Time is a basic component of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify the motions of objects. Time has been a major subject of religion, philosophy, and science, but defining time in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study has consistently eluded the greatest scholars.
In physics and other sciences, time is considered one of the few fundamental quantities. Time is used to define other quantites – such as velocity – and defining time in terms of such quantities would result in circularity of definition. Within science, the only definition needed or possible is an operational one, in which a procedure is given for defining the base unit of time (the second).
Among philosophers, there are two distinct viewpoints on time. One view is that time is part of the fundamental structure of the universe, a dimension in which events occur in sequence. Sir Isaac Newton subscribed to this realist view, and hence it is sometimes referred to as Newtonian time. The opposing view is that time does not refer to any kind of "container" that events and objects "move through", nor to any entity that "flows", but that it is instead part of a fundamental intellectual structure (together with space and number) within which humans sequence and compare events. This second view, in the tradition of Gottfried Leibniz and Immanuel Kant, holds that time cannot itself be measured.
Temporal measurement has occupied scientists and technologists, and was a prime motivation in astronomy. Periodic events and periodic motion have long served as standards for units of time. Examples include the apparent motion of the sun across the sky, the phases of the moon, the swing of a pendulum, and the beat of a heart. Currently, the international unit of time, the second, is defined as a certain number of hyperfine transitions in caesium atoms (see below). Time is also of significant social importance, having economic value ("time is money") as well as personal value, due to an awareness of the limited time in each day and in human lifespans.
- 1 Temporal measurement
- 2 Definitions and standards
- 3 Time in religion and mythology
- 4 Time in philosophy
- 5 Time in the physical sciences
- 6 Time and the Big Bang
- 7 Time travel
- 8 Perception of time
- 9 Use of time
- 10 Notes and references
- 11 See also
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Temporal measurement, or chronometry, takes two distinct primary forms. The calendar, a mathematical abstraction for calculating extensive periods of time, and the clock, a concrete mechanism that counts the ongoing passage of time. In day-to-day life, the clock is consulted for periods less than a day, the calendar, for periods longer than a day.
History of the calendar
The Sumerian civilization of approximately 2000 BC introduced the sexagesimal system based on the number 60. 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour – and possibly a calendar with 360 (60x6) days in a year (with a few more days added on). Twelve also features prominently, with roughly 12 hours of day and 12 of night, and 12 months in a year (with 12 being 1/5 of 60).
The reforms of Julius Caesar in 45 BCE put the Roman world on a solar calendar. This Julian calendar was faulty in that its intercalation still allowed the astronomical solstices and equinoxes to advance against it by about 11 minutes per year. Pope Gregory XIII introduced a correction in 1582; the Gregorian calendar was only slowly adopted by different nations over a period of centuries, but is today the one in most common use around the world.
History of time measurement devices
An Egyptian device dating to c.1500 BCE, similar in shape to a bent T-square, measured the passage of time from the shadow cast by its crossbar on a non-linear rule. The T was oriented eastward in the mornings. At noon, the device was turned around so that it could cast its shadow in the evening direction.
The most accurate timekeeping devices of the ancient world were the waterclock or clepsydra, first found in Egypt. A waterclock was found in the tomb of pharaoh Amenhotep I (1525–1504 BCE). Waterclocks were used in Alexandria, and then worldwide, for example in Greece, from c. 400 BCE. They could be used to measure the hours even at night, but required manual timekeeping to replenish the flow of water. The Greeks and Chaldeans regularly maintained timekeeping records as an essential part of their astronomical observations. In particular, Arab engineers improved on the use of waterclocks up to the Middle Ages.
Incense sticks and candles were, and are, commonly used to measure time in temples and churches across the globe. Waterclocks, and later, mechanical clocks, were used to mark the events of the abbeys and monasteries of the Middle Ages. Richard of Wallingford (1292–1336), abbot of St. Alban's abbey, famously built a mechanical clock as an astronomical orrery about 1330.
The English word clock probably comes from the Middle Dutch word "klocke" which is in turn derived from the mediaeval Latin word "clocca", which is ultimately derived from Celtic, and is cognate with French, Latin, and German words that mean bell. The passage of the hours at sea were marked by bells, and denoted the time (see ship's bells). The hours were marked by bells in the abbeys as well as at sea.
Clocks can range from watches, to more exotic varieties such as the Clock of the Long Now. They can be driven by a variety of means, including gravity, springs, and various forms of electrical power, and regulated by a variety of means such as a pendulum.
A chronometer is a portable timekeeper that meets certain precision standards. Initially, the term was used to refer to the marine chronometer, a timepiece used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. More recently, the term has also been applied to the chronometer watch, a wristwatch that meets precision standards set by the Swiss agency COSC.
