User talk:JohnLloydScharf/J1draft

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Cohanim Date of Origin[edit]

Haplogroup Cohanim Sample (n) 17 loci a ± Variation a 9 loci b ± Variation b
J-P58*-All 99 3.2 1.1 3.0 1.5
J-Ashkenazi 63 2.4 0.8 2.8 1.2
J-M410* All 31 5.9 2.0 4.9 1.9

Date and Place of Origin[edit]

The lack of agreement of researchers cannot be denied with regard to the Date and Place of Origin of Haplotype J1. However, the usual suspect origin is from the Levant (Lebenon, Israel, Jordan, and eastern Egypt) with two dispersion events toward North Africa and the Arabian Plate, regardless who does the research.

The J or J-12f2k Haplogroup is the grandparent of J1 and has an estimated age is 31.7±12.8 Kyr, or 31,700 years old with possible range of possible ages from 18,900 years to 44,500 years old. Of course, the more recent paper (Karafet et al, 2008, pg.7 of 8) with demography-independent age estimates puts the IJ, parent of J, with the age of 38,500 years(Range:30,500–46,200).That means you have to clip off that J claim to account for the lower ranges of IJ.

The estimated age of the J1/M267 subclade's age of origin setting began with "24.1±9.4 Kyr" which translates from researcher jargon to 24,100 years before present, plus or minus 9,400 years. That means the J1 age range of 14,700 to 33,500 overlaps both of the parent ranges of J and IJ. That is an inconsistancy.

In this study dating J1 to 14,700 to 33,500 years old, only included 93 individuals classified as J-12f2k that were not J2. The most common ancestor of the J-M267 branch 93 chromosomes out of a population of 257 males,typed 275 men from five populations in Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt with a set of 119 binary markers and 15 microsatellites from the Y chromosome. They state, "...we have analyzed the results together with published data from Moroccan populations found in both the Middle East and North Africa (and including our J* chromosomes).

To put that into perspective, 24,100 years ago was the last height when ice sheets were at their maximum extension. While humans were using tools, their teeth show they still used them as a tool and a spare hand in the Mesolithic Natufian culture from 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant.

To compare with 9,400 years, about 9,400 years ago was long before there was domestication of plants and animals. The land bridge between the British Isles was just beginning to fill in and there was no written language. The oldest written language is Sumerian from about 5,000 years ago (5.0 Kybp), so every event before that is "prehistoric."

The parent clade of J or M304, which is offspring of the J Haplogroup and parent of J1 and J1, is estimated to be 20,000 years before present, so, the 24.1 Kybp date of origin for the J1-M267 given lacks some verifiable authority. It is better set at 18,200 years before present(C. Cinniog˘ lu et al, 2003, Pg.131) or 18,000 years(Di Giacomo et al,2004, Table 3., Pg 364).

Another part of the problem is the data gives information in generations rather than years, but the researchers put years instead of generations in their papers. Some researchers us 25 years per generation and others 30 for their assumed time between generations. Some genealogists use 20 years as an assumed time for a generation. The time between generations has the factor of when the first and last children were born affecting the average outcomes. Those factors have been in flux over the last 9,000 years and have drastically changed in the last 400 years. The difference is similar to the difference between the old English (pound) versus the new metric (kilogram) systems.

-Dates of Origin Notes-[edit]

J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements
European Journal of Human Genetics (2009) 17, 1520–1524; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.58; published online 15 April 2009
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v17/n11/full/ejhg200958a.html
Sergio Tofanelli1,14, Gianmarco Ferri2,14, Kazima Bulayeva3, Laura Caciagli1, Valerio Onofri4, Luca Taglioli1, Oleg Bulayev3, Ilaria Boschi5, Milena Alù2, Andrea Berti6, Cesare Rapone6, Giovanni Beduschi2, Donata Luiselli7, Alicia M Cadenas8, Khalid Dafaallah Awadelkarim9,10, Renato Mariani-Costantini10, Nasr Eldin Elwali9, Fabio Verginelli10, Elena Pilli11, Rene J Herrera8, Leonor Gusmão12, Giorgio Paoli1 and Cristian Capelli13

Calculations under the coalescent model for J1 haplotypes bearing the Cohanim motif gave time estimates that place the origin of this genealogy around 6.2 Kybp (95% CI: 4.5–8.6 Kybp), earlier than previously thought,4 and well before the origin of Judaism (David Kingdom, ~2.0 Kybp). This misinformation in the paper calls into question the bias of the authors for this paper.

NOTE: 2.0 Kybp or 2,000 years ago would be during the Roman occupation of Israel, long after the rein of David.Grabbe 2008, pp. 225–6. puts Judah into 8th-7th century BC. The Cohen lineage, however, begins with Aaron, the brother of Moses.The Jewish calendar's epoch (reference date), 1 Tishrei 1 AM, is equivalent to Monday, 7 October 3761 BCE (or 5.771 Kybp) in the proleptic Julian calendar, the equivalent tabular date (same daylight period) and is about one year before the traditional Jewish date of Creation on 25 Elul AM 1, based upon the Seder Olam Rabbah of Rabbi Yossi ben Halafta, a 2nd century CE sage.The Jewish year 5771 AM began on 9 September 2010 (1 Tishrei or Rosh Hashanah) and, since it is a 13-month year, will end on 28 September 2011 (29 Elul).The Book of Kings relates how a "law of Moses" was discovered in the Temple during the reign of king Josiah (r. 641–609 BC)William Dever agrees with the Canaanite origin of the Israelites but allows for the possibility of some immigrants from Egypt among the early hilltop settlers, leaving open the possibility of a Moses-like figure in Transjordan ca 1250-1200 BCE or 3250 to 3200 or 3.250 Kybp. New papers on molecular biology add the J-P58 or J1c3 subclade requirement to the Cohen Modal Haplotype, which may make it younger. Ultimately, it is unlikely Aaron was the founder of his haplotype. That might be pushed back further to Abraham.


However, a wide range of times since the most recent common ancestor (TMRCAs) has been proposed for J1 and its subclades (between 36 and 10 KyBP), and different conflicting scenarios have been depicted to explain their current distribution.3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:1023–1034, 2004 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B8JDD-4RDPX2D-R-1&_cdi=43612&_user=10&_pii=S0002929707643663&_origin=gateway&_coverDate=05%2F31%2F2004&_sk=%23TOC%2343612%232004%23999259994%23677407%23FLA%23display%23Volume_74,_Issue_5,_Pages_i-ii,_789-1080_(May_2004)%23tagged%23Volume%23first%3D74%23Issue%23first%3D5%23date%23(May_2004)%23&view=c&_gw=y&wchp=dGLzVzb-zSkWz&md5=62b21a3ecd8bce19d97fa884ed383b26&ie=/sdarticle.pdf J-M267 was spread by two temporally distinct migratory episodes, the most recent one probably associated with the diffusion of Arab people; Fig.2 24.1 ± 9.4 KY
  4. 4
  5. Semino et Al 2004, Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe Hum Genet (2004) 115: 357–371 DOI 10.1007/s00439-004-1168-9 http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf Pg.358:We also present here, for the first time, a novel method for comparative dating of lineages, free of assumptions of STR mutation rates,Table 3,pg.364:1 YMRCA=8,400+/-12,600 SD,3 BATWING a(subhaplogroups treated separately)=18,000(7,590–33,990)a.Age in years rounded to the nearest hundred, assuming 30 years/generation (Zerjal et al. 2002, 2003)
  6. Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S et al: A predominantly Neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 75: 338–345. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1216069/ Pg.342:An origin for haplogroup J in the Middle East has been proposed (Semino et al. 2004 and references therein); the TMRCA of the J-M267 branch, found in both the Middle East and North Africa (and including our J* chromosomes), was estimated at 24.1 ± 9.4 KY and must predate its spread. This is consistent with our 95% TMRCA estimate of 4.4–11.1 KY for the North African chromosomes.
  7. Cadenas AM, Zhivotovsky LA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ: Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman. Eur J Hum Genet 2008; 16: 374–386. http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v16/n3/full/5201934a.html http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v16/n3/pdf/5201934a.pdf Pg.376:Haplogroup-specific expansion times were estimated for select binary haplogroups (J1-M267, R1a1-M198, E3b1a-M78 and E3b1c-M123) by the linear expansion method. This procedure assumes a stepwise mutation model 45and a mean STR mutation rate of 0.00069 per STR locus per generation 46 with a 25-year intergeneration time as performed in previous studies. 4,12,47Pg.382:Based on binary and STR markers, the greatest degree of differentiation for J1-M267 is detected in the Levant with two distinct demographic dispersals generating its current distribution. A higher observed STR diversity of this clade among Europeans and Ethiopians in comparison to populations of North Africa points to its arrival to Ethiopia and Europe during Neolithic times with a more recent appearance in the latter.5858 Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G et al: Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 1023 – 103, Pg.383:Median BATWING expansion times based on Y-STR data for the Omani (2.3 ky; 95% CI: 0.6– 29.2) J1-M267 chromosomes 4 indicate a more recent arrival to the South Arabian populations as compared to the older expansion times obtained for the Egyptian (6.4 ky; 95% CI: 0.6–278.5) 4 and Turkish (15.4 ky; 95% CI: 0.4– 604.8)12representatives of this haplogroup. Conversely, in the present study, Y-STR age estimates based on the method described by Zhivotovsky et al 46 generated much older values for the J1-M267 haplogroup in Yemen, Qatar and UAE (9.772.4, 7.472.3 and 6.471.4 ky, respectively) than seen in the Omani,4 consistent with an earlier arrival to the region during the Neolithic.
  8. Zalloua PA, Xue Y, Khalife J et al: Y-chromosomal diversity in Lebanon is structured by recent historical events. Am J Hum Genet 2008; 82: 873–882. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2427286/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2427286/pdf/main.pdf NOTE: No mention of M267 or age. Just distribution, "of Y-haplogroup J*(xJ2) was more frequent in the putative Muslim source region"
  9. Chiaroni J, King RJ, Underhill P: Correlation of annual precipitation with human Y chromosome diversity and the emergence of Neolithic agriculture and pastoral economies in the fertile crescent. Antiquity 2008; 82: 281–289. Access Restricted.

