28][38]

Sabritas and Gamesa are two of PepsiCo's food and snack business lines headquartered in Mexico, and were acquired by PepsiCo in 1966 and 1990, respectively. Sabritas markets Frito-Lay products in Mexico, including local brands such as Poffets, Rancheritos, Crujitos and Sabritones. Gamesa is the largest manufacturer of cookies in Mexico, distributing brands such as Emperador, Arcoiris and Marías Gamesa.[39]

PepsiCo's Latin America Foods (Spanish: Snacks América Latina) sells primarily Quaker- and Frito-Lay-branded snack foods within Central and South America, including Argentina, Brazil, and Peru.[40] Snacks América Latina purchased the Peruvian company Karinto S.A.C., including its production company Bocaditas Nacionales (with three production facilities in Peru) from the Hayashida family of Lima in 2009, adding the Karito brand to its product line, which included Cuates, Fripapas, and Papi Frits.[41]

PepsiCo Americas Beverages[edit]

This division contributed 23 percent of PepsiCo's net revenue as of 2009,[30] and involves the manufacturing (and in some cases licensing), marketing and sales of both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages in North, Central and South America.[42] The main brands distributed under this division include Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Gatorade, 7 Up (outside the U.S.), Tropicana juice drinks, Sierra Mist, SoBe Lifewater, AMP Energy, Naked Juice and Izze. Aquafina, the company's bottled water brand, is also marketed and licensed through PepsiCo Americas Beverages.[1]

Frawg is an apple-flavored caffeinated soft drink distributed in the United States by Pepsi. Introduced in 2005, and available for at least one year exclusively at 7-Eleven stores, it is sold as a Slurpee or fountain drink. 7-Eleven has also introduced various Frawg collectibles and Frawg green apple flavored liquorice straws by Twizzlers. [43]

PepsiCo has formed partnerships with several beverage brands it does not own in order to distribute or market them with its own brands.[1] As of 2010, its partnerships include: Starbucks (Frappuccino, DoubleShot and Iced Coffee), Unilever's Lipton brand (Lipton Brisk and Lipton Iced Tea), and Dole (licensed juices and drinks).

The company started a new market strategy to sell their Pepsi-Cola product in Mexico, stating that about one third of the population has difficulty pronouncing "Pepsi". They started manufacturing and selling their product under the label "Pécsi", as well as featuring Mexican soccer celebrity Cuauhtémoc Blanco in its advertisement campaign. Back in 2009, PepsiCo used the same advertising strategy successfully in Argentina.[44]

PepsiCo Europe[edit]

PepsiCo began to expand its distribution in Europe in the 1980s, and in 2009 it made up 16 percent of the company's global net revenue.[30] Unlike PepsiCo's American business segments, both foods and beverages are manufactured and marketed under one umbrella division in this region, known as PepsiCo Europe. The primary brands sold by PepsiCo in Europe include Pepsi-Cola beverages, Frito-Lay snacks, Tropicana juices and Quaker food products, as well as regional brands unique to Europe such as Walkers crisps, Copella, Paw Ridge, and Snack-a-Jack, Duyvis. PepsiCo also distributes the soft drink 7UP in Europe via license agreement.[1]

PepsiCo's European presence expanded in Russia during 2009 as the company announced a $1B investment,[45] alongside an acquisition of Russian juice and dairy product brand Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods in December 2010 and Lebedyansky juice producer in March 2008.[46]

PepsiCo Asia, Middle East and Africa[edit]

The most recently created operating division of PepsiCo covers Asia, the Middle East and Africa.[29] In addition to the production and sale of several worldwide Pepsi-Cola, Quaker Foods and Frito-Lay beverage and food product lines (including Pepsi and Doritos), this segment of PepsiCo's business markets regional brands such as Mirinda, Kurkure and Red Rock Deli.[1] While PepsiCo owns its own manufacturing and distribution facilities in certain parts of these regions, more of this production is conducted via alternate means such as licensing (which it does with Aquafina), contract manufacturing, joint ventures, and affiliate operations. In 2009, PepsiCo's businesses in these regions contributed to 13 percent to the company's net revenue worldwide.[30] In August 2012, PepsiCo signed an agreement with a local Myanmar distributor to sell its soft drinks after a 15 year break to re-enter the country.[47]

Corporate governance[edit]

Headquartered in Purchase, New York, with research and development headquarters in Valhalla, New York, PepsiCo's Chairman and CEO is Indra Nooyi.[48] As of 2010, the board of directors is composed of eleven outside directors, which includes Ray Lee Hunt, Shona Brown, Victor Dzau, Arthur C. Martinez, Sharon Percy Rockefeller, Daniel Vasella, Dina Dublon, Ian M. Cook, Alberto Ibargüen, James J. Schiro, and Lloyd G. Trotter. Former top executives at PepsiCo include Steven Reinemund, Roger Enrico, D. Wayne Calloway, John Sculley, Michael H. Jordan, Donald M. Kendall, Christopher A. Sinclair, and Alfred Steele.

