User talk:Brianw246

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Welcome![edit]

Hello, Brianw246, and welcome to Wikipedia! Thank you for your contributions. I hope you like the place and decide to stay. Here are some pages that you might find helpful:

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Again, welcome!  JFW | T@lk 20:07, 17 October 2011 (UTC)

Yes Welcome[edit]

I assume that you too are from Yale? A few quick notes on editing:

  1. references are requires and per WP:MEDRS should be review articles or major textbooks not primary research articles
  2. make sure you paraphrase rather than copy and paste
  3. please provide the PMIDs (it really helps other here)
  4. please write in general language, we do not need to know the 95% CIs :-)

If you have any question feel free to drop a note on my talk page. I have removed your edit for know and will paste it on your talk page until suitable refs are found. Cheers Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 05:23, 17 December 2011 (UTC)

Text in question[edit]

==Environmental Influences==

Air Pollution[edit]

Air pollution is described using air particulate matter (PM) as a reference point. The overarching term, PM10—particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micrometers in mean aerodynamic diameter—encompasses the coarse (10-2.5 μm; PM10-2.5), fine (2.5-0.1 μm; PM2.5), and ultra-fine (< 0.1 μm; PM0.1 or UFP) particulate matter with their corresponding diameter ranges, common sources, and biological pathway noted in the table below . PM10 has the ability to travel hundreds to thousands of kilometers—especially PM2.5—so a greater density of the population is at risk of exposure from this form of air pollution.

In the body, the further PM travels into the lungs more harm can occur due to its translocation into the bloodstream via the alveoli capillary beds, which finer PM typically reaches . Additionally, PM can cause pulmonary and vascular inflammation resulting in oxidative stress and chronic disease (e.g. asbestosis). This inflammation, along with interference in the heart’s nervous control and healthy clotting, compose the majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD) manifestations from PM inhalation

CVD and PM have been studied for their short- and long-term exposure effects. Currently, PM2.5 is the major focus, in which gradients are used to determine CVD risk. For every 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 long-term exposure, there was an estimated 8-18% CVD mortality risk.1 Women had a higher relative risk (RR) (1.42) for PM2.5 induced coronary artery disease than men (0.90) did.1 Overall, long-term PM exposure increased rate of atherosclerosis and inflammation. In regards to short-term exposure (2 hrs), every 25 μg/m3 of PM2.5 resulted in a 48% increase of CVD mortality risk.3 Additionally, after only 5 days of exposure, a rise in systolic (2.8 mmHg) and diastolic (2.7 mmHg) blood pressure occurred for every 10.5 μg/m3 of PM2.5.3 Other research has implicated PM2.5 in irregular heart rhythm, reduced heart rate variability (decreased vagal tone), and most notably heart failure.2,3 PM2.5 is also linked to carotid artery thickening and increased risk of acute myocardial infarction.2,3

Particulate Matter ≤ 10μm in mean diameter (PM10) classification Mean aerodynamic diameter (MAD) Common sources Biological pathway
Coarse (PM10-2.5) 2.5μm ≤ MAD ≤ 10μm Smoke, dust, dirt, mold, pollen Nasopharynx, trachea
Fine (PM2.5) 0.1μm ≤ MAD < 2.5μm Heavy metals, automobile exhaust, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Bronchi, bronchioli, alveoli
Ultra-fine (PM0.1 or UFP) MAD < 0.1μm Heavy metals, automobile exhaust, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Bronchi, bronchioli, alveoli


Particulate matter[edit]

Wrong talk page but no worries. Maybe add it to the page on particulate matter. Wikipedia has pages on nearly everything and we need to keep topics on topic. Now I hear you guys are grad students. How many of you are there? It would be nice to have a way to give you feedback as a group. Would also like to touch base with your prof if you could put me in touch with him or her.--Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 06:14, 17 December 2011 (UTC)