-Alternative Notes-[edit]

  • Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions Khaled K Abu-Amero1 , Ali Hellani2 , Ana M González3 , Jose M Larruga3 , Vicente M Cabrera3 and Peter A Underhill4 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/10/59
Page 6 of 9:

The peculiar distribution of J2-M67 in Arabia could be explained assuming maritime contacts from classical Mediterranean cultures. The presence in Saudi Arabia of three males harbouring underived J1-M304 (Both J1 and J2)chromosomes is intriguing. It could be that they came together with the J1-M267 or J2-M172 expansive waves, or they could represent the remnants of an old and geographically widespread Palaeolithic substrate. This type of underived chromosomes has been detected rarely in Turkey [21], in Oman and in the eastern Mediterranean area [34]. However, as the critical Levantine region has not yet been adequately dissected for J1, it seems premature to favor any of these hypotheses. The geographic pattern and most probable origin of the Y-chromosome haplogroup J in Arabia faithfully mirrors those found for the most prevalent J and R0a mtDNA haplogroups in the same region [7-9,12]. In addition, J1-M267 divergence age calculated for Saudi Arabia (11.6 ± 2 kya) and Yemen (11.3 ± 2 kya) are also very coincidental with those calculated for J1b (11.1 ± 8.4 kya) and R0a1 (9.6 ± 2.9 kya) in Saudi Arabia [7,8]. It is worth mentioning that J1-M267 ages in Saudi Arabia and Yemen are significantly older than those obtained for UAE and Qatar (Table 3)[15] and for Oman [14] pointing to a terrestrial more than to a maritime colonization. It has been suggested that Yemen could be a center of expansion for mtDNA haplogroup R0a [9].

Table 3: Y-haplogroup J1-M267 variance and divergence times deduced from Y-STR loci
Population sample size k17 a k14 b M-267 variance T(ky) Divergence time (ky) Mean ± SE
UAE c 57 40 33 0.16 5.81 6.81 ± 1.53
Qatar c 42 33 28 0.19 6.71 7.27 ± 1.83
Yemen c 45 41 40 0.27 9.69 11.27 ± 2.03
Saudi Arabia 48 41 39 0.29 10.37 11.59 ± 1.93
Arabian Peninsula 192 149 129 0.24 8.85 10.78 ± 1.65
a Haplotype number using 17 Y-STR loci b Haplotype number using 14 Y-STR loci c Estimated from the Cadenas et al. (2007) data

  • 18,200 Years Before Present

Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia Hum Genet,volume 114 2004 Pg.131:Table 2 Y-chromosome haplogroup variance and expansion times based on ten STR loci:J-304J-M304 n=175 0.56 20.0 T (kyr) ; J1-M267,n=47, Variance=0.51, T (kyr)=18.6 Pg.133 Haplogroup J and the transition to agriculture Although the entire J-M304 (J1+J2) clade demonstrates a large microsatellite variance that under a continuous growth model dates to round 20 kyr, consistent with the LGM, the BATWING exponential growth model reveals a more recent post-LGM expansion (13.9 kyr). This secondary expansion originates from a low effective population size (n=184) and may indicate that the J clade in Turkey began to participate in demographic expansions during the onset of sedentism in Anatolia and the Levant; e.g., the Natufians (Bar-Yosef 1998). Previously, J clade representatives would have been accumulating STR diversity via genetic drift within various small groups of mobile hunter-gathers during the LGM. http://ychrom.invint.net/upload/iblock/129/Cinnioglu%202003%20Excavating%20Y-chromosome%20haplotype%20strata%20in%20Anatolia.pdf doi=10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4 | pages=127 | pmid=14586639 | first1=Cengiz | last2=King | first2=Roy | last3=Kivisild | first3=Toomas | last4=Kalfoglu | first4=Ersi | last5=Atasoy | first5=Sevil | last6=Cavalleri | first6=Gianpiero L. | last7=Lillie | first7=Anita S. | last8=Roseman | first8=Charles C. | last9=Lin | first9=Alice A. | issue=2}} [1]

List of Vandals[edit]

78.101.34.219JohnLloydScharf (talk) 17:37, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

User talk:CntrasJohnLloydScharf (talk) 17:55, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

(cur | prev) 07:44, 6 August 2011 Dinamik-bot (talk | contribs) m (31,229 bytes) (r2.6.5) (robot Adding: ar:هابلوغروب جي 1 (واي-دي إن إيه), ru:Гаплогруппа J1 (Y-ДНК)) (undo) JohnLloydScharf (talk) 18:11, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

178.152.109.94 Range:178.152.0.0 - 178.152.127.255[edit]

http://toolserver.org/~chm/whois.php?ip=178.152.109.94 person Khaled Abu Mallouh address Qatar-Doha-P.O.Box 217 - Qtel -
ISP person Faisal Babu address Qatar Telecom, ISP Section address P.O Box 217 - Doha-Qatar address Head of Internet Services remarks Admin Contact e-mail faisal@qtel.com.qa
http://toolserver.org/~chm/whois.php?ip=78.101.34.219
25.280282 51.522476
Al Ghazal Hotel, Doha, Qatar
JohnLloydScharf (talk) 21:03, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

78.101.34.219 Range: 78.101.32.0 - 78.101.63.255[edit]

78.101.34.219 person Khaled Abu Mallouh
address Qatar-Doha-P.O.Box 217 - Qtel - ISP
phone +97444400280
nic-hdl KAM30-RIPE
e-mail kmallouh@qatar.net.qa
mnt-by QTEL-NOC
source RIPE # Filtered

person Faisal Babu address Qatar Telecom, ISP Section address P.O Box 217 - Doha-Qatar address Head of Internet Services remarks Admin Contact e-mail faisal@qtel.com.qa phone +974 4440-0598 nic-hdl FB1931-RIPE mnt-by QTEL-NOC source RIPE # Filtered JohnLloydScharf (talk) 18:30, 6 August 2011 (UTC)
25.280282 51.522476
JohnLloydScharf (talk) 18:35, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

78.101.53.167 Range: 78.101.32.0 - 78.101.63.255[edit]

person Faisal Babu address Qatar Telecom, ISP Section address P.O Box 217 - Doha-Qatar address Head of Internet Services remarks Admin Contact e-mail faisal@qtel.com.qa phone +974 4440-0598 nic-hdl FB1931-RIPE mnt-by QTEL-NOC source RIPE # Filtered

person Khaled Abu Mallouh
address Qatar-Doha-P.O.Box 217 - Qtel - ISP
phone +97444400280
nic-hdl KAM30-RIPE
e-mail kmallouh@qatar.net.qa
mnt-by QTEL-NOC
source RIPE # Filtered
25.280282 51.522476
JohnLloydScharf (talk) 18:38, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

178.152.109.94 Range: 178.152.0.0 - 178.152.127.255[edit]

person Faisal Babu address Qatar Telecom, ISP Section address P.O Box 217 - Doha-Qatar address Head of Internet Services remarks Admin Contact e-mail faisal@qtel.com.qa phone +974 4440-0598 nic-hdl FB1931-RIPE mnt-by QTEL-NOC source RIPE # Filtered


person Khaled Abu Mallouh
address Qatar-Doha-P.O.Box 217 - Qtel - ISP
phone +97444400280
nic-hdl KAM30-RIPE
e-mail kmallouh@qatar.net.qa
25.280282 51.522476
JohnLloydScharf (talk) 18:42, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