The most accurate type of timekeeping device is currently the atomic clock, which are accurate to seconds in many thousands of years, and are used to calibrate other clock and timekeeping instruments. Atomic clocks use the spin property of the caesium atom as its basis, and since 1967, the International System of Measurements bases its unit of time, the second, on the properties of caesium. SI defines the second as 9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation which corresponds to the transition between two electron spin energy levels of the ground state of the 133Cs atom.
Definitions and standards
|nanosecond||0.000 000 001 seconds|
|microsecond||0.000 001 seconds|
|second||SI base unit|
|fortnight||14 days||2 weeks|
|month||28 to 31 days|
|common year||365 days||52 weeks + 1 day|
|leap year||366 days||52 weeks + 2 days|
|tropical year||365.24219 days||average|
|Gregorian year||365.2425 days||average|
|Olympiad||4 year cycle|
|Indiction||15 year cycle|
The SI base unit for time is the SI second. From the second, larger units such as the minute, hour and day are defined, though they are "non-SI" units because they do not use the decimal system, and also because of the occasional need for a leap-second. They are, however, officially accepted for use with the International System. There are no fixed ratios between seconds and months or years as months and years have significant variations in length.
The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom.
At its 1997 meeting, the CIPM affirmed that this definition refers to a caesium atom in its ground state at a temperature of 0 K. Previous to 1967, the second was defined as:
The measurement of time is so critical to the functioning of modern societies that it is coordinated at an international level. The basis for scientific time is a continuous count of seconds based on atomic clocks around the world, known as the International Atomic Time (TAI). This is the yardstick for other time scales, including Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which is the basis for civil time.
Earth is split up into a number of time zones. Most time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC or Greenwich Mean Time. In many locations these offsets vary twice yearly due to daylight saving time transitions.
Sidereal time is the measurement of time relative to a distant star (instead of solar time that is relative to the sun). It is used in astronomy to predict when a star will be overhead. Due to the rotation of the earth around the sun a sidereal day is slightly less than a solar day.
Another form of time measurement consists of studying the past. Events in the past can be ordered in a sequence (creating a chronology), and be put into chronological groups (periodization). One of the most important systems of periodization is geologic time, which is a system of periodizing the events that shaped the Earth and its life. Chronology, periodization, and interpretation of the past are together known as the study of history.
Time in religion and mythology
Many ancient philosophers wrote lengthy essays on time.[weasel words] A famous analogy compared the time of life to the passing of sand through an hourglass (a common measuring device for time in the past). The sand at the top is associated with the future, and, one tiny grain at a time, the future flows through the present into the past (associated with the sandpile at the bottom of hourglass). The past: ever expanding, the future: ever decreasing, but the future grains become amassed into the past through the present. This was widely discussed in around the 3rd century CE. 
The earliest recorded philosophy of time was expounded by Ptahhotep, who lived c. 2650–2600 BCE said: "Do not lessen the time of following desire, for the wasting of time is an abomination to the spirit."
In the Old Testament book Ecclesiastes, thought to have been written by Solomon (970–928 BCE), time (as the Hebrew word עדן, זמן `iddan(time) zĕman(season) is often translated) was traditionally regarded as a medium for the passage of predestined events. (Another word, זמן zman, was current as meaning time fit for an event, and is used as the modern Hebrew equivalent to the English word "time".)
There is an appointed time (zman) for everything. And there is a time (’êth) for every event under heaven–
A time (’êth) to give birth, and a time to die; A time to plant, and a time to uproot what is planted.
A time to kill, and a time to heal; A time to tear down, and a time to build up.
A time to weep, and a time to laugh; A time to mourn, and a time to dance.
A time to throw stones, and a time to gather stones; A time to embrace, and a time to shun embracing.
A time to search, and a time to give up as lost; A time to keep, and a time to throw away.
A time to tear apart, and a time to sew together; A time to be silent, and a time to speak.
A time to love, and a time to hate; A time for war, and a time for peace.
– Ecclesiastes 3:1–8
Linear and cyclical time
In general, the Judaeo-Christian concept, based on the Bible, is that time is linear, with a beginning, the act of creation by God. The Christian view assumes also an end, the eschaton, expected to happen when Christ returns to earth in the Second Coming to judge the living and the dead. This will be the consummation of the world and time. St Augustine's City of God was the first developed application of this concept to world history. The Christian view is that God is uncreated and eternal so that He and the supernatural world are outside time and exist in eternity.
Ancient cultures such as Incan, Mayan, Hopi, and other Native American Tribes, plus the Babylonian, Ancient Greek, Hindu, Buddhist, Jainist, and others have a concept of a wheel of time, that regards time as cyclical and quantic consisting of repeating ages that happen to every being of the Universe between birth and extinction.
Time in philosophy
In Book 11 of St. Augustine's Confessions, he ruminates on the nature of time, asking, "What then is time? If no one asks me, I know: if I wish to explain it to one that asketh, I know not." He settles on time being defined more by what it is not than what it is.