On October 1, 2006, former Chief Financial Officer and President Indra Nooyi replaced Steve Reinemund as Chief Executive Officer. Nooyi remained as the corporation's president, and became Chairman of the Board in May 2007, later (in 2010) being named No.1 on Fortune's list of the "50 Most Powerful Women"[49] and No.6 on Forbes' list of the "World's 100 Most Powerful Women".[50] PepsiCo received a 100 percent rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the LGBT-advocate group Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the report.[51]

Headquarters[edit]

PepsiCo headquarters

The PepsiCo headquarters are located in Purchase, New York. It was one of the last architectural works by Edward Durell Stone. It consists of seven, three-story buildings. Each building is connected to its neighbor through a corner. The property includes the Donald M. Kendall Sculpture Gardens, with 45 contemporary sculptures open to the public. Works include those of Alexander Calder, Henry Moore and Auguste Rodin. Westchester Magazine stated "The buildings’ square blocks rise from the ground into low, inverted ziggurats, with each of the three floors having strips of dark windows; patterned pre-cast concrete panels add texture to the exterior surfaces." In 2010 the magazine ranked the building as one of the ten most beautiful buildings in Westchester County.[52]

At one time PepsiCo had its headquarters in 500 Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[53] In 1956 PepsiCo paid $2 million for the original building.[54] PepsiCo built the new 500 Park Avenue in 1960.[55] In 1966, mayor of New York City John Lindsay started a private campaign to convince PepsiCo to remain in New York City.[56] Six months later, the company announced that it was moving to 112 acres (45 ha) of the Blind Brook Polo Club in Westchester County.[57] After PepsiCo left the Manhattan building, it became known as the Olivetti Building.[55]

Charitable activities[edit]

Headquarters of Pepsi-Cola Venezuela (ES)

PepsiCo has maintained a philanthropic program since 1962 called the PepsiCo Foundation,[58] which funds "nutrition and activity, safe water and water usage efficiencies,[59] and education," according to the foundation's website.[60] In 2009, $27.9 million was donated through this foundation, including grants to the United Way[61] and YMCA,[62].

In 2009, PepsiCo launched an initiative called the Pepsi Refresh Project,[63] in which individuals submit and vote on charitable and nonprofit collaborations.[64] The main recipients of these grants are community organizations with a local focus and nonprofit organizations, such as a high school in Michigan that received $250,000 towards construction of a fitness room in 2010.[65] Following the Gulf of Mexico oil spill in the spring of 2010, PepsiCo donated $1.3 million to grant winners determined by popular vote.[66] As of October 2010, the company had provided a cumulative total of $11.7 million in funding, spread across 287 ideas of participant projects from 203 cities in North America.[67] In late 2010, the Refresh Project was reported to be expanding to include countries outside of North America in 2011.[68]


Environmental record and product nutrition[edit]

According to its 2009 annual report, PepsiCo states that it is "committed to delivering sustainable growth by investing in a healthier future for people and our planet,"[30][69] which it has defined in its mission statement since 2006 as "Performance with Purpose."[70][71] According to news and magazine coverage on the subject in 2010, the objective of this initiative was to increase the number and variety of healthier food and beverage products made available to its customers,[72] employ a reduction in the company's environmental impact,[73] and to facilitate diversity and healthy lifestyles within its employee base.[70] Its activities in regards to the pursuit of its goals, namely environmental impacts of production and the nutritional composition of its products, have been the subject of recognition from health and environmental advocates and organizations, and at times have raised concerns among its critics. As the result of a more recent focus on such efforts, "critics consider [PepsiCo] to be perhaps the most proactive and progressive of the food companies", according to former New York Times food industry writer Melanie Warner in 2010.[74]

Environmental record[edit]

Genetically modified food ingredients[edit]

PepsiCo has contributed $1,716,300 to oppose the passage of California Proposition 37, which would mandate the disclosure of genetically modified crops used in the production of California food products.[75][76][77] PepsiCo believes "that genetically-modified products can play a role in generating positive economic, social and environmental contributions to societies around the world; particularly in times of food shortages."[78]

Water usage (India, U.S., U.K.)[edit]

PepsiCo's usage of water was the subject of controversy in India in the early and mid-2000s, in part because of the company's alleged impact on water usage in a country where water shortages are a perennial issue. In this setting, PepsiCo was perceived by India-based environmental organizations as a company that diverted water to manufacture a discretionary product, making it a target for critics.[79]

As a result, in 2003 PepsiCo launched a country-wide program to achieve a "positive water balance" in India by 2009.[80] In 2007, PepsiCo's CEO Indra Nooyi made a trip to India to address water usage practices in the country, prompting prior critic Sunita Narain, director of the Centre for Science & Environment (CSE), to note that PepsiCo "seem(s) to be doing something serious about water now."[79] According to the company's 2009 corporate citizenship report,[69] as well as media reports at the time,[74] the company (in 2009) replenished nearly six billion liters of water within India, exceeding the aggregate water intake of approximately five billion liters by PepsiCo's India manufacturing facilities.[69]

Water usage concerns have arisen at times in other countries in which PepsiCo operates. In the U.S., water shortages in certain regions resulted in increased scrutiny of the company's production facilities, which were cited in media reports as being among the largest water users in cities facing drought, such as Atlanta, Georgia.[81][82] In response, the company formed partnerships with non-profit organizations, such as the Earth Institute and Water.org, and in 2009 began cleaning new Gatorade bottles with purified air instead of rinsing with water, among other water conservation practices.[83] In the United Kingdom, PepsiCo snack brand Walkers' reduced water usage at its largest potato chip facility by 45 percent between the years 2001 and 2008. In doing so, the factory used machinery that captured water naturally contained in potatoes, and used it to offset the need for outside water.[84][85]