78.100.170.235 Range:'78.100.160.0 - 78.100.191.255'[edit]

http://toolserver.org/~chm/whois.php?ip=78.100.170.235
Same as above.
JohnLloydScharf (talk) 18:46, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

178.152.109.94 Range:178.152.0.0 - 178.152.127.255[edit]

http://toolserver.org/~chm/whois.php?ip=178.152.109.94
Same as above.
JohnLloydScharf (talk) 18:49, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

89.211.50.131 Range: 89.211.50.128 - 89.211.50.143[edit]

inetnum 89.211.50.128 - 89.211.50.143 netname Supreme-Council-for-Environment-Natural-Reserves-16443 descr Supreme Council for Environment&Natural Reserves-16443 country qa admin-c MKAD3-RIPE tech-c JB5125-RIPE status ASSIGNED PA mnt-by Qtel-NOC source RIPE # Filtered

person Mubarak Khalifa Al Dosari address Supreme Council for Environment&Natural Reserves address P.O. Box 7634 phone +974-443 7171 fax-no +974-435 7863 e-mail mkdosari@qatarenv.org.qa nic-hdl MKAD3-RIPE mnt-by Qtel-NOC source RIPE # Filtered

person Jonathan Bozeman

address Supreme Council for Environment&Natural Reserves

address P.O. Box 7634

phone +974-502 8860

fax-no +974-435 7863

e-mail jonathan@qatarenv.org.qa

nic-hdl JB5125-RIPE

mnt-by Qtel-NOC

source RIPE # Filtered


Information related to '89.211.0.0/16AS8781'

route 89.211.0.0/16 descr NEW Allocation Qtel origin AS8781 mnt-by QTEL-NOC source RIPE # Filtered

Information related to '89.211.32.0/19AS8781'

route 89.211.32.0/19 descr qtel-leased-line-customers origin AS8781 mnt-by QTEL-NOC source RIPE # Filtered 89.211.50.131

JohnLloydScharf (talk) 18:55, 6 August 2011 (UTC)

78.101.34.219 Range: 78.101.32.0 - 78.101.63.255[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/78.101.34.219 Same vandal as above. JohnLloydScharf (talk) 00:44, 7 August 2011 (UTC)

78.101.35.243 Range:78.101.32.0 - 78.101.63.255[edit]

Qatar Telecom,Again.

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Cinnioğlu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoglu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Lillie, Anita S.; Roseman, Charles C. et al. (2004), Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia (PDF), Hum Genet 114 (2): 127, doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4, PMID 14586639 

Evidence of Bias, Lack of Accuracy, External and Internal Validity in J1 Dating from "J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements"[edit]

J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements "However, a wide range of times since the most recent common ancestor (TMRCAs) has been proposed for J1 and its subclades (between 36 and 10 KyBP), and different conflicting scenarios have been depicted to explain their current distribution.3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9", http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v17/n11/full/ejhg200958a.html

  • 3 Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G et al: Origin, diffusion and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 1023–1034.
    • Figure 2. Phylogeny and frequency distributions of Hg J and its main subclades (panels A–F). The numbering of mutations is according to the YCC (YCC 2002; Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2003). To the left of the phylogeny, the ages (in 1,000 years) of the boxed mutations are reported, with their SEs (Zhivotovsky et al. 2004). With the exception of the age relative to the 12f2 mutation, which has been estimated as TD (with V0=0) between the combined data of the two sister clades Hg J-M267 and Hg J-M172, the other values have been determined as ASD, as described in figure 1. (Figure 1 depicts a phylogenetic tree indicating: J-12f2=31.7+/-12.8 ky; 267=24.1+/-9.4 ky; 172=18.5+/-3.5; et cetera) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707643663#fig1
  • 5 Di Giacomo F, Luca F, Popa LO et al: Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe. Hum Genet 2004; 115: 357–371.
    • Table 3 Estimates of age of haplogroup J, J sub-haplogroups, and mutation rate at five STR loci, obtained with three independent methods(st. dev. standard deviation, NA not applicable),Estimation method,p12f2, M267:1.YMRCAa=8,400, 2.st. dev.b=12,600, 3.BATWINGa(subhaplogroups treated separately)=18,000, 4.5th–95th centileb= 7,590–33,990, 5.BATWINGa(subhaplogroups and UEPs)=8,300–11,300, 5th–95th centileb=4,260–23,070,aAge in years rounded to the nearest hundred, assuming 30 years/generation (Zerjal et al. 2002, 2003),bAge as above, rounded to the nearest tenthhttp://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf
  • 6 Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S et al: A predominantly Neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 75: 342.
  • 7 Cadenas AM, Zhivotovsky LA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ: Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman. Eur J Hum Genet 2008; 16:
    • Table 3 Y-Haplogroup variance, expansion and coalescence times based on Y-microsatellite loci,Divergence timea(ky)b, Qatar-J1-M267=7.4+/-2.3, UAE-J1-M267=6.4+/-1.4, Yemen-J1-M267=9.7+/-2.4, aDivergence time based on SNP-STR coalescence method (Zhivotovsky46,51).,bBased on 15 Y-STR loci http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v16/n3/pdf/5201934a.pdf
  • 9 Chiaroni J, King RJ, Underhill P: Correlation of annual precipitation with human Y chromosome diversity and the emergence of Neolithic agriculture and pastoral economies in the fertile crescent. Antiquity 2008; 82: 281–289.

Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast FROM: John Scharf TO: Dr. Pierre Zalloua The Lebanese American University[edit]

It is not clear why you chose to cite and base your paper on Tofanelli et al. He starts by fogging the date of origin of the origin of J1/M267 by stating a range of 36,000 to 10,000 ybp while citing papers that do not back the upper end of the range being beyond 33,990. Further, the lower range is pushed down to as low as 4,260 by the papers he cites.

He also says Calculations under the coalescent model for J1 haplotypes bearing the Cohanim motif gave time estimates that place the origin of this genealogy around 6.2 Kybp (95% CI: 4.5–8.6 Kybp), earlier than previously thought,4 and well before the origin of Judaism (David Kingdom, ~2.0 Kybp). That he makes this departure for religious reasons and makes this glaring historic error I go into detail at the bottom of my notes.

The claim of J1 coming from Africa has issues as well. In "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman. Eur J Hum Genet 2008; 16: 374–386." the paper states the age of the J1 in Turkey to be (15.4 ky; 95% CI: 0.4– 604.8). This article also points out dates of origin for M267 in Yemen, Qatar and UAE (9.772.4, 7.472.3 and 6.471.4 ky, respectively). Are we to understand that J1/M267 jumps over the Levant and lands in Anatolia before going to the Arabian Plate?

My letter to It is not clear why you chose to cite and base your paper on Tofanelli et al. He starts by fogging the date of origin of the origin of J1/M267 by stating a range of 36,000 to 10,000 ybp while citing papers that do not back the upper end of the range being beyond 33,990. Further, the lower range is pushed down to as low as 4,260 by the papers he cites.

He also says Calculations under the coalescent model for J1 haplotypes bearing the Cohanim motif gave time estimates that place the origin of this genealogy around 6.2 Kybp (95% CI: 4.5–8.6 Kybp), earlier than previously thought,4 and well before the origin of Judaism (David Kingdom, ~2.0 Kybp). That he makes this departure for religious reasons and makes this glaring historic error I go into detail at the bottom of my notes.

The claim of J1 coming from Africa has issues as well. In "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman. Eur J Hum Genet 2008; 16: 374–386." the paper states the age of the J1 in Turkey to be (15.4 ky; 95% CI: 0.4– 604.8). This article also points out dates of origin for M267 in Yemen, Qatar and UAE (9.772.4, 7.472.3 and 6.471.4 ky, respectively). Are we to understand that J1/M267 jumps over the Levant and lands in Anatolia before going to the Arabian Plate?

NOTE: The notes reference are listed on this page.

Listed here are notable ethnic groups by Y-DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. The data is presented in two columns for each haplogroup with the first being the sample size (n) and the second the percentage in the haplogroup designated by the column header. The samples are taken from individuals identified with the ethnic and linguistic designations in the first two columns.