Absolute, true, and mathematical time, in and of itself and of its own nature, without reference to anything external, flows uniformly and by another name is called duration. Relative, apparent, and common time is any sensible and external measure (precise or imprecise) of duration by means of motion; such a measure – for example, an hour, a day, a month, a year – is commonly used instead of true time.
In contrast to Newton's belief in absolute space, and closely related to Kantian time, Leibniz believed that time and space are a conceptual apparatus describing the interrelations between events. The differences between Leibniz's and Newton's interpretations came to a head in the famous Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence. Leibniz thought of time as a fundamental part of an abstract conceptual framework, together with space and number, within which we sequence events, quantify their duration, and compare the motions of objects. In this view, time does not refer to any kind of entity that "flows," that objects "move through," or that is a "container" for events.
Immanuel Kant, in the Critique of Pure Reason, described time as an a priori intuition that allows us (together with the other a priori intuition, space) to comprehend sense experience. With Kant, neither space nor time are conceived as substances, but rather both are elements of a systematic mental framework necessarily structuring the experiences of any rational agent, or observing subject. Spatial measurements are used to quantify how far apart objects are, and temporal measurements are used to quantify how far apart events occur.
Henri Bergson believed that time was neither a real homogeneous medium nor a mental construct, but possesses what he referred to as Duration. Duration, in Bergson's view, was creativity and memory as an essential component of reality.
Time as "unreal"
In 5th century BC Greece, Antiphon the Sophist, in a fragment preserved from his chief work On Truth held that: "Time is not a reality (hypostasis), but a concept (noêma) or a measure (metron)." Parmenides went further, maintaining that time, motion, and change were illusions, leading to the paradoxes of his follower Zeno. Time as illusion is also a common theme in Buddhist thought, and some modern philosophers have carried on with this theme. J. M. E. McTaggart's 1908 The Unreality of Time, for example, argues that time is unreal (see also The flow of time).
However, these arguments often center around what it means for something to be "real". Modern physicists generally consider time to be as "real" as space, though others such as Julian Barbour in his book The End of Time, argue that quantum equations of the universe take their true form when expressed in the timeless configuration spacerealm containing every possible "Now" or momentary configuration of the universe, which he terms 'platonia'.
Time in the physical sciences
From the age of Newton up until Einstein's profound reinterpretation of the physical concepts associated with time and space, time was considered to be "absolute" and to flow "equably" (to use the words of Newton) for all observers. The science of classical mechanics is based on this Newtonian idea of time.
Einstein, in his special theory of relativity, postulated the constancy and finiteness of the speed of light for all observers. He showed that this postulate, together with a reasonable definition for what it means for two events to be simultaneous, requires that distances appear compressed and time intervals appear lengthened for events associated with objects in motion relative to an inertial observer.
Einstein showed that if time and space is measured using electromagnetic phenomena (like light bouncing between mirrors) then due to the constancy of the speed of light, time and space become mathematically entangled together in a certain way (called Minkowski space) which in turn results in Lorentz transformation and in entanglement of all other important derivative physical quantities (like energy, momentum, mass, force, etc) in a certain 4-vectorial way (see special relativity for more details).
Time in classical mechanics
In classical mechanics Newton's concept of "relative, apparent, and common time" can be used in the formulation of a prescription for the synchronization of clocks. Events seen by two different observers in motion relative to each other produce a mathematical concept of time that works pretty well for describing the everyday phenomena of most people's experience.
Time in modern physics
In the late nineteenth century physicists encountered problems with the classical understanding of time, in connection with the behavior of electricity and magnetism. Einstein resolved these problems by invoking a method of synchronizing clocks using the constant, finite speed of light as the maximum signal velocity. This led directly to the result that time appears to elapse at different rates relative to different observers in motion relative to one another.
Time has historically been closely related with space, the two together comprising spacetime in Einstein's special relativity and general relativity. According to these theories, the concept of time depends on the spatial reference frame of the observer, and the human perception as well as the measurement by instruments such as clocks are different for observers in relative motion. Even the temporal order of events can change, but the past and future are defined by the backward and forward light cones, which never change. The past is the set of events that can send light signals to the observer, the future the events to which the observer can send light signals. All else is non-observable and within that set of events the very time-order differs for different observers.