As a result of water reduction practices and efficiency improvements, in 2009 PepsiCo saved more than 12 billion liters of water worldwide,[86] compared to its 2006 water usage. Environmental advocacy organizations, including the Natural Resources Defense Council and individual critics such as Rocky Anderson (mayor of Salt Lake City, Utah), voiced concerns in 2009, noting that the company could conserve additional water by refraining from the production of discretionary products such as Aquafina.[87] PepsiCo maintained its positioning of bottled water as "healthy and convenient", while also beginning to partially offset environmental impacts of such products through alternate means, including packaging weight reduction.[87]

Pesticide regulation (India)[edit]

PepsiCo's India operations were met with substantial resistance in 2003 and again in 2006, when an environmental organization in New Delhi made the claim that, based on its research, levels of pesticides in PepsiCo (along with those from rival Coca-Cola Company), exceeded a set of proposed safety standards on soft drink ingredients that had been developed by the Bureau of Indian Standards.[88] PepsiCo denied the allegations, and India's health ministry has also dismissed the allegations, as well as both questioning the accuracy of the data compiled by the CSE since it was tested by its own internal laboratories without being verified by outside peer review.[89][90] The ensuing dispute prompted a short-lived ban on the sale of PepsiCo and Coca-Cola Company soft drinks within India's southwestern state of Kerala in 2006;[91] however this ban was reversed by the Kerala High Court one month later.[92]

In November 2010, the Supreme Court of India invalidated a criminal complaint filed against PepsiCo India by the Kerala government, on the basis that the beverages did meet local standards at the time of the allegations. The court ruling stated that the "percentage of pesticides" found in the tested beverages was "within the tolerance limits subsequently prescribed in respect of such product," since at the time of testing "there was no provision governing pesticide adulteration in cold drinks."[93][94] In 2010, PepsiCo was among the 12 multinational companies that displayed "the most impressive corporate social responsibility credentials in emerging markets", as determined by the U.S. Department of State.[95] PepsiCo's India unit received recognition on the basis of its water conservation and safety practices and corresponding results.[96]

Packaging and recycling[edit]

Environmental advocates have raised concern over the environmental impacts surrounding the disposal of PepsiCo's bottled beverage products as bottle recycling rates for the company's products in 2009 averaged 34 percent within the U.S.[97] The company has employed efforts to minimize these environmental impacts via packaging developments combined with recycling initiatives. In 2010, PepsiCo announced a goal to create partnerships that prompt an increase in the beverage container recycling rate in the U.S. to 50 percent by 2018.[98]

One strategy enacted to reach this goal has been the placement of interactive recycling kiosks called "Dream Machines" in supermarkets, convenience stores and gas stations, with the intent of increasing access to recycling receptacles.[99][100] The use of resin to manufacture its plastic bottles has resulted in reduced packaging weight, which in turn reduces the volume of fossil fuels required to transport certain PepsiCo products. The weight of Aquafina bottles was reduced nearly 40 percent, to 15 grams, with a packaging redesign in 2009. In that year, PepsiCo's brand, Naked Juice, began production and distribution of the first 100 percent post-consumer recycled plastic bottle.[101]

On March 15, 2011, PepsiCo unveiled the world's first plant-based PET bottle. The bottle is made from plant-based materials, such as switch grass, corn husks, and pine bark, and is 100% recyclable. PepsiCo plans to use more by-products (of their manufacturing processes) such as orange peels and oat hulls in the bottles. PepsiCo has identified methods to create a molecular structure that is the same as normal petroleum-based PET, which will make the new bottle technology, dubbed "Green Bottle", feel the same as normal PET. This production was piloted in 2012, and upon succesful completion, was intended to progress to a full-scaled commercialization of the product.[102]

Energy usage and carbon footprint[edit]

PepsiCo, along with other manufacturers in its industry, has drawn criticism from environmental advocacy groups for the production and distribution of plastic product packaging, which consumed an additional 1.5 billion US gallons (5,700,000 m3) of petrochemicals in 2008. These critics have also expressed apprehension over the production volume of plastic packaging, which results in the emission of carbon dioxide.[103] Beginning largely in 2006, PepsiCo began development of more efficient means of producing and distributing its products using less energy[104] while also placing a focus on emissions reduction.[103] In a comparison of 2009 energy usage with recorded usage in 2006, the company's per-unit use of energy was reduced by 16 percent in its beverage plants and 7 percent in snack plants.[69]

In 2009, Tropicana was the first brand in the U.S. to determine the carbon footprint of its orange juice product, as certified by the Carbon Trust, an outside auditor of carbon emissions.[105] Additionally, in 2009, PepsiCo began the test deployment of "green vending machines," which reduce energy usage by 15 percent in comparison to average models in use. It developed these machines in coordination with Greenpeace, which described the initiative as "transforming the industry in a way that is going to be more climate-friendly to a great degree."[105]

Product nutrition[edit]

Product diversity[edit]

From its founding in 1965 until the early 1990s, the majority of PepsiCo's product line consisted of carbonated soft drinks and convenience snacks. PepsiCo broadened its product line substantially throughout the 1990s and 2000s with the acquisition and development of what its CEO deemed as "good-for-you" products, including Quaker Oats, Naked Juice and Tropicana orange juice.[106] Sales of such healthier-oriented PepsiCo brands totaled $10 billion in 2009, representing 18 percent of the company's total revenue in that year. This movement into a broader, healthier product range has been moderately well received by nutrition advocates, though commentators in this field have also suggested that PepsiCo market its healthier items as aggressively as less-healthy core products.[107]