Population Language[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L
Abazinians Caucasian (Northwest) 14 0[4] 14 14[4] 14 0[4] 14 0[4] 14 0[4] 14 7[4][5] 14 29[4]
Abkhaz Caucasian (Northwest) 12 8[4] 12 33.0[4] 12 33.3[4] 12 0[4] 12 0[4] 12 25[4][5] 12 0[4]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 51 17.6[6] 51 9.8[6] 51 19.6[6] 51 21.6[6] 51 23.5[6] 51 2.0[6] 51 0.0[6] 51 0.0[6] 51 0.0[6]
Albanians (Kosovar) IE (Albanian) 114 21.1[7] 114 4.4[7] 114 7.9[7] 114 47.4[7] 114 16.7[7]
Albanians (Tirana) IE (Albanian) 30 13.3[8] 30 13.3[8] 30 16.7[8] 30 23.3[8] 30 0.0[8] 30 20.0[8] 30 3.3[8]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 55 18.2[9] 55 9.1[9] 55 21.8[9] 55 25.5[9] 55 0.0[9] 55 23.6[9] 55 1.8[9] 55 0.0[9] 55 0.0[9] 55 0.0[9]
Albanians (Macedonia) IE (Albanian) 64 18.8[9] 64 1.6[9] 64 17.2[9] 64 39.1[9] 64 0.0[9] 64 21.9[9] 64 1.6[9] 64 0.0[9] 64 0.0[9] 64 0.0[9]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 106 23.6[10]
Altaians Altaic (Turkic) 142 9.2[11]
Altaians (Northern) Altaic (Turkic) 50 6.0[12] 50 38.0 50 0.0 50 0.0 50 2.0 50 0.0 50 10.0
Altaians (Southern) Altaic (Turkic) 96 1.0[12] 96 53.1 96 2.1 96 1.0 96 4.2 96 11.5
Ambalakarar Dravidian (Southern) 29 0.0[13] 29 13.8[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 6.9[13] 29 3.4[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 20.7[13]
Amhara Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 45.8[14] 48 33.3[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 4.2[14] 48 0.0[14]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 29 65.5[6] 29 0.0[6] 103 3.9[10] 76 9.2[15] 93 1.1[15] 29 0.0[6] 29 0.0[6] 29 6.9[6] 29 3.4[6]
Andis Caucasian (Northeast) 49 6.1[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 26.5[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 55.1[16] 49 6.1[16] 49 0.0[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 0.0[16]
Arabs (Algeria) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 35 13.0[17] 35 0.0[17] 32 50[15] 35 35[17]
Arabs (Algeria - Oran) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 102 10.8[18] 102 1[18] 102 50.9[18] 102 12.8[18] 102 27.4[18]
Arabs (Bedouin) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 32 0.0[19] 32 9.4[19] 32 6.3[19] 32 18.7[19] 32 65.6[19] 32 0.0[19]
Arabs (Egyptians) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 147 4.1[20] 147 2.7[20] 147 0.7[20] 147 36.7[20] 147 2.8[20] 147 32.0[20] 147 8.8[20] 147 0.0[20] 147 8.2[20]
Arabs (Iraq) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 218 8.3[15] 218 0.9[15] 156 50.6[15]
Arabs (Israel) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 143 8.4[19] 143 1.4[19] 143 6.3[19] 143 20.3[19] 143 55.2[19] 143 0.0[19]
Arabs (Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 44 3.8[7] 44 0.0[7] 44 0.0[7] 49 85.5[15] 49 2.4[15]
Arabs (Oman) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 121 1.7[20] 121 9.1[20] 121 0.0[20] 121 15.7[20] 121 7.4[20] 121 47.9[20] 121 1.7[20] 121 8.3[20] 121 0.8[20]
Arabs (Qatar) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 72 1.4[21] 72 6.9[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 5.6[21] 72 2.8[21] 72 66.7[21] 72 2.8[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 2.8[21]
Arabs (Saudi Arabia) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 157 1.9[22] 157 5.1[22] 157 0.0[22] 157 7.6[22] 157 7.6[22] 157 40.0[22] 157 3.2[22] 157 0.0[22] 157 5.1[22] 157 1.9[22]
Arabs (UAE) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 164 4.3[21] 164 7.3[21] 164 11.6[21] 164 5.5[21] 164 45.1[21] 164 4.3[21] 164 0.0[21] 164 4.9[21] 164 3.0[21]
Arabs (Yemen) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 12.9[21] 62 3.2[21] 62 82.3[21] 62 1.6[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21]
Arabs (Syria) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 20 15.0[6] 20 10.0[6] 20 5.0[6] 20 10.0[6] 20 30.0[6] 20 0.0[6] 20 0.0[6] 20 0.0[6] 20 0.0[6]
Arabs (Lebanon) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 31 6.4[6] 31 9.7[6] 31 3.2[6] 31 25.8[6] 31 45.2[6] 31 3.2[6] 31 0.0[6] 31 0.0[6] 31 3.2[6]
Arabs (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 102 15.7[23] 102 3.9[23] 102 16.7[23] 102 47.1[23]
Arabs (Tunisia) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 148 6.8[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 49.3[17] 148 1.4[17] 148 35.8[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 0.7[17] 148 0.0[17]
Arabs (Libya) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 63 3[24] 63 1.5[24] 63 1.5[24] 63 52.0[24] 63 0.0[24] 63 24.0[24] 63 8.0[24] 63 5.0[24] 63 1.5[24]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 89 24.7[25] 89 5.6[25] 100 5.0[4] 89 3.4[25] 89 29.2[25] 100 11.0[4] 89 3.4[25]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 734 32.4[26] 734 5.3[26] 734 5.4[26] 734 1.6[26]
Aromuns (Dukasi, Albania) IE (Italic) 39 2.6[8] 39 2.6[8] 39 17.9[8] 39 17.9[8] 39 0.0[8] 39 48.7[8] 39 10.3[8] 39 0.0[8] 39 0.0[8] 39 0.0[8]
Aromuns (Andon Poci, Albania) IE (Italic) 19 36.8[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 42.1[8] 19 15.8[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 5.3[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 0.0[8]
Aromuns (Kruševo, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 43 27.9[8] 43 11.6[8] 43 20.9[8] 43 20.9[8] 43 0.0[8] 43 11.6[8] 43 7.0[8] 43 0.0[8] 43 0.0[8] 43 0.0[8]
Aromuns (Štip, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 65 23.1[8] 65 21.5[8] 65 16.9[8] 65 18.5[8] 65 0.0[8] 65 20.0[8] 65 0.0[8] 65 0.0[8] 65 0.0[8] 65 0.0[8]
Aromuns (Romania) IE (Italic) 42 23.8[8] 42 2.4[8] 42 19.0[8] 42 7.1[8] 42 0.0[8] 42 33.3[8] 42 0.0[8]
Ashkenazi Jews Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 79 12.7[19] 79 22.8[19] 79 43.0[19] 79 0.0[19]
Ashkenazi Jews Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 442 4.1[27] 442 19.7[27] 442 0.2[27] 442 38.0[27] 442 9.7[27] 442 0.2[27] 442 0.2[27]
Austrians IE (Germanic, West) 219 32 219 14
Avars Caucasian (Northeast) 42 2.4[16] 42 2.4[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 7.1[16] 42 71.4[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 4.8[16] 42 9.5[16]
Azerbaijanis Altaic (Turkic) 72 11.1[28] 72 6.9[28] 97 4.1[29]
Bagvalins Caucasian (Northeast) 28 67.9[16] 28 3.6[16] 28 7.1[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 21.4[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16]
Balkarian Altaic (Turkic) 39 2.6[15] 16 25.0[15]
Balkarians Altaic (Turkic) 38 13.2[9] 38 13.2[9] 38 2.6[9] 38 2.6[9] 38 0.0[9] 38 23.7[9] 38 28.9[9] 38 0.0[9] 38 0.0[9] 38 5.3[9]
Baloch IE (Iranic, NW) 25 8.0[13] 25 28.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 24.0[13]
Bashkirs (Perm) Altaic (Turkic) 43 86.0[30] 43 9.3 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 2.3 43 2.3 43 0.0 43 0.0
Basque (France, Spain) Basque (Basque) 67 88.1[6] 67 0.0[6] 67 7.5[6] 67 2.2[6] 67 3.0[6] 67 0.0[6] 67 0.0[6] 67 0.0[6] 67 0.0[6]
Bavarians IE (Germanic, West) 80 50.0[25] 80 15.0[25] 80 8.0[25] 80 5.0[25] 80 0.0[25] 80 0.0[25]
Belgians IE (Germanic/Italic) 92 63.0[25] 92 4.0[25] 92 2.0[25]
Belorussians IE (Slavic, East) 41 0.0[25] 41 39.0[25] 147 19.0[10] 41 10.0[25] 41 2.4[25]
Belorussians IE (Slavic, East) 68 4.4[31] 68 45.6[31] 68 25.0[31] 68 4.4[31] 68 1.5[31] 68 8.8[31]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 306 4.2[32] 306 51.0[32] 306 4.6[32] 306 3.3[32] 306 9.5[32]
Bearnais IE (Italic) 26 7.7[10] 43 3.7[15] 26 3.8[15]
Beja Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic?) 42 4.8[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 52.4[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 38.1[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23]
Berbers (Moyen Atlas) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 69 87.1[29]
Berbers (Marrakesh) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 29 92.9[29]
Berbers (Mozabite) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 20 80.0[29]
Berbers (Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 64 88.2[15] 64 0[15] 103 0[15]
Berbers (north-central Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 63 88.8[15] 63 0[15]
Berbers (southern Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 40 89[15] 40 0[15]
Bijagós Niger–Congo (Atlantic–Congo) 21 4.8[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 14.3[33] 21 76.2[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33]
Borgu (Sudan) Nilo-Saharan (Maban) 26 11.5[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 53.8[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23]
Bosnians IE (Slavic, South) 69 1.4[7] 69 24.6[7] 69 42.0[7] 69 10.1[7] 69 0.0[7]
Brahmins (Konkanastha) IE (Indic) 25 0.0[13] 25 48.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 4.0[13]
Brahui Dravidian (Northern) 110 39.1[34] 110 0.0[34] 110 2.7[34] 110 28.2[34] 110 0.9[34] 110 7.3[34]
Brahui Dravidian (Northern) 25 0.0[13] 25 24.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 28.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13]
British IE (Germanic, West) 32 68.8[35] 32 9.4[35]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 24 17.0[25] 34 14.7[36] 116 20.7[29]
Burusho Burushaski (isolate) 97 1.0[37] 97 27.8[37] 97 0.0[37] 97 0.0[37] 97 8.2[37] 97 1.0[37] 97 0.0[37] 97 0.0[37] 97 16.5[37]