"Time is nature's way of keeping everything from happening at once". This quote, attributed variously to Einstein, John Archibald Wheeler, and Woody Allen, says that time is what separates cause and effect. Einstein showed that people traveling at different speeds, whilst agreeing on cause and effect, will measure different time separations between events and can even observe different chronological orderings between non-causally related events. Though these effects are minute unless one is traveling at a speed close to that of light, the effect becomes pronounced for objects moving at speeds approaching the speed of light. Many subatomic particles exist for only a fixed fraction of a second in a lab relatively at rest, but some that travel close to the speed of light can be measured to travel further and survive much longer than expected (a muon is one example). According to the special theory of relativity, in the high-speed particle's frame of reference, it exists, on the average, for a standard amount of time known as its mean lifetime, and the distance it travels in that time is zero, because its velocity is zero. Relative to a frame of reference at rest, time seems to "slow down" for the particle. Relative to the high-speed particle, distances seems to shorten. Even in Newtonian terms time may be considered the fourth dimension of motion; but Einstein showed how both temporal and spatial dimensions can be altered (or "warped") by high-speed motion.
Einstein (The Meaning of Relativity): "Two events taking place at the points A and B of a system K are simultaneous if they appear at the same instant when observed from the middle point, M, of the interval AB. Time is then defined as the ensemble of the indications of similar clocks, at rest relatively to K, which register the same simultaneously."
Einstein wrote in his book, Relativity, that simultaneity is also relative, i.e., two events that appear simultaneous to an observer in a particular inertial reference frame need not be judged as simultaneous by a second observer in a different inertial frame of reference.
Relativistic time versus Newtonian time
The animations on the left and the right visualise the different treatments of time in the Newtonian and the relativistic descriptions. At heart of these differences are the Galilean and Lorentz transformations applicable in the Newtonian and relativistic theories, respectively.
In both figures, the vertical direction indicates time. The horizontal direction indicates distance (only one spatial dimension is taken into account), and the thick dashed curve is the spacetime trajectory ("world line") of the observer. The small dots indicate specific (past and future) events in spacetime.
The slope of the world line (deviation from being vertical) gives the relative velocity to the observer. Note how in both pictures the view of spacetime changes when the observer accelerates.
In the Newtonian description these changes are such that time is absolute: the movements of the observer do not influence whether an event occurs in the 'now' (i.e. whether an event passes the horizontal line through the observer).
However, in the relativistic description the observability of events is absolute: the movements of the observer influences whether an event passes the light cone of the observer. Notice that with the change from a Newtonian to a relativistic description, the concept of absolute time is no longer applicable: events move up-and-down in the figure depending on the acceleration of the observer.
Arrow of time
Time appears to have a direction – the past lies behind, fixed and incommutable, while the future lies ahead and is not necessarily fixed. Yet the majority of the laws of physics don't provide this arrow of time. The exceptions include the Second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy must increase over time (see Entropy); the cosmological arrow of time, which points away from the Big Bang, and the radiative arrow of time, caused by light only traveling forwards in time. In particle physics, there is also the weak arrow of time, from CPT symmetry, and also measurement in quantum mechanics (see Measurement in quantum mechanics).
Planck time (~ 5.4 × 10−44 seconds) is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units. Current established physical theories are believed to fail at this time scale, and many physicists expect that the Planck time might be the smallest unit of time that could ever be measured, even in principle. Tentative physical theories that describe this time scale exist; see for instance loop quantum gravity.
Time and the Big Bang
Stephen Hawking in particular has addressed a connection between time and the Big Bang. He has sometimes stated that we may as well assume that time began with the Big Bang because trying to answer any question about what happened before the Big Bang is trying to answer a question that is meaningless as those events would have been part of a different time frame and different universe outside of the scope of the Big Bang theory.
Hawking, in A Brief History of Time and elsewhere, along with several other modern physicists, has stated his position more clearly and less controversially: that even if time did not begin with the Big Bang and there were another time frame before the Big Bang, no information from events then would be accessible to us, and nothing that happened then would have any effect upon the present time-frame.
Scientists have come to some agreement on descriptions of events that happened 10−35 seconds after the Big Bang, but generally agree that descriptions about what happened before one Planck time (5 × 10−44 seconds) after the Big Bang will likely remain pure speculation.
Speculative physics beyond the Big Bang
While the Big Bang model is well established in cosmology, it is likely to be refined in the future. Little is known about the earliest moments of the universe's history. The Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems require the existence of a singularity at the beginning of cosmic time. However, these theorems assume that general relativity is correct, but general relativity must break down before the universe reaches the Planck temperature, and a correct treatment of quantum gravity may avoid the singularity.
There may also be parts of the universe well beyond what can be observed in principle. If inflation occurred this is likely, for exponential expansion would push large regions of space beyond our observable horizon.
Some proposals, each of which entails untested hypotheses, are:
- models including the Hartle-Hawking boundary condition in which the whole of space-time is finite; the Big Bang does represent the limit of time, but without the need for a singularity.
- brane cosmology models in which inflation is due to the movement of branes in string theory; the pre-big bang model; the ekpyrotic model, in which the Big Bang is the result of a collision between branes; and the cyclic model, a variant of the ekpyrotic model in which collisions occur periodically.
- chaotic inflation, in which inflation events start here and there in a random quantum-gravity foam, each leading to a bubble universe expanding from its own big bang.