In response to shifting consumer preferences, and in part due to increasing governmental regulation, in 2010 PepsiCo indicated its intention to grow this segment of its business, forecasting that sales of fruit, vegetable, whole grain and fiber-based products will amount to $30 billion by 2020.[108][109] To meet this intended target, the company has said that it plans to acquire additional health-oriented brands while also making changes to the composition of existing products.[109]

Ingredient changes[edit]

Public health advocates have suggested that there may be a link between the ingredient makeup of PepsiCo's core snack and carbonated soft drink products and rising rates of health conditions such as obesity and diabetes. The company aligns with personal responsibility advocates, who assert that food and beverages with higher proportions of sugar or salt content are fit for consumption in moderation by individuals who exercise on a regular basis.[110]

Changes to the composition of its products with nutrition in mind have involved reducing fat content, moving away from trans-fats, and producing products in calorie-specific serving sizes to discourage overconsumption.[72] One of the earlier ingredient changes involved sugar and caloric reduction, with the introduction of Diet Pepsi in 1964 and Pepsi Max in 1993, both of which are variants of their full-calorie counterpart, Pepsi. More recent changes have consisted of saturated fat reduction, which Frito-Lay reduced by 50% between 2006 and 2009 in Lay's and Ruffles potato chips.[110] In 2009, PepsiCo's Tropicana brand introduced a new variation of orange juice (Trop50) sweetened in part by the plant Stevia, which reduced calories by half.[110] Since 2007, the company also created lower-calorie variants of Gatorade, called "G2".[111]

Distribution to children[edit]

As public perception placed additional scrutiny on the marketing and distribution of carbonated soft drinks to children, PepsiCo announced in 2010 that by 2012, it will remove beverages with higher sugar content from primary and secondary schools worldwide.[112] It also, under voluntary guidelines adopted in 2006, replaced "full-calorie" beverages in U.S. schools with "lower-calorie" alternatives, leading to a 95 percent reduction in the 2009 sales of full-calorie variants in these schools in comparison to the sales recorded in 2004.[113] In accordance with guidelines adopted by the International Council of Beverages Associations in 2008, PepsiCo eliminated the advertising and marketing of products that do not meet its nutrition standards, to children under the age of 12.[114][115]

In 2010, First Lady Michelle Obama initiated a campaign to end childhood obesity (titled Let's Move!), in which she sought to encourage healthier food options in public schools, improve food nutrition labeling and increase physical activity for children. In response to this initiative, PepsiCo, along with food manufacturers Campbell Soup, Coca-Cola and General Mills in an alliance referred to as the "Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation", announced in 2010 that the companies will collectively cut one trillion calories from their products sold by the end of 2012 and 1.5 trillion calories by the end of 2015.[116]

Criticism[edit]

PepsiCo has drawn criticism for collaborating with biotech companies that use technology originally derived from human fetuses in order to develop new food products.[117] In June 2013, PepsiCo came under fire for its treatment of workers in its West Bengal, India warehouses. Additionally, the International Union of Food workers launched an online campaign to protest the sacking of workers who had joined a union.[118]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Category:Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange Category:1965 establishments in North Carolina Category:Beverage companies of the United States Category:Companies based in Westchester County, New York Category:Companies established in 1965 Category:Companies formerly listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange Category:Multinational companies headquartered in the United States Category:Multinational food companies Category:Publicly traded companies of the United States

Edits for Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time

Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time
Developer(s) Konami
Publisher(s) Konami
Composer(s) Mutsuhiko Izumi
Series Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
Platform(s) Arcade, Super Famicom/SNES
Release date(s) Arcade
  • WW September 18, 1991
Super Famicom/SNES
  • JP July 24, 1992
  • NA August 1992
  • EU November 19, 1992
Genre(s) Side-scrolling beat 'em up
Mode(s) Single-player
Up to four player co-op (two player in SFC/SNES version)
Distribution Cartridge
CPU 68000 (@ 16 MHz)
Sound Two channels amplified stereo
CPU: Z80 (@ 8 MHz)
Chips: YM2151 (@ 3.58 MHz),
K053260 (@ 3.58 MHz)
Display Raster graphics
Horizontal orientation
Resolution: 288x224 pixels
Refresh rate: 60.00 Hz
2048 colours

Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time, released as Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles: Turtles in Time in Europe, is an arcade video game produced by Konami. A sequel to the original Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (TMNT) arcade game, it is a scrolling beat 'em up based mainly on the 1987 TMNT animated series. Originally an arcade game, Turtles in Time was ported to the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in 1992, whereupon it was retitled to serve as a sequel to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III: The Manhattan Project. That same year, a game that borrowed many elements, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: The Hyperstone Heist was released for the Mega Drive/Sega Genesis.

Years later, the arcade version of Turtles in Time was revisited on newer consoles. A slightly altered version of the arcade game was included as an un-lockable bonus in the 2005 game, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3: Mutant Nightmare.[1] In August 2009, Ubisoft released a 3D remake of the game, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time Re-Shelled, for Xbox Live Arcade.[2] The remake was released onto PlayStation Network on September 10, 2009.[3]

Plot[edit]

Players guide the turtles through a series of levels, starting out in the streets of New York City before being transported to levels representing various eras of history. In each level, players face enemies from both the 1987 cartoon and the feature film ''Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze'', including foot soldiers, stone warriors and Tokka and Rahzar as end-of-level bosses.[4]

The introductory cut scene of the game details the game's plot. It begins with the Turtles watching a TV newscast on a Sunday evening, with April O'Neil reporting from Liberty Island. Shredder hijacks the airwaves to laugh at the Turtles, soon followed by Krang flying in and stealing the Statue of Liberty using a giant exosuit (seen occasionally in the animated series[5][6][7]).

