User:Walrasiad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search


SEMI-RETIRED
This user is no longer very active on Wikipedia.

Sandboxes[edit]

Lusaka01.jpg

Selected Contributions[edit]

(Started, rewritten or significantly expanded articles, Adj = section within, bold = particularly extensive.)

North African history[edit]

Tower of the Great Mosque of Kairouan.JPG

Umayyad Ifriqiya

Umayyad al-Andalus

Fihrid Ifriqiya

Aghlabid Ifriqiya

Almoravid Morocco

Almohad Morocco

Marinid Morocco

Morocco (other)

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

Swahili Coast

Senegambia

Portuguese maritime history[edit]

Almeida armada of 1505 (Livro de Lisuarte de Abreu).jpg

Henrican era

Portuguese Brazil

Portuguese India

Portuguese India figures

Portuguese Africa

Portuguese nobility

Portuguese chroniclers

Portuguese battles

Cartography[edit]

Anonymous Portuguese map c.1471 (Estense).jpg

Nautical technology

Cartographers

Atlantic islands

Cosmographers

Spanish maritime history[edit]

Spanish nobility

Other[edit]

Communal fight in Bologna (Sercambi).jpg

Scholasticism

Italy

England

Data Run[edit]

  • Guinote, P.J.A. (1999) "Ascensão e Declínio da Carreira da Índia", Vasco da Gama e a Índia, Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1999, vol. II, pp 7–39. Retrieved from the internet 2003


Portuguese India Runs, 1497-1650 (Returns & Losses per half-decade)

Years Departures
from Lisbon
Ships Lost Returns
to Lisbon
Losses (%) Returns (%)
1497-1505 93 18 52 19.4 55.9
1506-10 77 16 29 20.8 37.7
1511-15 46 4 28 8.7 60.9
1516-20 48 3 27 6.3 56.3
1521-25 46 10 15 21.7 32.6
1526-30 37 12 20 32.4 54.1
1531-35 42 5 26 11.9 61.9
1536-40 38 4 27 10.5 71.1
1541-45 26 2 20 7.7 76.9
1546-50 41 6 19 14.6 46.3
1551-55 30 10 15 33.3 50.0
1556-60 26 5 19 19.2 73.1
1561-65 23 6 19 * 26.1 82.6
1566-70 25 0 14 0.0 56.0
1571-75 23 3 22 * 13.0 95.7
1576-80 27 3 18 11.1 66.7
1581-85 28 6 20 21.4 71.4
1586-90 30 11 17 36.7 56.7
1591-95 24 13 9 54.2 37.5
1595-1600 24 6 13 25.0 54.2
1601-05 38 8 18 21.1 47.4
1606-10 46 14 10 30.4 21.7
1611-15 28 7 12 25.0 42.9
1616-20 31 6 14 19.4 45.2
1621-25 36 13 5 36.1 13.9
1626-30 24 6 11 25.0 45.8
1631-35 21 6 7 28.6 33.3
1636-40 14 1 7 7.1 50.0
1641-45 21 4 11 19.0 52.4
1646-50 20 8 4 40.0 20.0
Total
(1497-1650)
1033 216 528 20.9 51.1

Note: "Returns" specifically means ships that reached the Indies and returned to Lisbon. This table does not include arribadas (ships that returned to Lisbon without reaching the Indies) nor ships which remained behind in the Indian Ocean. This explains the discrepancy in the totals.

  • - If returns exceed total departures minus losses, that is because some returning ships were originally built at docks in India.

Sources[edit]

ÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÑÒÓÔÕÖÙÚÛÜñ

àáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïòóôõöùúûü

àáâ ã ç é í óõ

Primary and Chronicles

15th C.