Catalans IE (Italic) 24 79.2[6] 24 0.0[38] 32 4.2[38] 33 6.1[15] 28 3.6[15] 24 8.0[38]
Cantabrians (Pasiegos) IE (Italic) 56 42.9[29]
Chamalins Caucasian (Northeast) 27 0.0[16] 27 7.4[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 70.4[16] 27 18.5[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 3.7[16]
Chechens Caucasian (Northeast) 19 5.0[4] 19 5.0[4]
Chuvashes Altaic (Turkic) 79 3.8[39] 79 31.6[39] 79 11.3[39] 79 0[39] 79 0[39] 79 24.2[39] 79 0[39] 79 27.8[39] 79 0[39] 79 0[39]
Copts (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Ancient Egyptian) 33 15.2[23] 33 21.2[23] 33 45.5[23]
Croats (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 108 15.7[7] 108 34.3[7] 108 37.0[7][40] 108 5.6[7] 108 0.0[7] 108 1.9[7] 108 0.9[7]
Croat (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 189 38.1[10]
Cypriots IE (Greek) 45 9.0[25] 45 2.0[25] 45 27.0[25]
Czechs IE (Slavic, West) 257 34.2[41] 257 18.3[41] 257 5.8[41] 257 4.7[41] 257 5.1[41] 257 1.6[41]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 45 35.6[6] 45 26.7[6] 198 13.6[10] 45 2.2[6]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 12 41.7[35] 12 16.7[35] 194 38.7[10] 35 2.9[29]
Dargins Caucasian (Northeast) 68 2.9[16] 68 0.0[16] - - - - 68 94.1[16] 68 2.9[16] 68 0.0[16] 68 0.0[16] 68 0.0[16]
Dargins Caucasian (Northeast) 26 4.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 58.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 0.0[4]
Dolgans Altaic (Turkic) 67 1.5[39] 67 16.4[39] 67 1.5[39] 67 34.3[39]
Druze (Arabs) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 28 14.3[29]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 27 70.4[6] 27 3.7[6] 30 26.7[10] 84 8.0[25] 34 0[15]
Egyptians Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 92 5.4[42] 92 0.0[42] 92 1.1[42] 92 43.5[42] 92 3.3[42] 92 22.8[42] 92 2.2[42] 92 0.0[42] 92 7.6[42] 92 0.0[42]
Egyptians (North) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 43 9.3[43] 43 2.3[43] 43 0.0[43] 43 53.5[43] 44 18.2[17] 43 7.0[43] 43 2.3[43] 43 0.0[43]
Egyptians (South) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 29 13.8[43] 29 0.0[43] 29 3.4[43] 29 31.0[43] 29 24.1[17] 29 17.2[43] 29 10.3[43] 29 0.0[43]
English (Central) IE (Germanic, West) 215 61.9[44] 215 3.3[44]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 207 9.0[25] 118 37.3[45] 210 18.6[10] 207 3.0[25] 207 1.0[25] 207 40.6[25]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 57 2.0[25] 57 10.5[25] 57 2.0[25] 57 63.2[25]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 38 0.0[39] 38 7.9[39] 38 28.9[39] 38 63.2[39]
French IE (Italic) 23 52.2[6] 23 0[6] 23 17.4[10] 40 8.0[25]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 56.0[46] 94 7.0[46] 94 29.0[46] 94 2.0[46] 94 6.0[46]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 55.3[47] 94 7.4[47] 94 34.0[47] 94 2.1[47] 94 1.4[47]
Fulbe (Guinea-Bissau) Niger–Congo (Atlantic) 59 1.7[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 13.6[33] 59 74.6[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33]
Fur Nilo-Saharan (Fur) 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 59.4[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 6.3[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Gagauz (Kongaz) Altaic (Turkic) 48 10.4[48] 48 12.5[48] 48 31.3[48] 48 16.7[48] 48 8.3[48] 48 10.4[48] 48 4.2[48] 48 6.3[48]
Gagauz(Etulia) Altaic (Turkic) 41 14.6[48] 41 26.8[48] 41 24.4[48] 41 9.8[48] 41 7.3[48] 41 17.1[48] 41 0.0[48] 41 0.0[48]
Germans IE (Germanic, West) 48 47.9[6][35] 48 8.1[6][35] 16 37.5[10] 16 6.2[6]
Georgians Caucasian (South) 63 14.3[6] 63 7.9[6] 63 0.0[6] 64 2.0[25] 63 36.5[6] 63 30.1[6] 63 1.6[6] 63 1.6[6]
Georgians Caucasian (South) 66 9.1[9] 66 10.6[9] 66 1.5[9] 66 3.0[9] 66 0.0[9] 66 36.4[9] 66 31.8[9] 66 0.0[9] 66 1.5[9] 66 1.5[9]
Greeks IE (Greek) 77 11.7[37] 77 15.6[37] 77 19.5[37] 77 20.8[37] 77 16.9[37] 77 9.1[37] 77 0.0[37] 77 2.6[37]
Greeks IE (Greek) 118 22.8[6][35] 118 8.3[6][35] 261 13.8[10] 84 23.8[15] 92 6.5[15]
Greeks IE (Greek) 171 13.5[49] 171 11.1 171 15.8 171 31.6 171 19.9 171 4.7 171 1.8
Greeks (Crete) IE (Greek) 193 17.0[49] 193 8.8 193 13.0 193 8.8 193 38.9 193 10.9 193 2.1
Greeks (Peloponnese) IE (Greek) 36 47[15]
Greeks (Thrace) IE (Greek) 41 12.2[8] 41 22.0[8] 41 19.5[8] 41 19.5[8] 41 0.0[8] 41 19.5[8] 41 4.9[8]
Greeks (North) IE (Greek) 96 14.6[43] 96 18.8[43] 96 12.5[43] 96 35.4[43] 96 5.2[43] 96 2.1[43] 96 1.0[43]
Greeks (South) IE (Greek) 46 19.6[43] 46 2.2[43] 46 23.9[43] 46 43.5[43] 46 6.5[43] 46 2.2[43] 46 0.0[43]
Hausa (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Chadic) 32 40.6[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 3.1[23] 32 12.5[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Herero Niger–Congo (Bantu, Central) 24 12.5[42] 24 4.2[42] 24 4.2[42] 24 0.0[42] 24 70.8[42] 24 4.2[42] 24 0.0[42] 24 0.0[42] 24 0.0[42] 24 0.0[42]
Herzegovinians IE (Slavic, South) 141 3.6[7] 141 12.1[7] 141 63.8[7] 141 8.5[7] 141 0.7[7]
Hui (Ningxia) Sino-Tibetan (Sinitic) 54 3.7[50] 54 11.1[50] 54 0.0[50] 54 0.0[50] 54 9.3[50] 54 1.9[50] 54 0.0[50] 54 1.9[50]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 45 13.3[6] 113 20.4[39] 162 22.8[10] 53 9.4[15] 49 2.0[15] 103 8.0[51] 103 1.0
Icelanders IE (Germanic, North) 181 41.4[35] 181 23.8[35] 181 34.2[35]
Ingush Caucasian (Northeast) 27 5.0[4]
Iranians (North Iran) IE (Iranic, West) 33 15.2[52] 33 6.1[52] 33 0.0[52] 33 0.0[52] 33 0.0[52] 33 33.3[52] 33 15.2[52] 33 6.1[52] 33 0.0[52] 33 3.0[52]
Iranians (South Iran) IE (Iranic, West) 117 6.0[52] 117 16.2[52] 117 0.0[52] 117 5.1[52] 117 1.7[52] 117 35.0[52] 117 12.8[52] 117 0.9[52] 117 3.4[52] 117 6.0[52]
Irish IE (Celtic) 222 81.5[35] 222 0.5[35] 257 2.0[25]
Italians IE (Italic) 50 62.0[38] 332 2.7[35] 50 8.0[38] 99 13.0[25] 50 10.0[38]
Italians (Calabria) IE (Italic) 37 32.4[6] 148 5.4[10] 80 16.3[7] 57 1.8[15]
Italians (Apulia) IE (Italic) 78 2.6[10] 86 13.9[15] 86 31.4[15]
Italians (Sardinia) IE (Italic) 77 22.1[6] 142 42.3[10] 139 5.0[15] 144 12.5[15]
Italians (Northern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 86 20.0[43] 86 0.0[43] 86 28.0[43] 86 13.0[43] 86 21.0[43] 86 0.0[43] 86 0.0[43]
Italians (Southern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 187 19.0[43] 187 1.0[43] 187 35.0[43] 187 11.0[43] 187 14.0[43] 187 0.0[43] 187 0.0[43]
Italians (North-central) IE (Italic) 50 62.0[6] 390 0.5[10] 212 10.4[7] 52 26.9[15]
Italians (South) IE (Italic) 68 20.0[43] 68 3.0[43] 68 6.0[43] 68 26.0[43] 68 15.0[43] 68 3.0[43] 68 0.0[43]
Italians (Sicily) IE (Italic) 51 8.8 55 27.3[15] 42 23.8[15]
Italians (East Sicily) IE (Italic) 87 20.0[43] 87 2.3[43] 87 5.0[43] 87 29.0[43] 87 5.0[43] 87 5.0[43] 87 0.0[43]
Italians (West Sicily) IE (Italic) 125 27.0[43] 125 2.4[43] 125 11.0[43] 125 19.0[43] 125 13.0[43] 125 3.0[43] 125 0.0[43]
Iyengar Dravidian (Southern) 30 0.0[13] 30 30.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 20.0[13] 30 13.3[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 16.7[13]
Iyer Dravidian (Southern) 29 0.0[13] 29 27.6[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13] 29 10.3[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13]
Kabardinian Caucasian (Northwest) 29.0[4]
Kalash (Pakistan) IE (Dardic) 44 18.2[37] 44 0.0[37] 44 0.0[37] 44 9.1[37] 44 18.2[37] 44 0.0[37] 44 0.0[37] 44 25.0[37]
Karakalpaks Altaic (Turkic) 44 9.1[53] 44 18.2[53] 44 0.0[53] 44 0.0[53] 44 4.5[53]
Kazakhs Altaic (Turkic) 54 5.6[53] 54 3.7[53] 54 0.0[53] 54 0.0[53] 38 0.0 54 1.9[53] 54 0.0[53]
Khants Uralic (Ugric) 47 19.1[39] 47 4.3[39] 47 0.0[39] 47 76.6[39]
Komi Uralic (Finnic) 94 16.0[39] 94 33.0 94 5.3 94 35.1
Komi (Izhemsky) Uralic (Finnic) 54 0.0[54] 54 29.6[54] 54 1.9[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 68.5[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54]
Komi (Priluzsky) Uralic (Finnic) 49 2.0[54] 49 32.7[54] 49 4.1[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 61.2[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 0.0[54]
Kumyks Altaic (Turkic) 76 19.7[16] 76 13.2[16] 76 0.0[16] 76 2.6[16] 76 46.1[16] 76 11.8[16] 76 0.0[16] 76 1.3[16] 76 0.0[16]
Kurds (Jews) IE (Iranic, NW) 95 20.2[19] 95 4.0[19] 95 6.1[19] 95 12.1[19] 95 37.4[19] 95 19.2[19] 95 1.0[19]
Kurds (Muslim)(Northern Iraq) IE (Iranic, NW) 95 16.8[19] 95 11.6[19] 95 16.8[19] 95 7.4[19] - 95 40.0[19] 95 4.2[19] 95 3.2[19]
Kurds(Turkey) IE (Iranic, NW) 8.0[55] 19.5[55] 25.0[55] 2.5[55] 7.0[55] 12.5[55] 6.5[55]
Kyrgyz Altaic (Turkic) 52 1.9[53] 52 63.5[53] 52 1.9[53] 52 0.0[53] 41 4.9 41 2.4 52 0.0[53]
Lezgins Caucasian (Northeast) 31 16.1[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 9.7[16] 31 6.5[16] 31 58.1[16] 31 9.7[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 0.0[16]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 38 5.0[25] 114 36.0[45] 114 0.9[45] 114 43.0[45]
Latvians IE (Baltic) 34 15.0[25] 114 39.5[25] 86 7.0[10] 114 0.9[45] 114 42.1[45]
ethnic Macedonians IE (Slavic, South) 79 5.1[7] 79 15.2[7] 79 34.2[7] 79 24.1[7] 79 12.7[6][7][15] 79 5.1[7]
Macedonians (Skopje) IE (Slavic, South) 52 13.5[8] 52 13.5[8] 52 28.8[8] 52 23.1[8] 52 11.5[8] 52 3.8[8]
Macedonian Romani IE (Indic) 57 1.8[7] 57 1.8[7] 57 3.5[7] 57 29.8[7] 57 1.8[7]
Maltese Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 187 22.0[43] 187 5.0[43] 187 9.0[43] 187 6.0[43] 187 9.0[43] 187 0.0[43] 187 0.0[43]