The Turtles jump into action in downtown New York and pursue the Foot to the streets and city sewers (the Turtles eventually make their way to the Technodrome in the SNES version[4]). Shredder then sends the Turtles through a time warp, where they must fight Shredder's army in both the past and the future in order to get home.[8]

Gameplay[edit]

Up to four players (two players in the Super Famicom/SNES version) can take control of Leonardo, Donatello, Michaelangelo, and Raphael.[9] Each playable character has his own strengths and weaknesses.[9][10][11] New features in this game include the ability to execute a power attack by hitting an enemy several times in a row and the ability to slam Foot Soldiers into surrounding enemies. [9]

Turtles in Time features the same control scheme of the previous arcade release—a joystick for movement, an attack button and a jump button. Certain joystick/button combinations can make a Turtle run, perform a slide or dash attack, jump higher, perform a stationary or directed air attack, or perform a special attack.[9]

Development[edit]

The original music of the game's soundtrack was composed by Mutsuhiko Izumi a TMNT veteran who composed the music for the previous arcade game in the series. The soundtrack was arranged by Kazuhiko Uehara and Harumi Ueko,[12] in the Super Famicom/ SNES versions. Both Uehara and Ueko went on to produce several Konami games, including the TMNT game Tournament Fighters.[13][14] Additionally, in the attract mode of the arcade game, the song "Pizza Power", from the TMNT live concert Coming Out of Their Shells Tour is featured.[15] The game's music was released as part of the compilation album Konami All-Stars 1993 ~ Music Station of Dreams, published by King Records in 1992.[16]

The 2005 version of the game was updated to match the new TMNT series by including new music and voices in the Mutant Nightmare feature.[17] The game Turtles In Time: Re-Shelled was updated as well.[18]

Differences and similarities between versions[edit]

While the Japanese Super Famicom version retained the original arcade title, the SNES version was retitled Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles IV: Turtles in Time in North America and Australia, and Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles IV: Turtles in Time in Europe in order to tie the first three Ninja Turtles games for the NES, although the third NES game was never released in Europe.

The game is mostly the same as the arcade, but it lacks a score counter, features an entirely new soundtrack (likely due to rights issues with the original soundtrack), features re-recorded voices, and has a slightly choppy frame rate compared to the arcade. Additionally, this version requires the controller to be inserted into a particular slot to play as each character. This means that if one plays the game on a PS2 without a multitap, it is not possible to play as Donatello or Raphael, as the default PS2 only features two controller slots. On the other hand, the original arcade version could be unlocked after completing the first batch of missions in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3: Mutant Nightmare.

Like the Famicom/NES version of the first arcade game, the Super Famicom/SNES version of Turtles in Time is not a direct port of the arcade original, as it did present some notable differences in presentation and gameplay.[4] While the SNES version is missing some animations and graphics effects of the arcade version, it made extensive use of the SNES's Mode 7 forward scrolling effect, in the "Neon Night-Riders" level. The forward scrolling option gave unique skin tones to each turtle as well as rendering the throw move involving foot soldiers. This move involved foot soldiers being thrown directly at the screen and then hitting it. The first fight with Shredder in the Technodrome level was altered to show off the Mode 7 effect by having the player aim to hit a foreground Shredder with the throw move. The SNES version is also missing certain voice samples for both the turtles and boss characters, however, like the arcade version, each turtle is given unique attributes in areas such as speed and strength. Additionally, in the SNES version, the song, "Pizza Power" was replaced with an instrumental version of the cartoon theme song.[4]

Another difference includes how the original arcade game was set in 1991, yet the SNES version opens in 1992. In regards to gameplay levels, "Sewer Surfin'" and "Neon Night-Riders" were changed to bonus levels and a new Technodrome stage was added. Furthermore, five new bosses were added: Slash (who replaced Cement Man), the Rat King, Battletank Shredder, and the duo of Bebop and Rocksteady (who replaced Tokka and Rahzar, with those two moved to the new Technodrome level). The game also replaced the final boss with Super Shredder from Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze (who previously appeared in the NES game Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III: The Manhattan Project). The SNES version also adds two regular enemies: Roadkill Rodneys (which replaced the boxing robots) and Mousers. The game features a time-trial mode and a two-player versus fight mode.[4]

Reception[edit]

TMNT IV: Turtles in Time (SNES game)
Publication Score
Mean Machines
80%[19]
Nintendo Power
4 / 5[20]
Nintendojo
9.4 / 10[21]
Allgame
3.5/5 stars[8]

Following its release, Turtles in Time became Konami's best selling arcade title.[22] Although critics found that the second game was largely similar to the previous arcade game, they felt that it was a net improvement over its predecessor on all points, including graphics, music and gameplay.[10] Overall, the game was hailed for staying true to its source material.[15]

The SNES version was praised for its additional stages and gameplay modes. Like the arcade version, the SNES game has been lauded for its visuals, which replicate the cartoon's art style.[8] The game's music and sound effects have also been praised.[23]

However, the game has been criticized for its repetitive gameplay and short length.[23] Despite these criticisms, Nintendojo called Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles IV: Turtles in Time the best Ninja Turtles game of all time.[21]

Remake[edit]