  • Monumenta Henricina (1960-1947), Manuel Lopes de Almeida, Idalino Ferreira da Costa Brochado and Antonio Joaquim Dias Dinis, editors, Coimbra. 14 volumes, vol. 1 (1143-1411), vol.2 (1411-1421), [vol.3] (1421-1431), vol. 5 (1431-1436), vol. 6 (1437-1439),vol. 7 (Sep 1439-1443), vol. 8 (1443-45)
  • Gomes Eanes de Zurara (1453) Crónica dos feitos notáveis que se passaram na Conquista da Guiné por mandado do Infante D. Henrique (1841 title: Chronica do Descobrimento e Conquista da Guiné, escrita por mandado de El-Rei D. Affonso V, sob a direcção scientifica, e segundo as instrucções do illustre Infante D. Henrique). [Trans. 1896-99 by C.R. Beazley and E. Prestage, The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, London: Hakluyt, v.1, v.2
  • Frei João Álvares (c.1460) Chronica dos feytos, vida, e morte do infante santo D. Fernando, que morreo em Fez, first published 1526, Lisbon. [1730, edition, Fr. Jeronimo dos Ramos, editor, Lisbon: M. Rodrigues. online
  • Alvise Cadamosto (1507) "Original Journals of the Voyages of Cada Mosto and Piedro de Cintra to the Coast of Africa, the former in the years 1455 and 1456, and the latter soon afterwards", originally published in Italian, 1507, in Francanzano Montalbado, editor, Paesi novamente retrovati et Novo Mondo da Alberico Vesputio Florentino intitulato, Vicenza. (English translation as reprinted in R. Kerr, 1811, A General History of Voyages and Travels to the end of the 18th century, vol. 2, Edinburgh: Blackwood. Ch.4)
  • Diogo Gomes (c.1499) "De prima inventione Guineae", &tc first published in J.A. Schmeller (1847) "Ueber Valentim Fernandez Alemão und seine Sammlung von Nachrichten über die Entdeckungen und Besitzungen der Portugiesen in Afrika und Asien bis zum Jahre 1508, enthalten in einer gleichseitigen portugiesischen Handschrift der köngl. Hof-und Staats-Bibliothek zu München.", Abhandlungen der Philosophisch-Philologischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich, Vol. 4, Part 3. online. Portuguese translation by Gabriel Pereira (1898-99) as "As Relações do Descobrimento da Guiné e das ilhas dos Açores, Madeira e Cabo Verde" in Boletim da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa, no. 5 online
  • Ruy de Pina (c.1510) Chronica d'el Rey D. Duarte, first published 1790 in J.F. Correia da Serra, editor, Collecção de livros ineditos de historia portugueza, Vol. 1, Lisbon: Academia das Ciências. [1901 edition, Gabriel Pereira, editor, Lisbon: Escriptorio online
  • Ruy de Pina (c.1510) "Chronica d'el Rey D. Affonso V", first published 1790 in J.F. Correia da Serra, editor, Collecção de livros ineditos de historia portugueza. Lisbon: Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Vol. 1. (Repr. in 1901 edition, 3 vols, Gabriel Pereira, editor, Lisbon: Escriptorio, online)


16th C.;