Proposals in the last two categories see the Big Bang as an event in a much larger and older universe, or multiverse, and not the literal beginning.
Time travel is the concept of moving backwards and/or forwards to different points in time, in a manner analogous to moving through space. Although time travel has been a plot device in fiction since the 19th century, and one-way travel into the future is arguably possible given the phenomenon of time dilation in the theory of relativity, it is currently unknown whether the laws of physics would allow time travel to the past. Any technological device, whether fictional or hypothetical, that is used to achieve time travel is known as a time machine.
A central problem with time travel to the past is the violation of causality; should an effect precede its cause, it would give rise to the possibility of temporal paradox. Some interpretations of time travel resolve this by accepting the possibility of travel between parallel realities or universes.
Perception of time
Time in psychology
Even in the presence of timepieces, different individuals may judge an identical length of time to be passing at different rates. Commonly, this is referred to as time seeming to "fly" (a period of time seeming to pass faster than possible) or time seeming to "drag" (a period of time seeming to pass slower than possible). The psychologist Jean Piaget called this form of time perception "lived time."
Man: Well, it's like this,—supposing I were to sit next to a pretty girl for half an hour it would seem like half a minute,—
Einstein: Braffo! You haf the idea!
Man: But if I were to sit on a hot stove for two seconds then it would seem like two hours.
Time also appears to pass more quickly as one gets older. Stephen Hawking suggests that the perception of time is a ratio: Unit of Time : Time Lived. For example, one hour to a six-month-old person would be approximately "1:4032", while one hour to a 40-year-old would be "1:349,440". Therefore an hour appears much longer to a young child than to an aged adult, even though the measure of time is equal.
Time in altered states of consciousness
Altered states of consciousness are sometimes characterized by a different estimation of time. Some psychoactive substances – such as entheogens – may also dramatically alter a person's temporal judgement. When viewed under the influence of such substances as LSD, psychedelic mushrooms and peyote, a clock may appear to be a strange reference point and a useless tool for measuring the passage of events as it does not correlate with the user's experience. At higher doses, time may appear to slow down, stop, speed up, go backwards and even seem out of sequence when under the influence of these agents. A typical thought might be "I can't believe it's only 8 o'clock, but then again, what does 8 o'clock mean?" As the boundaries for experiencing time are removed, so is its relevance. Many users claim this unbounded timelessness feels like a glimpse into spiritual infinity. To imagine that one exists somewhere "outside" of time is one of the hallmark experiences of a psychedelic voyage. Marijuana, a milder psychedelic, may also distort the perception of time to a lesser degree.
The practice of meditation, central to all Buddhist traditions, takes as its goal the reflection of the mind back upon itself, thus altering the subjective experience of time; the so called, 'entering the now', or 'the moment'.
Culture is another variable contributing to the perception of time. Anthropologist Benjamin Lee Whorf reported after studying the Hopi cultures that: "… the Hopi language is seen to contain no words, grammatical forms, construction or expressions or that refer directly to what we call “time”, or to past, present, or future…" Whorf's assertion has been challenged and modified. Pinker debunks Whorf's claims about time in the Hopi language, pointing out that the anthropologist Malotki (1983) has found that the Hopi do have a concept of time very similar to that of other cultures; they have units of time, and a sophisticated calendar.
Use of time
In sociology and anthropology, time discipline is the general name given to social and economic rules, conventions, customs, and expectations governing the measurement of time, the social currency and awareness of time measurements, and people's expectations concerning the observance of these customs by others.
The use of time is an important issue in understanding human behaviour, education, and travel behaviour. Time use research is a developing field of study. The question concerns how time is allocated across a number of activities (such as time spent at home, at work, shopping, etc.). Time use changes with technology, as the television or the Internet created new opportunities to use time in different ways. However, some aspects of time use are relatively stable over long periods of time, such as the amount of time spent traveling to work, which despite major changes in transport, has been observed to be about 20-30 minutes one-way for a large number of cities over a long period of time. This has led to the disputed time budget hypothesis.
Time management is the organization of tasks or events by first estimating how much time a task will take to be completed, when it must be completed, and then adjusting events that would interfere with its completion so that completion is reached in the appropriate amount of time. Calendars and day planners are common examples of time management tools.
Notes and references
- Rudgley, Richard (1999). The Lost Civilizations of the Stone Age. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 86–105.
- Duff, Michael J.; Okun, Lev B.; Veneziano, Gabriele (March 2002). "Trialogue on the number of fundamental constants" (PDF). Institute of Physics Publishing for SISSA/ISAS. Retrieved 2008-02-02. p. 17. "I only add to this the observation that relativity and quantum mechanics provide, in string theory, units of length and time which look, at present, more fundamental than any other."