The 2009 remake, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time Re-Shelled, features new graphics and sounds. Re-Shelled is based on the original arcade machine rather than the SNES version, meaning that the extra stages and enemy characters from the earlier home version are excluded. The graphics were completely remade in 3D, with players now moving in and out of a true 3D camera.[24] The opening and closing cinematics were remade with a stylized 2D look. Additionally, the vocal quips of the arcade version return, re-recorded by the cast of the 2003 cartoon. The music has also been re-done for every stage.[25] In regards to gameplay, players may now attack in eight directions, however everything else remains the same. The game can also be played online with up to four players. This version features a Survival mode, Quickplay mode, multiple difficulties, and achievements/trophy support.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ GameSpot review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3: Mutant Nightmare. URL retrieved 16th September 2006.
  2. ^ Bailey, Kat (2009-06-11). "Turtles In Time Remake To Be A Timed Exclusive". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  3. ^ "PlayStation Store Update blog". 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "X-Cult comparison of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles IV: Turtles in Time". 2008. Retrieved Jan. 23, 2010.  Previous version accessed Sept. 16, 2006.
  5. ^ NinjaTurtles.com episode synopsis for "Heroes in a Half-Shell, Part 5 – Shredder and Splintered". URL retrieved 16th July 2006.
  6. ^ NinjaTurtles.com episode synopsis for "Krangenstien Lives". URL retrieved 16th July 2006.
  7. ^ NinjaTurtles.com episode synopsis for "Divide and Conquer". URL retrieved 16th July 2006.
  8. ^ a b c Allgame review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles IV: Turtles in Time. URL retrieved 22nd July 2006.
  9. ^ a b c d Konami; Arcade machine manual for Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time.
  10. ^ a b Allgame review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time. URL retrieved 30th October 2006.
  11. ^ Instruction manual for Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles IV: Turtles in Time.
  12. ^ IMDb review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time. URL retrieved 22nd July 2006.
  13. ^ Moby Games profile of Harumi Ueko. URL retrieved 22nd October 2006.
  14. ^ Moby Games profile of Kazuhiko Uehara. URL retrieved 22nd October 2006.
  15. ^ a b Arcade History review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time. URL retrieved 22nd July 2006.
  16. ^ Game Music Revolution CD information for Konami All-Stars 1993 ~ Music Station of Dreams. URL retrieved 13th October 2006.
  17. ^ Video Game Talk review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3: Mutant Nightmare. URL retrieved 15th October 2006.
  18. ^ "Video - WARROCK M1". GameTrailers. 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  19. ^ "Turtles in Time - Super Nintendo - Mean Machines review". Meanmachinesmag.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  20. ^ Nintendo Power Magazine review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles IV: Turtles in Time. Issue of 1st August 1992.
  21. ^ a b Nintendojo review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles IV: Turtles in Time. URL retrieved 16th July 2006.
  22. ^ "Developer Lookback: Konami Part I". Retro Gamer (Imagine Publishing) (53): 29. August 2008. 
  23. ^ a b The Armchair Empire review of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time. URL retrieved 16th July 2006.
  24. ^ Nardozzi, Dale (2009-08-03). "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles In Time Re-Shelled Review (Xbox 360)". Team Xbox. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  25. ^ a b Nicholson, Brad (2009-08-11). "Review: TMNT: Turtles in Time Re-Shelled". Destructoid. Retrieved 2010-12-02. 

DEFAULTSORT:Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles In Time Category:1991 video games Category:Arcade games Category:Beat 'em ups Category:Cooperative video games Category:Konami games Category:Panhistorical video games Category:Super Nintendo Entertainment System games Category:Time travel video games Category:Video games developed in Japan Category:Video games based on Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Category:Video games set in 1991 Category:Video games set in 1992 Category:Video games set in 2020 Category:Video games set in the 16th century Category:Video games set in the 19th century Category:Western (genre) video games


Edits for For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology

"FIRST" redirects here. For other uses, see First.
For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology
Founded 1989
Founder Dean Kamen
Type 501(c)(3) not-for-profit public charity
Location
Coordinates 42°59′22″N 71°28′04″W / 42.9895°N 71.4677°W / 42.9895; -71.4677
Members 303,160 students
25,000 robots
56,500 mentors
28,548 teams
64,000 event volunteers[1]
Key people Dean Kamen, Founder
Walt Havenstein, Chairman of the Board
Robert M. Tuttle, Interim President
Woodie Flowers, National Adviser[1]
Revenue $50,461,022[2]
Volunteers 120,000[1]
Slogan "To create a world where science and technology are celebrated... where young people dream of becoming science and technology heroes"
Website www.usfirst.org

For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology (FIRST [3]) is an organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1989 to develop ways to inspire students in engineering and technology fields. The organization is the foundation for the FIRST Robotics Competition, FIRST LEGO League, Junior FIRST LEGO League, and FIRST Tech Challenge competitions.