  • Duarte Barbosa (c.1518) O Livro de Duarte Barbosa [Trans. by M.L. Dames, 1918–21, An Account Of The Countries Bordering On The Indian Ocean And Their Inhabitants, 2 vols., 2005 reprint, New Delhi: Asian Education Services.]
  • João de Lisboa (c.1514) Livro de Marinharia: tratado da agulha de marear. Roteiros, sondas, e outros conhecimentos relativos á navegação, first pub. 1903, Lisbon: Libanio da Silva. online
  • Damião de Góis (1566–67) Chrónica do Felicíssimo Rei D. Manuel, da Gloriosa Memoria, Ha qual por mandado do Serenissimo Principe, ho Infante Dom Henrique seu Filho, ho Cardeal de Portugal, do Titulo dos Santos Quatro Coroados, Damiam de Goes collegio & compoz de novo. (As reprinted in 1749, Lisbon: M. Manescal da Costa) online
  • Damião de Góis (1567) Chronica do prinçipe Dom Ioam: rei que foi destes regnos segundo do nome, em que summariamente se trattam has cousas sustançiaes que nelles aconteçerão do dia de seu nasçimento atte ho em que el Rei Dom Afonso seu pai faleçeo, 1905 edition, A.J. Gonçálvez Guimarãis ed. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade. online
  • Gaspar Correia (c.1550s) Lendas da Índia, first pub. 1858-64, Lisbon: Academia Real de Sciencias Vol 1, (contents) Vol. 2, Vol 3 [partially trans. H.E. Stanley, 1869, as The Three Voyages of Vasco de Gama, and his viceroyalty London: Hakluyt Society.]
  • Jerónimo Osório (1574) De rebus Emmanuelis, Latin ed. Cologne: Birckmann. (Portuguese trans. 1804-06, as Da Vida e Feitos d'El Rei D. Manuel, Lisbon: Impressão Regia., vol. 1, vol. 2, vol.3) [English trans. by J. Gibbs, 1752, as The History of the Portuguese during the Reign of Emmanuel London: Millar, Vol. 1, Vol. 2
  • Diogo do Couto "De todas as Armadas que os Reys de Portugal mandáram à Índia, até que El-Rey D. Filippe succedeo nestes Reynos", de 1497 a 1581", in J. de Barros and D. de Couto, Décadas da Ásia Dec. X, Pt.1, Bk.1, c.16
  • Relação das Náos e Armadas da India com os Sucessos dellas que se puderam Saber, para Noticia e Instrucção dos Curiozos, e Amantes da Historia da India (Codex Add. 20902 of the British Library), [D. António de Ataíde, orig. editor.] Transcribed and reprinted in 1985, by M.H. Maldonado, Biblioteca Geral da Universidade de Coimbra. online
  • Afonso de Albuquerque (Braz de Albuquerque) (1557), Commentarios Dafonso Dalboquerque, capitam geral & gouernador da India [1774 ed., v.1, v.2, v.3, bio; English trans. 1875-84 by Walter de Gray Birch, as The Commentaries of the great Afonso Dalboquerque, second viceroy of India, 4 volumes, London: Hakluyt Society] v.1, v.2, v.3, v.4
  • Bulhão Pato, R.A. editor (1898-1903), Cartas de Affonso de Albuquerque, seguidas de documentos que as elucidam. Lisbon: Academia Real de Sciencias, 1898: v.1, v.2, 1903: v.3


17th C. & 18th C
  • Samuel Purchas (1625) Hakluytus posthumus: or Purchas his Pilgrimes: contayning a history of the world in sea voyages and lande travells by Englishmen and others, London, 4 vols. (1905-07 Hakluyt Society edition, 20 vols, Glasgow: James McLehose, Volume 2)
  • Pimentel, Manuel (1746) Arte de navegar: em que se ensinam as regras praticas, e os modos de cartear, e de graduar a balestilha por via de numeros, e muitos problemas uteis á navegação : e Roteyro das viagens, e costas maritimas de Guiné, Angóla, Brasil, Indias, e Ilhas Occidentaes, e Orientaes. Lisbon: Francisco da Silva Vol. I - Arte de Navegar, Vol II - Roterio