- Duff, Okun, Veneziano, ibid. p. 3. "There is no well established terminology for the fundamental constants of Nature. … The absence of accurately defined terms or the uses (i.e. actually misuses) of ill-defined terms lead to confusion and proliferation of wrong statements."
- Rynasiewicz, Robert : Johns Hopkins University (2004-08-12). "Newton's Views on Space, Time, and Motion". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-01-10. "Newton did not regard space and time as genuine substances (as are, paradigmatically, bodies and minds), but rather as real entities with their own manner of existence as necessitated by God's existence... To paraphrase: Absolute, true, and mathematical time, from its own nature, passes equably without relation the [sic~to] anything external, and thus without reference to any change or way of measuring of time (e.g., the hour, day, month, or year)." Unknown parameter
- Markosian, Ned. "Time". In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2002 Edition). "The opposing view, normally referred to either as “Platonism with Respect to Time” or as “Absolutism with Respect to Time,” has been defended by Plato, Newton, and others. On this view, time is like an empty container into which events may be placed; but it is a container that exists independently of whether or not anything is placed in it." Unknown parameter
- Burnham, Douglas : Staffordshire University (2006). "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) Metaphysics - 7. Space, Time, and Indiscernibles". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-01-10. "First of all, Leibniz finds the idea that space and time might be substances or substance-like absurd (see, for example, "Correspondence with Clarke," Leibniz's Fourth Paper, §8ff). In short, an empty space would be a substance with no properties; it will be a substance that even God cannot modify or destroy.... That is, space and time are internal or intrinsic features of the complete concepts of things, not extrinsic.... Leibniz's view has two major implications. First, there is no absolute location in either space or time; location is always the situation of an object or event relative to other objects and events. Second, space and time are not in themselves real (that is, not substances). Space and time are, rather, ideal. Space and time are just metaphysically illegitimate ways of perceiving certain virtual relations between substances. They are phenomena or, strictly speaking, illusions (although they are illusions that are well-founded upon the internal properties of substances).... It is sometimes convenient to think of space and time as something "out there," over and above the entities and their relations to each other, but this convenience must not be confused with reality. Space is nothing but the order of co-existent objects; time nothing but the order of successive events. This is usually called a relational theory of space and time."
- Mattey, G. J. : UC Davis (1997-01-22). "Critique of Pure Reason, Lecture notes: Philosophy 175 UC Davis". Retrieved 2008-01-10. "What is correct in the Leibnizian view was its anti-metaphysical stance. Space and time do not exist in and of themselves, but in some sense are the product of the way we represent things. The are ideal, though not in the sense in which Leibniz thought they are ideal (figments of the imagination). The ideality of space is its mind-dependence: it is only a condition of sensibility.... Kant concluded "absolute space is not an object of outer sensation; it is rather a fundamental concept which first of all makes possible all such outer sensation."...Much of the argumentation pertaining to space is applicable, mutatis mutandis, to time, so I will not rehearse the arguments. As space is the form of outer intuition, so time is the form of inner intuition.... Kant claimed that time is real, it is "the real form of inner intuition.""
- McCormick, Matt : California State University, Sacramento (2006). "Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Metaphysics : 4. Kant's Transcendental Idealism". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-01-10. "Time, Kant argues, is also necessary as a form or condition of our intuitions of objects. The idea of time itself cannot be gathered from experience because succession and simultaneity of objects, the phenomena that would indicate the passage of time, would be impossible to represent if we did not already possess the capacity to represent objects in time.... Another way to put the point is to say that the fact that the mind of the knower makes the a priori contribution does not mean that space and time or the categories are mere figments of the imagination. Kant is an empirical realist about the world we experience; we can know objects as they appear to us. He gives a robust defense of science and the study of the natural world from his argument about the mind's role in making nature. All discursive, rational beings must conceive of the physical world as spatially and temporally unified, he argues."
- Richards, E. G. (1998). Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History. Oxford University Press. pp. 3–5.
- Barnett, Jo Ellen Time's Pendulum: The Quest to Capture Time - from Sundials to Atomic Clocks Plenum, 1998 ISBN 0-306-45787-3 p.28
- Barnett, ibid, p.37
- Laurence Bergreen, Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe, HarperCollins Publishers, 2003, hardcover 480 pages, ISBN 0-06-621173-5
- North, J. (2004) God's Clockmaker: Richard of Wallingford and the Invention of Time. Oxbow Books. ISBN 1-85285-451-0
- Watson, E (1979) "The St Albans Clock of Richard of Wallingford". Antiquarian Horology 372-384.
- Organisation Intergouvernementale de la Convention du Métre (1998). The International System of Units (SI), 7th Edition (PDF). Retrieved 2006-06-13.
- "Base unit definitions: Second". NIST. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
- St. Augustine, Confessions, Book 11. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/jod/augustine/Pusey/book11 (Accessed 5/26/07).