FIRST also operates FIRST Place, a research facility at FIRST Headquarters in Manchester, New Hampshire, where it holds educational programs and day camps for students and teachers.[4]

Philosophy[edit]

FIRST seeks to promote a philosophy of teamwork and collaboration among engineers and encourages competing teams to remain friendly, helping each other out when necessary. Terms frequently applied to this ethos are Gracious Professionalism and Coopertition; terms coined by Woodie Flowers and Kamen that support respect towards one's competitors and integrity in one's actions.[5] The concept of Gracious Professionalism grew from a robotics class that Flowers taught at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[6] Gracious Professionalism refers to maintaining a high level of competition, yet treating others respectfully (FIRST summarizes this concept as "knowledge, competition, and empathy comfortably blended." [5] Coopertition is patented under US Patent 7,507,169 by Dean Kamen.[7] Coopertition is a combination of cooperation and competition. It is thought of as working together in order to ensure everyone is competing at the highest caliber possible.[5] The philosophies of FIRST extend beyond the primary level of competition. The ideas of working together and respect are instilled in members throughout involvement with FIRST, however members learn from these concepts and carry out these behaviors in everyday life. In this sense FIRST not only inspires the use of technology and the promotion of STEM education, but also teaches individuals important values.

FIRST Robotics Competition[edit]

"Ballfrog", Team 100's 2008 FRC robot

The first and highest scale program developed through FIRST is the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), which is designed to inspire high school students to become engineers by giving them real world experience working with engineers to develop a robot. The inaugural FIRST Robotics Competition was held in 1992 in the Manchester Memorial High School gymnasium.[8] As of 2009, over 3,000 high school teams totaling over 46,000 students from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Turkey, Israel, Mexico, the Netherlands, the United States, the United Kingdom,[1] and more compete in the annual competition.

The competition challenge changes each year, and the teams can only reuse certain components from previous years. The robots weigh about 150 lb (68 kg), including batteries and bumpers, depending on that year's rules. The kit issued to each team contains a base set of parts. Registration and the kit of parts together cost about US$6000. In addition to that, teams are allowed to spend another $3500 on their robot. The purpose of this rule is to lessen the influence of money on teams' competitiveness. Details of the game are released on the first Saturday in January (except when that Saturday falls on January 1 or 2), and the teams are given six weeks to construct a robot that can accomplish the game's tasks.[9]

In 2011, teams participated in 48 regional and district competitions[10][11] throughout March in an effort to qualify for the FIRST Championship in St. Louis in April. Previous years' Championships have been held in Atlanta, Georgia, Houston, Texas and at Walt Disney World's Epcot.[12] On October 7, 2009, FIRST announced that the Championship Event will be held in St. Louis, Missouri for 2011 through 2013.[13] Each year the FIRST Robotics Competition has scholarships for the participants in the program. In 2011 there are over $14 million worth of scholarships from more than 128 colleges and universities, associations, and corporations.

FIRST LEGO League[edit]

'Power Puzzle' (2007) field and robot.
Main article: FIRST LEGO League

In 1998, the FIRST LEGO League (FLL), a program similar to the FIRST Robotics Competition, was formed. It is aimed at 9 to 14-year-old students and utilizes LEGO Mindstorms sets (NXT or RCX) to build palm-sized LEGO robots, which are then programmed using either the ROBOLAB software (RCX-based systems) or Mindstorms NXT software (for NXT-based systems) to autonomously compete against other teams.[14] The ROBOLAB software is based on National Instruments' LabVIEW industrial control engineering software. The combination of interchangeable LEGO parts, computer 'bricks', sensors, and the aforementioned software, provide preteens and teenagers with the capability to build simple models of real-life robotic systems.[15] This competition also utilizes a research element that is themed with each year's game, and deals with a real-world situation for students to learn about through the season. The simplistic nature of its games, its relatively low team startup costs, and its association with the Lego Group mean that it is the most extensive of all FIRST competitions, despite a lower profile and fewer sponsors than FTC or FRC. In 2009, 14,725 teams from 56 countries participated in local, regional, national, and international competitions, compared with around 1,600 teams in roughly 10 countries for FRC.[16][17]

Junior FIRST LEGO League[edit]

The Junior FIRST LEGO League is a variation of the FIRST LEGO League, aimed towards elementary school children, in which kids ages 5 to 8 build LEGO models dealing with that year's FLL challenge. At least one part of a model has a moving component. The teams participate in exhibitions around the country, where they demonstrate and explain their models and research for award opportunities.

FIRST Tech Challenge[edit]

Main article: FIRST Tech Challenge
A 2007 FTC robot

The FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC), formerly FIRST Vex Challenge (FVC), is a mid-level robotics competition announced by FIRST on March 22, 2005. According to FIRST, this competition was designed to be a more accessible and affordable option for schools. FIRST has also said that the FTC program was created for those of an intermediate skill level. FIRST Tech Challenge robots are approximately one-third the scale of their FRC counterparts. The FTC competition is meant to provide a transition for students from the FLL competition to the FRC competition. FTC was developed for the Vex Robotics Design System, which is available commercially.[18]

The 2005 FVC pilot season featured a demonstration of the FIRST Vex Challenge using a 1/3 linear scale mock-up of the 2004 FRC Competition, FIRST Frenzy: Raising the Bar. For their 2005-2006 Pilot Season, FVC teams played the Half-Pipe Hustle game using racquet balls and ramps.

For the 2006-2007 FTC Season, the FIRST Tech Challenge teams competed in the Hangin'-A-Round challenge using softballs, rotating platforms, a hanging bar, and a larger 'Atlas' ball which is significantly larger than most Vex robots and harder to manipulate.[19][20] Competitions were held around the United States, Canada, and Mexico.[21]

For the 2008-2009 FTC season, a new kit was introduced, as FIRST moved away from the VEX platform and worked with several different vendors to create a custom kit and control system for FTC known as Tetrix. Based around the LEGO Mindstorms NXT "brain" and including secondary specialized controllers to overcome the limitations of the NXT, teams use a Bluetooth link between the NXT and a laptop running FTC driver station software. A team's drivers then use either one or two USB gamepads to control their robots.