Secondary & Later
  • Beazley, C.R. (1894) Prince Henry the navigator: the hero of Portugal and of modern discovery, 1394-1460. New York: Putnam online
  • Castilho, A.M. de (1866) Descripção e roteiro da costa occidental de Africa, desde o cabo de Espartel até o das Agulhas. 2 vols, Lisbon: Impresa Nacional. vol. 1, vol. 2
  • Cortesão, Armando (1931) "Subsídios para a história do Descobrimento de Cabo Verde e Guiné", Boletim da Agencia Geral das Colonias, No. 75. As reprinted in 1975, Esparsos, vol. 1, Coimbra. online
  • Cortesão, Armando (1954) A Carta Nautica de 1424, as reprinted in 1975, Esparsos, Coimbra. vol. 3
  • Diffie, Bailey W., and George D. Winius (1977) Foundations of the Portuguese empire, 1415-1580. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press
  • Gago Coutinho, Carlos Viegas (1951-52) A Náutica dos Descobrimentos: os descobrimentos marítimos vistos por um navegador, 2 vols., Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar. (2nd ed. 1969,A Náutica dos Descobrimentos: colectânea de artigos, conferências e trabalhos inéditos do Almirante Gago Coutinho, organizada e prefaciada pelo Comandante Moura Braz 2 vols., Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar.
  • Julien, Charles-André, Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, des origines à 1830, édition originale 1931, réédition Payot, Paris, 1961
  • Major, Richard Henry (1868) The Life of Prince Henry, surnamed the Navigator: comprising the discovery, within one century, of half the world, with new facts in the discovery of the Atlantic islands; a refutation of French claims to priority in discovery; Portuguese knowledge (subsequently lost) of the Nile lakes; and the history of the naming of America, from authentic contemporary documents. London: Asher & Co. 1868 ed., (Retitled 2nd 1877 ed. Discoveries of Prince Henry the Navigator, London: S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1877 ed. )
  • Mathew, K.S. (1997) "Indian Naval Encounters with the Portuguese: Strengths and weaknesses", in Kurup, editor, India's Naval Traditions. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre. preview
  • Newitt, M.D. (2005) A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, 1400-1668. London: Routledge.
  • Oliveira Martins, J.P. (1879) História de Portugal. (1908 edition, Lisbon: Pereira. vol. 1, vol. 2),
  • Oliveira Martins, J. P. (1891) Os Filhos de D. João I, Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional. online (English transl. 1914, The Golden Age of Prince Henry the Navigator. London: Chapman & Hall.)
  • Quintella, Ignaco da Costa (1839–40) Annaes da Marinha Portugueza, 2 vols, Lisbon: Academia Real das Sciencias. vol. 1, vol. 2
  • Rehatsek, E. (1881) "Historical Sketch of Portuguese India, with a list of its Viceroys, Governors and Captains-General till 1881", Calcutta Review, vol.73, No.146, p.321-62.online.
  • Russell, P.E. (1971) "Fontes documentais castelhanas para a história da expansão portuguesa na Guiné nos últimos anos de D. Afonso V", Do Tempo e da História, Lisbon. v.4, p.5-33 pdf
  • Russell, Peter E. (2000) Prince Henry 'the Navigator': a life. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press.
  • Russell-Wood, A.J.R. (1998) The Portuguese Empire 1415–1808: A world on the move. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Saraiva, D. Francisco S. Luis (1841) Indice chronologico das navegações, viagens, descobrimentos dos Portuguezes nos paizes ultramarinos, desde o principio do Seculo XV. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional. online
  • Subrahmanyam, S. (1997) The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Teixera da Mota, Avelino (1946) "A descoberta da Guiné", Boletim cultural da Guiné Portuguesa, Vol. 1. Part 1 in No. 1 (Jan), p.11-68, Pt. 2 in No. 2 (Apr), p.273-326; Pt. 3 in No. 3 (Jul), p.457-509.
  • Teixeira da Mota, A. (1968) "Ilha de Santiago e Angra de Bezeguiche, escalas da carreira da India", Do Tempo e da História, Lisbon, v.2, pp.141-49. PDF
  • Teixeira da Mota, A. (1970) "As rotas maritimas portuguesas no Atlântico de meados do Século XV ao penultimo quartel do Século XVI", Do Tempo e da História, Lisbon, v.3, pp.13-33. PDF
  • Teixira da Mota, A. (1972) Mar, além Mar: Estudos e ensaios de história e geographia. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar
  • Teodoro de Matos, Artur (1988) "As Escalas do Atlântico no Século XVI" Revista da Universidade de Coimbra, vol. 34, pp.157-83. offprint
  • Whiteway, R. S. (1899) The Rise of Portuguese Power in India, 1497-1550. Westminster: Constable. online
Ilhas
  • D'Avezac, M.A.P. Marquis (1845) Notice des découvertes faites au môyen-age dans l'Océan Atlantique, antérieurement aux grandes explorations portugaises du quinzième siècle, Paris: Fain et Thunot online
  • Mees, Jules (1901) Histoire de la découverte des îles Açores, et de l'origine de leur dénomination d'îles flamandes. Ghent: Vuylsteke. online

Sources (It)[edit]