Mandenka (Guinea-Bissau) Niger–Congo? (Mande) 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 4.4[33] 45 86.7[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33]
Maratha IE (Indic) 20 0.0[13] 20 10.0[13] 20 0.0[13] 20 0.0[13] 20 15.0[13] 20 15.0[13]
Moldavians (Karahasani) IE (Italic) 72 16.7[48] 72 34.7[48] 72 25.0[48] 72 12.5[48] 72 9.7[48] 72 0.0[48] 72 1.4[48] 72 0.0[48]
Moldavians (Sofia) IE (Italic) 54 16.7[48] 54 20.4[48] 54 35.2[48] 54 13.0[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 1.9[48] 54 3.7[48] 54 1.9[48]
Mordvins (Erzya) Uralic (Finnic) 46 39.1[36]
Mordvins (Moksha) Uralic (Finnic) 46 21.7[36]
Mordvins[clarification needed] Uralic (Finnic) 83 13.3[39] 83 26.5 83 19.3 83 19.3
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 111 2.7[39] 111 47.7 111 8.1 111 41.4
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 48 10.4[25] 48 29.2 48 0.0 48 6.3 48 50.0
Masalit Nilo-Saharan (Maban) 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 71.9[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 6.3[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Mongolians Altaic (Mongolic) 65 9.2[56] 149 0.0[57] 149 2.7[57] 149 0.7[57] 149 8.1[57] 149 0.0[57] 149 0.0[57]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 112 25.9[35] 112 17.9[35] 72 40.3[10]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 52 30.8[25] 52 1.9[25] 52 1.9[25] 52 3.8[25] 52 0.0[25] 52 0.0[25]
Nubians (Sudan) Nilo-Saharan (Eastern Sudanic) 39 10.3[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 5.1[23] 39 23.1[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 43.6[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 0.0[23]
Orcadians IE (Germanic, West) 71 66.0[46] 71 19.7[46]
Oromo Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic) 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 79.5[14] 78 3.8[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 5.1[14] 78 0.0[14]
Ossetians IE (Iranic, NE) 47 42.6[25] 47 2.1[25] 47 6.0[25] 47 34.0[25] 60.0[58]
Pallan Dravidian (Southern) 29 3.4[13] 29 24.1[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 13.8[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13]
Pashtuns IE (Iranic, SE) 96 4.2[37] 96 44.8[37] 96 0.0[37] 96 2.1[37] 96 6.3[37] 96 11.5[37] 96 0.0[37] 96 1.0[37] 96 12.5[37]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 55 16.4[6] 55 56.4[6] 191 17.8[10] 99 4.0[15] 97 1.0[15]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 93 13.4[39] 93 55.9[39] 93 16.1[39] 93 3.2[39]
Portuguese IE (Italic) 303 5.3[10]
Portuguese (South) IE (Italic) 57 56.0[25] 57 2.0[25] 57 17.0[25]
Portuguese (North) IE (Italic) 328 62.0[25] 328 0[25] 328 11.0[25]
Rajputs IE (Indic) 29 0.0[13] 29 31.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13] 29 6.9[13]
Romanians IE (Italic) 54 13.0[48] 54 20.4[48] 54 48.1[48] 54 7.4[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 0.0[48] 54 0.0[48]
Romanians IE (Italic) 361 22.2[10]
Romanians (Constanţa) IE (Italic) 31 16.1[8] 31 9.7[8] 31 41.9[8] 31 9.7[8] 31 0.0[8] 31 6.5[8] 31 12.9[8] 31 0.0[8] 31 0.0[8] 31 0.0[8]
Romanians (Ploieşti) IE (Italic) 36 8.3[8] 36 5.6[8] 36 38.9[8] 36 16.7[8] 36 0.0[8] 36 19.4[8] 36 8.3[8] 36 0.0[8] 36 0.0[8] 36 0.0[8]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 122 6.6[25] 122 46.7[25] 122 6.6[25] 122 4.1[25] 122 18.0[25]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 61 21.3[39] 61 42.6[39] 61 13.1[39] 61 16.4[39]
Russians (Northern)(Arkhangelsk region , Pinega) IE (Slavic, East) 114 14.0[59] 114 40.0[59] 114 5.3[59] 114 0.0[59] 114 0.0[59] 114 0.9[59] 114 1.3[59] 114 39.3[59] 114 0.0[59] 114 0.0[59]
Russians (Central) IE (Slavic, East) 364 7.7[59] 364 47.0[59] 364 16.5[59] 364 5.2[59] 364 0.0[59] 364 3.3[59] 364 0.0[59] 364 16.0[59] 364 0.8[59]
Russians (Southerns) IE (Slavic, East) 484 4.8[59] 484 56.9[59] 484 21.0[59] 484 1.8[59] 484 0.0[59] 484 3.5[59] 484 1.0[59] 484 10.0[59]
Russians (Adygea) IE (Slavic, East) 78 24.4[10]
Russians (Bashkortostan) IE (Slavic, East) 50 6.0[10]
Russians (Belgorod region) IE (Slavic, East) 143 2.8[60] 143 59.4[60] 144 16.7[10]
Russians (Cossacks) IE (Slavic, East) 97 22.7[10]
Russians (Kostroma region) IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9[10]
Russians (Smolensk region) IE (Slavic, East) 120 10.8[10]
Sami (Sweden) Uralic (Finnic) 38 7.9[61] 38 15.8[61] 38 31.6[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 44.7[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 0.0[61]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 127 3.9[39] 127 11.0[39] 35 31.4[10] 14[62] 127 47.2[39]
Saharawish (Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 29 79.3[15] 29 3.4[15] 29 17.2[15]
Scots IE (Celtic) 61 77.1[35] 61 6.6[35] 178 11.2[10]
Sephardic Jews Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 78 29.5[19] 78 3.9[19] 78 11.5[19] 78 19.2[19] 78 28.2[19] 78 0.0[19]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 113 10.6[7] 113 15.9[7] 113 36.3[7] 113 21.2[7] 113 8[7]
Serbs (Bosnia) IE (Slavic, South) 81 6.2[9] 81 13.6[9] 81 40.7[9] 81 22.2[9] 81 0.0[9] 81 9.9[9] 81 1.2[9] 81 6.2[9] 81 0.0[9] 81 0.0[9]
Slovenians IE (Slavic, South) 75 21.3[9] 75 38.7[9] 75 30.7[9] 75 2.7[9] 75 0.0[9] 75 4.0[9] 75 2.7[9] 75 0.0[9] 75 0.0[9] 75 0.0[9]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 70 37.1[25] 70 7.1[25] 70 5.7[25] 70 0.0[25] 70 0.0[25] 70 0.0[25]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 55 38.2[10]
Somalis Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic) 201 0.0[63] 201 1.0[63] 201 0.0[63] 201 81.1[63] 201 1.5[63] 201 3.0[63] 201 0.5[63] 201 0.0[63] 201 10.4[63] 201 0.0[63]
Spanish IE (Italic) 126 68.0[25] 126 2.0[25] 126 10.0[25]
Spanish (Ibiza) IE (Italic) 54 57.4[43] 54 0.0[43] 54 1.9[43] 54 7.4[43] 54 13.0[43] 54 16.7[43] 54 0.0[43]
Spanish (Majorca) IE (Italic) 62 66.1[43] 62 0.0[43] 62 8.1[43] 62 6.2[43] 62 6.2[43] 62 1.6[43] 62 0.0[43]
Spanish (Minorca) IE (Italic) 37 73.0[43] 37 2.7[43] 37 2.7[43] 37 18.9[43] 37 0.0[43] 37 0.0[43] 37 0.0[43]
Spanish (South) IE (Italic) 162 65.0[43] 162 2.0[43] 162 6.0[43] 162 9.0[43] 162 4.0[43] 162 0.0[43] 162 0.0[43]
Spanish (Valencia) IE (Italic) 73 64.0[43] 73 3.0[43] 73 10.0[43] 73 11.0[43] 73 1.0[43] 73 1.0[43] 73 0.0[43]
Swedes (Northern) IE (Germanic, North) 48 22.9[25] 48 18.8[25] 57 26.3[10] 48 2.1[25] 48 2.1[25] 48 8.3[25]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 110 20.0[35] 110 17.3[35] 225 40[10]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 160 13.1[64] 160 24.4[64] 160 37.5[64] 160 1.3[64] 160 0.0[64] 160 14.4[64]
Swiss IE (German/Italic) 144 7.6[10]
Tabassarans Caucasian (Northeast) 43 39.5[16] 43 2.3[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 51.2[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16]
Tatars Altaic (Turkic) 126 8.7[39] 126 34.1[39] 126 4.0 126 23.0
Turkmens Altaic (Turkic) 30 36.7[53] 30 6.7[53] 30 0.0[53] 30 0.0[53] 21 23.8 21 9.5 30 0.0[53]
Turks Altaic (Turkic) 523 16.1[65] 523 6.9[65] 741 5.1[10] 523 11.3[65] 523 33.5[65] 523 10.9[65] 523 3.8[65] 523 2.5[65] 523 4.2[65]
Turks Altaic (Turkic) 167 20.4[25] 167 4.8[25] 167 10.2[25] 167 32.9[25] 167 2.4[25]
Turks Altaic (Turkic) 59 20.3[63] 59 11.9[63] 59 6.8[63] 59 13.6[63] 59 30.5[63] 59 8.5[63] 59 1.7[63] 59 0.0[63]
Turks (Central Anatolia) Altaic (Turkic) 61 6.6[7]
Turks (Istanbul) Altaic (Turkic) 46 13.0[15] 73 24.7[15]
Turks (Konya) Altaic (Turkic) 117 14.5[15] 129 31.8[15]
Turks (Cypriot) Altaic (Turkic) 46 13.0[29]
Turks (Southeastern) Altaic (Turkic) 24 4.2[29]
Turks (Erzurum) Altaic (Turkic) 25 4.0[29]
Udmurt Uralic (Finnic) 87 2.3[39] 87 10.3[39] 87 1.1[39] 87 85.1[39]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 50 2.0[6] 50 54.0[6] 50 18.0[6] 50 4.0[6] 50 6.0[6] 50 4.0[6] 50 6.0[6] 50 2.0[6] 50 0.0[6]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9[48] 53 41.5[48] 53 24.5[48] 93 7.5[7] 53 9.4[48] 53 0.0[48] 53 5.7[48] 53 0.0[48]
Uyghurs (Kazakhstan) Altaic (Turkic) 41 0.0[53] 41 22.0[53] 41 2.4[53] 41 0.0[53] 41 0.0[53] 33 27.3[66] 41 2.4[53] 41 0.0[53] 41 2.4[53]
Uyghurs (Xinjiang) Altaic (Turkic) 68 17.6[50] 68 22.1[50] 68 0.0[50] 68 0.0[50] 68 0.0[50] 68 10.3[50] 68 4.4[50] 67 6.0[57] 67 0.0[57] 68 4.4[50]
Uyghurs (Urumqi) Altaic (Turkic) 49 8.2[67] 49 28.6[67] 49 0.0[67] 49 0.0[67] 49 18.4[67]
Uyghurs (Urumqi) Altaic (Turkic) 31 19.4[56] 31 22.6[56] 31 6.5[56] 31 25.8[56] 31 9.7[56] 31 0.0[56] 31 0.0[56]
Uyghurs (Yili) Altaic (Turkic) 39 15.4[56] 39 15.4[56] 39 0.0[56] 39 0.0[56] 39 7.7[56]
Uzbeks Altaic (Turkic) 366 9.8[53] 366 25.1[53] 366 2.2[53] 366 2.5[53] 28 21.4[66] 28 0.0[66] 366 3.0[53]
Vanniyar Dravidian (Southern) 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 20.0[13]
Vellalar Dravidian (Southern) 31 0.0[13] 31 12.9[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 38.7[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 16.1[13]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 88 89.0[46] 88 1.0[46] 196 8.1[10] 88 3.0[46]
Yagnobis IE (Iranic, NE) 31 32.3[53] 31 16.1[53] 31 0.0[53] 31 0.0[53] 31 32.3[53] 31 0.0[53] 31 9.7[53]
Yakuts Altaic (Turkic) 155 1.9[39] 155 1.9[39] 155 1.3[39] 155 88.4[39]
Yakuts Altaic (Turkic) 10 80.0[11]
Yorubas Niger–Congo (Bantu, West) - - - - - - - - 28 93.1[42] - - - - - - - - - -