- Newton, Isaac (1726). The Principia, 3rd edition. Translated by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1999.
- Kant, Immanuel (1787). The Critique of Pure Reason, 2nd edition. translated by J. M. D. Meiklejohn, eBooks@Adelaide, 2004 - http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/k/kant/immanuel/k16p/k16p15.html
- Bergson, Henri (1907) Creative Evolution. trans. by Arthur Mitchell. Mineola: Dover, 1998.
- Harry Foundalis. "You are about to disappear". Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- Tom Huston. "Buddhism and the illusion of time". Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- "Time is an illusion?". Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- Herman M. Schwartz, Introduction to Special Relativity, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968, hardcover 442 pages, see ISBN 0882754785 (1977 edition), pp. 10-13
- A. Einstein, H. A. Lorentz, H. Weyl, H. Minkowski, The Principle of Relativity, Dover Publications, Inc, 2000, softcover 216 pages, ISBN 0486600815, See pp. 37-65 for an English translation of Einstein's original 1905 paper.
- Hawking, Stephen. "The Beginning of Time". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 2008-01-10. "The conclusion of this lecture is that the universe has not existed forever. Rather, the universe, and time itself, had a beginning in the Big Bang, about 15 billion years ago."
- Hawking, Stephen (2006-02-27). "Professor Stephen Hawking lectures on the origin of the universe". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2008-01-10. "Suppose the beginning of the universe was like the South Pole of the earth, with degrees of latitude playing the role of time. The universe would start as a point at the South Pole. As one moves north, the circles of constant latitude, representing the size of the universe, would expand. To ask what happened before the beginning of the universe would become a meaningless question because there is nothing south of the South Pole.'"
- Ghandchi, Sam : Editor/Publisher (2004-01-16). "Space and New Thinking". Retrieved 2008-01-10. "and as Stephen Hawking puts it, asking what was before Big Bang is like asking what is North of North Pole, a meaningless question."
- Adler, Mortimer J., Ph.D. "Natural Theology, Chance, and God". Retrieved 2008-01-10. "Hawking could have avoided the error of supposing that time had a beginning with the Big Bang if he had distinguished time as it is measured by physicists from time that is not measurable by physicists.... an error shared by many other great physicists in the twentieth century, the error of saying that what cannot be measured by physicists does not exist in reality." "The Great Ideas Today". Encylopaedia Britannica. 1992.
- Adler, Mortimer J., Ph.D. "Natural Theology, Chance, and God". Retrieved 2008-01-10. "Where Einstein had said that what is not measurable by physicists is of no interest to them, Hawking flatly asserts that what is not measurable by physicists does not exist -- has no reality whatsoever.
With respect to time, that amounts to the denial of psychological time which is not measurable by physicists, and also to everlasting time -- time before the Big Bang -- which physics cannot measure. Hawking does not know that both Aquinas and Kant had shown that we cannot rationally establish that time is either finite or infinite." "The Great Ideas Today". Encylopaedia Britannica. 1992.
- Hawking, Stephen. "The Beginning of Time". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 2008-01-10. "Since events before the Big Bang have no observational consequences, one may as well cut them out of the theory, and say that time began at the Big Bang. Events before the Big Bang, are simply not defined, because there's no way one could measure what happened at them. This kind of beginning to the universe, and of time itself, is very different to the beginnings that had been considered earlier."
- Hawking, Stephen; and Ellis, G. F. R. (1973). The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09906-4.
- J. Hartle and S. W. Hawking (1983). "Wave function of the universe". Phys. Rev. D 28: 2960.
- Langlois, David (2002). "Brane cosmology: an introduction". arXiv:hep-th/0209261.
- Linde, Andre (2002). "Inflationary Theory versus Ekpyrotic/Cyclic Scenario". arXiv:hep-th/0205259.
- "Recycled Universe: Theory Could Solve Cosmic Mystery". Space.com. 8 May 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-03. Check date values in:
- "What Happened Before the Big Bang?". Retrieved 2007-07-03.
- A. Linde (1986). "Eternal chaotic inflation". Mod. Phys. Lett. A1. Unknown parameter
A. Linde (1986). "Eternally existing self-reproducing chaotic inflationary universe". Phys. Lett. B175. Unknown parameter
- Priestley, J. B. (1964). Man and Time. New York: Crescent Books. p. 96.
- Sunrise (2008). "Unified Field Theory: A new interpretation". Chapter 2 - The Development of the Unified Field Theory, pg. 31. Sunrise Information Services.