  • Butler, W.F. (1906) The Lombard Communes: A history of the republics of northern Italy. London: Fisher Unwin. toc
  • Emiliani-Giudici, Paolo (1864-66) Storia dei comuni italiani. Florence: Felice Le Monnier. v.1, v.2, v.3,

Sources (Ar)[edit]

  • Ibn Abd al-Hakam, English trans. by C.C. Torrey, 1901, "The Mohammedan Conquest of Egypt and North Africa", Historical and Critical Contributions to Biblical Science, pp.277-330. online; French trans. in W.M. de Slane, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1852, v.1, App. 1 (pp.301-308)
  • al-Nuwayri, French trans. in W.M. de Slane, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1852, v.1, App. 2 (pp.314-444) (From 647 raid through end of Aghlabids) and 1854, v. 2 App.1 (pp.483-89) (for Zirids). Italian transl. in M. Amari (1851) Nuova raccolta di scritture e documenti intorno alla dominazione degli arabi in Sicilia, (p.27-163) (Aghlabids only)
  • Ibn Khaldoun, French trans. in W.M. de Slane (1852-56), Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale 4 vols, Algiers: Imprimerie du Gouvernment. v.1, v.2 v.3, vol. 4
  • Ibn al-Athir extracts from Kamel al-Tewarikh, French trans. in W.M. de Slane, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1854, v.2, App.#5, (pp.573ff)
  • Ibn Khaldoun Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1852-56, W.M. Slane trans. 4 vols., Algiers: Imprimerie du Gouvernment.
  • 1852: v.1 review of Maghrebi Arab tribes (Banu Hillal and Maqil), Berbers (origins of race, summary), tribal histories: Nafusa, Luwata, Banu Faten (Matghara, Lemaia, Matmata, Maghila, Mediouna, Kumia), Zouana, Miknasa, Midrarids of Sijilmassa, Hawwara, Awraba, Kutama,
App #1 - Ibn Abd al-Hakam (pp.301-308) from Barqa to Oqba; App. #2 - al-Nuwayri (pp.314-444) emir-by-emir of Ifriqiya
  • 1854 v.2 - history of Sanhaja, Zirids, Hammadites, Almoravids, Ibn Ghania, Sudanese (Blacks), Lamta, Gazzula, Haskoura, Masmuda, Berghwata, Ghomara, Ceuta, Nakur, Hamudids, Atlas Masmoudians, Almohads, Almohad tribes, Hafsids,
App. #1 - al-Nuwayri on Zirids of Ifriqiya (pp.483-89), App. #2 - Ibn Khaldoun on Shi'ites & Fatimids (pp.496-549), App. #3 - Ibn Khaldoun on Hamdunids of Zab (p.553), App. #4 - Ibn Khaldoun on Idrisids of Fez (p.559); App.#5 - Ibn al-Athir on Almohads, Norman Ifriqiya (pp.573ff)
  • 1856 v.3 - Hafsids cont'd., history of Zenata (incl. origins, Banu Ifran, Abu Khorra, Maghrawa, Sijilmassa, Aghmat, Abdalwadids of Tlemcen)
  • 1856: vol. 4 (Marinids)
  • Ibn Khaldoun Les Prolégomènes d'Ibn Khaldoun, W.M. de Slane translation, 1863-68, 3 vols, Paris: Imprimerie impériale. 1863: v.1, 1865: v.2, 1868: v.3, index
  • Ibn Khallikan Biographical Dictionary, W.M. de Slane translation, Paris: Oriental Translation Fund, 4 vols, 1843 v.1, 1843 v.2, 1868, v.3, 1871 v.4
  • Amari, M. (1854–58) Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia. 2 volumes, Florence: Felice Le Monnier. v.1, v.2,

1868: v.3.1, 1872 v.3.2

  • Amari (?) (1851) Nuova raccolta di scritture e documenti intorno alla dominazione degli arabi in Sicilia from French trans. of Noel de Vergers, Palermo: Meli. cont Incl al-Nuwayri's "Storia dell'Affrica sotto i governatori arabi, la dinastia degli Aglabiti" (p.27-163)
  • Julien, C.A. (1931) Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, vol. 2 - De la conquête arabe à 1830, 1961 edition, Paris: Payot.