Support[edit]

FIRST itself is a self-supporting organization; however, individual teams almost universally rely on outside funding sources. It also takes significant outside funds to run regional events and the FIRST Championship. In 2010, FIRST was a recipient of a Google Project 10^100 grant.[22]

Intra-team[edit]

Teams may request that team members, whether mentors or students, contribute to the costs of running a team. For example, members may pay a fee or donate tools and facilities.

Inter-team[edit]

Teams frequently give other teams support. This may mean providing funds, tools, or facilities. Gracious professionalism and coopertition are core tenets of the FIRST philosophy. Teams may support each other by holding workshops, lending expertise and equipment to others before and during competition, or by 'mentoring' others, which refers to experience teams taking rookie teams under their wing, showing them the process of preparing for competition both logistically and technologically.

Gracious Professionalism[edit]

Gracious Professionalism is a major belief in the FIRST community. At every regional and national competition, the judges look for teams to be graciously professional. What gracious professionalism is all about is "competing on an even playing field". This means that each team wants their competition at the best level possible. The way the team system is set up is that every team is matched up with two other teams per match at random. Therefore, a team's ally in one match may become an opponent in the next match. Traditionally, outside of FIRST, when one shares resources in a competition, one only does so with their allies.

However, with the element of gracious professionalism, one would share resources with their opponent as well. For example, if a team needs a part or tool to fix their robot, it is expected that any team, even an opposing team would give that team a hand in order to compete. This helps student learn that success is in learning and helping others no matter the circumstances. With this in mind, the judges give a Gracious Professionalism award at every FIRST Robotics Competition tournament to a team that shows outstanding gracious professionalism.

The term "Gracious Professionalism" was created by Dr. Woodie Flowers, FIRST National Advisor and Pappalardo Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

[23]

Community[edit]

The most common method of monetary and resource sponsorship teams comes through the community surrounding the team. Since the majority of teams are based around a school or a school district, schools often provide the infrastructure needed to run a team. Local governments and individual citizens may provide funds and other support to teams. Local universities and colleges often give significant funds to teams. Members also have the opportunity to fundraise throughout their communities, which allows them to afford tools and raise money for competition entry fees. The development of fundraisers gives teams a sense of autonomy in controlling their success as well as teaching members the tools required to plan public events.

Corporate[edit]

Corporate donations and grants usually provide the majority of a mature team's funds. Major donors include BAE Systems, Google, Raytheon, and National Instruments. Some corporations, like Macy's, also have grants available for robotics teams. [24]

Government[edit]

Each year during his speech at the kickoff event, founder Dean Kamen gives the student participants a homework assignment. It often involves spreading the word about FIRST in various ways, such as increasing attendance at regionals (2005),[25] mentoring rookie teams, making sure that FIRST-specific scholarships are applied for (2004),[26] and researching the capabilities of motors and disseminating that information to other teams (2006).[27] In 2007, Dean's homework was for each team to contact their government officials (e.g. mayors, legislators, governors, federal officials) and invite them to a FIRST regional or the championship to expose them to the competition and increase the level of political awareness of FIRST. In 2008, it was to inform the media more about FIRST. In 2009, the homework was for each team to have all students, mentors, and other persons involved with their team (past or present) register with FIRST.[28] One goal of this registration process was to provide FIRST with data to demonstrate that many people had benefited from their experiences in FIRST robotics and to encourage more funding of robotics-related events.

At the World Championship in Atlanta, speakers have included former President of the United States George Herbert Walker Bush in 2008, and United States Secretary of Education Arne Duncan in 2010. In 2010, former U.S. Undersecretary of Commerce and Director of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Jon Dudas was selected to be the President of FIRST.[29]

FIRST has received the attention of politicians in Canada as well. Ontario MPP Bob Delaney made remarks in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario regarding his experience at an FRC competition.[30]

NASA, through its Robotics Alliance Project, is a major supporter of FIRST.

Timeline[edit]

Team 2283's robot for Rack 'n Roll in 2007

Note: All years indicate the year that the championship for that game was held.

Year FRC FLL FTC
1992 Maize Craze
1993 Rug Rage
1994 Tower Power
1995 Ramp 'n Roll
1996 Hexagon Havoc
1997 Toroid Terror
1998 Ladder Logic
1999 Double Trouble Pilot Year
2000 Co-Opertition FIRST FIRST Contact
2001 Diabolical Dynamics Volcanic Panic
2002 Zone Zeal Arctic Impact
2003 Stack Attack City Sights
2004 FIRST Frenzy: Raising the Bar Mission Mars
2005 Triple Play No Limits
2006 Aim High Ocean Odyssey Pilot Year: Half-Pipe Hustle
2007 Rack 'n Roll Nano Quest Hangin'-A-Round
2008 FIRST Overdrive Power Puzzle Quad Quandary
2009 Lunacy Climate Connections Face Off
2010 Breakaway Smart Move Hot Shot!
2011 Logo Motion Body Forward Get Over It!
2012 Rebound Rumble Food Factor Bowled Over!
2013 Ultimate Ascent Senior Solutions Ring It Up!
2014 Nature's Fury! Block Party!

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

DEFAULTSORT:First * Category:Engineering societies Category:Organizations established in 1989 Category:Educational organizations based in the United States Category:Robotics organizations Category:Organizations based in New Hampshire