The tree below shows the descent of the major Y Chromosomal groups from the so-called Y-Chromosomal Adam.


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IE = Indo-European
  2. ^ First column gives the amount of total Sample Size studied
  3. ^ Second column gives the Percentage of the particular haplogroup among the Sample Size
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Nasidze et al., (2004)Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus
  5. ^ a b Although the chart here says J, this group has mainly only J2
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Semino, A; Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic *** sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective" (PDF). Science 290 (5494): 1155–9. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Pericic, M; Lauc LB, Klaric IM, Rootsi S, Janicijevic B, Rudan I, Terzic R, Colak I, Kvesic A, Popovic D, Sijacki A, Behluli I, Dordevic D, Efremovska L, Bajec DD, Stefanovic BD, Villems R, Rudan P (2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (10): 1964–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.  Haplogroup frequency data in table 1
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci Bosch, E.; Calafell, F.; González-Neira, A.; Flaiz, C; Mateu, E; Scheil, HG; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L et al. (2006). "Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns". Annals of Human Genetics 70 (Pt 4): 459–87. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x. PMID 16759179. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri et al. (24 December 2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–30. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Rootsi et al. (2004).
  11. ^ a b Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe. Derenko et al.
  12. ^ a b Khar'kov, VN; Stepanov, VA; Medvedeva, OF; Spiridonova, MG; Voevoda, MI; Tadinova, VN; Puzyrev, VP (2007). "Gene pool differences between Northern and Southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups". Genetika 43 (5): 675–87. PMID 17633562. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct Sengupta, S; Zhivotovsky, LA; King, R; Mehdi, SQ; Edmonds, CA; Chow, CE; Lin, AA; Mitra, M et al. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Semino, O; Santachiara-Benerecetti, AS; Falaschi, F; Cavalli-Sforza, LL; Underhill, PA (2002). "Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny". American journal of human genetics 70 (1): 265–8. doi:10.1086/338306. PMC 384897. PMID 11719903. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Semino et al. (2004).
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br Yunusbaev 2006
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Arredi, B; Poloni, ES; Paracchini, S; Zerjal, T; Fathallah, DM; Makrelouf, M; Pascali, VL; Novelletto, A et al. (2004). "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa". American journal of human genetics 75 (2): 338–45. doi:10.1086/423147. PMC 1216069. PMID 15202071. 
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External links[edit]