- Wada Y, Masuda T, Noguchi K, 2005, "Temporal illusion called 'kappa effect' in event perception" Perception 34 ECVP Abstract Supplement
- Carroll, John B. (ed.)(1956). [Language Thought and Reality. Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. MIT Press, Boston, Massachusetts. [a href="http://worldcat.org/isbn/0262730065" ISBN 0262730065 9780262730068]
- Parr-Davies, Neil (April 2001), The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: A Critique, Aberystwyth University, retrieved 2008-02-02 Check date values in:
- Date and time notation by country
- Growing block universe
- Kappa effect
- List of cycles
- Network Time Protocol (NTP)
- Nonlinear (arts)
- Philosophy of physics
- System time
Special units of time
- Fiscal year
- Hexadecimal Time
- Swatch Internet Time
- Shake (time)
- Ship's bells
- Unix epoch
Leading scholarly organizations for researchers on the history and technology of time and timekeeping
- Antiquarian Horological Society - AHS (United Kingdom)
- Association Française des Amateurs d'Horlogerie Ancienne - AFAHA (France)
- Chronometrophilia (Switzerland)
- Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chronometrie - DGC (Germany)
- HORA Associazione Italiana Cultori di Orologeria Antica (Italy)
- National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors - NAWCC (United States of America)
- Barbour, Julian (1999). The End of Time: The Next Revolution in Our Understanding of the Universe. ISBN 0-19-514592-5. Unknown parameter
- Das, Tushar Kanti (1990). The Time Dimension: An Interdisciplinary Guide. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0275926818.- Research bibliography
- Davies, Paul (1996). About Time: Einstein's Unfinished Revolution. ISBN 0-684-81822-1.
- Feynman, Richard (1994) . The Character of Physical Law. Cambridge (Mass): The MIT Press. pp. 108–126. ISBN 0-262-56003-8.
- Galison, Peter (1992). Einstein's Clocks and Poincaré's Maps: Empires of Time. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-02001-0.
- Highfield, Roger (1992). Arrow of Time: A Voyage through Science to Solve Time's Greatest Mystery. Random House. ISBN 0-449-90723-6.
- Mermin, N. David (2005). It's About Time: Understanding Einstein's Relativity. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12201-6.
- Penrose, Roger (1999) . The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 391–417. ISBN 0-19-286198-0.
- Price, Huw (1996). Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511798-0.
- Reichenbach, Hans (1999) . The Direction of Time. New York: Dover. ISBN 0-486-40926-0.
- Stiegler, Bernard, Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus
- Whitrow, Gerald J. (1973). The Nature of Time. Holt, Rinehart and Wilson (New York).
- Whitrow, Gerald J. (1980). The Natural Philosophy of Time. Clarendon Press (Oxford).
- Whitrow, Gerald J. (1988). Time in History. The evolution of our general awareness of time and temporal perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285211-6.
- Rovelli, Carlo (2006). What is time? What is space?. Rome: Di Renzo Editore. ISBN 8883231465.
|Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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Perception of time
- Time and Its Discontents
- Time Perception I and II
- Time Perception Research at the University of Manchester
- A walk through Time
- Time and classical and quantum mechanics: Indeterminacy vs. discontinuity
- Theories With Problems: What Is Time?
- Exploring the Nature of Time
- Myth of the Beginning of Time
- Eastern Philosophy
- The Conceptual Scheme of Chinese Philosophical Thinking - Time
- An article on Time and Universal Consciousness
- Western Philosophy
- Crouch, Will (2006-2008). "Is there a defensible argument for the non-existence of time?". On Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-01-24. Text "Copyright James Nicholson
- Dowden, Bradley (California State University, Sacramento) (2007). "Time". In James Fieser, Ph.D., Bradley Dowden, Ph.D. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Le Poidevin, Robin (Winter 2004). "The Experience and Perception of Time". In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- Mcdonough, Jeff (Harvard University) (Winter 2007). "Leibniz's Philosophy of Physics". In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-01-31. Unknown parameter
- Ross, Kelley L., Ph.D. (Los Angeles Valley College). "The Clarke-Leibniz Debate (1715-1716)". The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series (1996, 1999, 2001). Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- Ross, Kelley L., Ph.D. (Los Angeles Valley College). "Three Points in Kant's Theory of Space and Time". The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series (1996, 1999, 2001). Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- Savitt, Steven, Ph.D. (University of British Columbia) (Fall 2007). "Being and Becoming in Modern Physics". In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- Wilson, Catherine (City University of New York) (Summer 2004). "Kant and Leibniz". In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. ISSN 1095-5054. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Different systems of measuring time
- non-SI units
- UTC/TAI Timeserver
- Hex Time
- BBC article on shortest time ever measured
- Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry FH
- American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute
- The World Clock - Time Zones
- World Local Times on Google Map by single click
- Current time in cities all over the world
- Interactive Map of World Time
- World Time for any place on earth
- GMT and all other timezones...
- TimeTicker and the time tickers...
- World Time and Zones
- Official US time
- Exploring Time from Planck Time to the lifespan of the universe
- Time Server Calling to a different time zone; This site can be used to work out what time you should call. Also has some good "history of time" information and information about computer time servers and gps time.