User:Wilcannia

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In 1788 a detachment of four companies of marines, under Major Robert Ross, accompanied the First Fleet to protect a new colony at Botany Bay (New South Wales). Due to an unknown error the Fleet left Portsmouth without its main supply of ammunition, cartridge paper and tools to repair their flintlocks. The omission was noted early on during the voyage and a message was sent back to the British Home Office from Santa Cruz in July 1787 requesting that the missing supplies be sent out in William Bligh's ship HMS Bounty. As Christopher Warren noted, this resupply meant that the voyage could continue to its final destination - Botany Bay in New South Wales. However, despite the Home Office receiving the request, the resupply was never sent and consequently, after 12 months, the marines ended up in dire circumstances.[1]

The First Fleet marines had a detachment strength of 212 including 160 privates. This relatively small force was arranged on the advice of Joseph Banks who advised the British government that local Aborigines were few and retiring. On arrival in New South Wales the Governor of the new colony, naval Captain Arthur Phillip, found that the natives were vastly more numerous than expected and also that they soon started resisting the settlers. Within 12 months, natives killed 5 or 6 First Fleeters and wounded many more. The marines also found that their single shot musquets could not compete against native weapons, apart from an initial period of shock and awe. To further aggravate their predicament, around a dozen marines had died and over a dozen were typically on the unfit list. Finally, in October 1788, the marines were tasked to expand the initial settlement at Sydney Cove to commence farming more fertile land at Parramatta. This generated a threatening strategic situation that required unconventional tactics. According to C Mears[2] and M Bennett[3] the First Fleet was the source of the smallpox that then spread amongst local natives. Warren's analysis suggests that due to dire circumstances, that some marines must have deliberately spread smallpox as the only means left to defend themselves and the settlement.[4]

During the voyagewere not resupplied after arrival. Recent research claims that by early 1789 the marines in New South Wales were running out of ammunition and had no other option than to use smallpox against local tribes to protect themselves and the settlement[5][6] although earlier authors suggested the infection was accidental,[7] or from actions unsanctioned by the Governor of the Colony, naval Captain Arthur Phillip.[1]

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BioWar Link

Arthur Phillip

Torture (Countries With US Training) - Post World War II to 1975[edit]

 

"Torture Countries" identified by Amnesty International.[8]


Torture Country

US–trained Military/Police

US military Aid (1946-1975) - $US(1979)

Greece

14,144

2,794,900,000

Portugal

2,997

361,900,000

Spain

9,872

920,200,000

Turkey

18,900

4,576,400,00

Indonesia

4,757

218,200,000

Philippines

15,245

805,800,000

South Korea

32,479

6,542,300,000

South Vietnam

35,788

16,490,500,000

Iran

10,807

1,412,500,000

Saudi Arabia

1,380

295,900,000

Morocco

2,209

138,700,000

Tunisia

636

62,400,000

Venezuela

5,341

142,200,000

Uruguay

2,537

85,900,000

Paraguay

1,435

26,400,000

Peru

6,734

193,500,000

Nicaragua

4,897

25,500,000

Mexico

738

14,300,000

Haiti

567

4,200,000

Guatemala

3,030

39,300,000

Dominican Republic

3,705

38,200,000

Columbia

6,200

154,800,00

Chile

6,328

216,900,000

Brazil

8,448

603,100,00

Bolivia

3,956

56,600,000

Argentina

3,676

230,300,000

Source: The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism, Chomsky N, Herman ES, Spokesman (1979), ISBN 0896080900, pg 361.

  1. ^ a b Warren Christopher (2013). "Smallpox at Sydney Cove - Who, When, Why". Journal of Australian Studies. 
  2. ^ Mear C. "The origin of the smallpox in Sydney in 1789". Journal of Royal Australian Historical Society 94 (1): 1–22. 
  3. ^ Bennett, MJ, "Smallpox and Cowpox under the Southern Cross: The Smallpox Epidemic of 1789 ...", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 83(1), Spring 2009, pg 48.
  4. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/ockhamsrazor/smallpox-outbreak-of-sydney27s-past/5375394#transcript
  5. ^ Bennett Michael J (2009). "Smallpox and Cowpox Under the Southern Cross: The Smallpox Epidemic of 1789 and the Advent of Vaccination in Colonial Australia". Bulletin of the History of Medicine 83 (1): 37–62. 
  6. ^ Mear C (2008). "The origin of the smallpox outbreak in Sydney in 1789". Journal of Royal Australian Historical Society 94 (1): 1–22. 
  7. ^ Warren, Christopher, Could First Fleet smallpox infect Aborigines? – a note, "several authors – including Josephine Flood, Alan Frost, Charles Wilson and Judy Campbell – maintain that First Fleet smallpox did not cause the outbreak" 
  8. ^ Amnesty International,Report on Torture [US edition, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1975], and specific AI country reports.