fa:تک‌گروه‌های دی‌ان‌ای Y بر پایه گروه قومی ru:Y-хромосомные гаплогруппы в этнических группах

Progression of J1 Haplogroup[edit]

  • The Kebaran or Kebarian culture was an archaeological culture in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. 18,000 to 10,000 BC), named after its type site, Kebara Cave south of Haifa. The Kebaran were a highly mobile nomadic population, composed of hunters and gatherers in the Levant and Sinai areas who utilized microlithic tools.The Kebaran is the last Upper Paleolithic phase of the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine). The Kebarans were characterized by small, geometric microliths, and were thought to lack the specialized grinders and pounders found in later Near Eastern cultures. The Kebaran is preceded by the Athlitian phase of the Antelian and followed by the proto-agrarian Natufian culture of the Mesolithic. The Kebaran is also characterised by the earliest collecting of wild cereals, known due to the uncovering of grain grinding tools. It was the first step towards the Neolithic Revolution. The Kebaran people are believed to have practice dispersal to upland environments in the summer, and aggregation in caves and rockshelters near lowland lakes in the winter. This diversity of environments may be the reason for the variety of tools found in their toolkits. Situated in the Terminal Pleistocene, the Kebaran is classified as an Epipalaeolithic society. They are generally thought to have been ancestral to the later Natufian culture that occupied much of the same range.[4]
  • The spread of Natufian culture
    The Natufian culture was a Mesolithic culture that existed from 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean. It was unusual in that it was sedentary, or semi-sedentary, before the introduction of agriculture.The Natufian communities are possibly the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region, which may have been the earliest in the world.[5] There is some evidence for the deliberate cultivation of cereals, specifically rye, by the Natufian culture, at the Tell Abu Hureyra site, the site for earliest evidence of agriculture in the world.[6] Generally, though, Natufians made use of wild cereals. [7] Animals hunted include gazelles.[8]The term "Natufian" was coined by Dorothy Garrod who studied the Shuqba cave in Wadi an-Natuf, Israel, about halfway between Tel Aviv and Ramallah.Radiocarbon dating places this culture from the terminal Pleistocene to the very beginning of the Holocene, from 12,500 to 9,500 BC.[9][10]The period is commonly split into two subperiods: Early Natufian (12,500–10,800 BC) and Late Natufian (10,800–9500 BC). The Late Natufian most likely occurred in tandem with the Younger Dryas (10,800 to 9500 BC). In the Levant, there are more than a hundred kinds of cereals, fruits, nuts and other edible parts of plants, and the flora of the Levant during the Natufian period was not the dry, barren, and thorny landscape of today, but parkland and woodland.[11]
  • The '''Pre-Pottery Neolithic B''' Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the southern Levant region.Sites from this period found in the Levant utilizing rectangular floor plans and plastered floor techniques were found at Ain Ghazal, Yiftahel (western Galilee), and Abu Hureyra (Upper Euphrates).[12] The period is dated to between ca. 10700 and ca. 8000 BP or 8700 - 6000 BCE.
  • Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA for short) denotes the first stage in early Levantine Neolithic culture, dating around 9500 to 8500 BC[14]. Archaelogical remains are located in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. The culture is characterized by small circular mud brick dwellings, the cultivation of crops, the hunting of wild game, and unique burial customs in which bodies were buried below the floors of dwellings.[15] The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and the following Pre-Pottery Neolithic B were originally defined by Kathleen Kenyon in the type site of Jericho (Palestine). During this time, pottery was yet unknown. They precede the ceramic Neolithic (Yarmukian). PPNA succeeds the Natufian culture of the Epipaleolithic (Mesolithic).
  • Yarmukian pottery vessel, Sha'ar HaGolan.
    The Yarmukian Culture is a Neolithic culture of the ancient Levant. It was the first culture in Prehistoric Israel and one of the oldest in the Levant to make use of pottery. The Yarmukian derives its name from the Yarmouk River which flows near its type site at Sha'ar HaGolan, a kibbutz at the foot of the Golan Heights. The first Yarmukian settlement was unearthed at Megiddo during the 1930s, but was not identified as a distinct Neolithic culture at the time. At Sha'ar HaGolan, in 1949, Prof. Moshe Stekelis first identified the Yarmukian Culture, a Pottery Neolithic culture that inhabited parts of Israel and Jordan.[16] The site, dated to ca. 6400–6000 BC (calibrated), is located in the central Jordan Valley, on the northern bank of the Yarmouk River. Its size is circa 20 hectares, making it one of the largest settlements in the world at that time. Although other Yarmukian sites have been identified since, Sha'ar HaGolan is the largest, probably indicating its role as the Yarmukian center.[17]


  • The geographic location of the Chalcolithic Halaf culture in relation to the contemporaneous Hassuna culture.
    Halaf culture, is a prehistoric culture which developed from Neolithic III at Tell Halaf without any strong break. The Tell Halaf site flourished from about 6100 to 5400 BCE, a period of time that is referred to as the Halaf period. The Halaf culture was succeeded in northern Mesopotamia by the Ubaid culture. The site was then abandoned for a long period.Dryland farming was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi people of Arizona. Emmer wheat, two-rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats.










Cohanim Date and Place of Origin[edit]

Haplogroup Cohanim Sample (n) 17 loci a ± Variation a 9 loci b ± Variation b
J-P58*-All 99 3.2 1.1 3.0 1.5
J-Ashkenazi 63 2.4 0.8 2.8 1.2
J-M410* All 31 5.9 2.0 4.9 1.9

Cohenim[edit]

  • Haplogroup Cohanim sample (N) 17 locia 9 locib
  • J-P58* All (99) 3.2 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.5
  • Ashkenazi (63) 2.4 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 1.2
  • J-M410* All (31) 5.9 ± 2.0 4.9 ± 1.9
  • All (29)c 4.2 ± 1.3 3.8 ± 1.4
  • Ashkenazi (23) 3.8 ± 1.2 4.2 ± 1.8
  • J-M12 All (16) 12.1 ± 4.4 5.5 ± 1.9
  • All (14)c 3.4 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 1.8
  • Ashkenazi (14) 6.7 ± 2.5 4.3 ± 2.0
  • Ashkenazi (13)c 3.0 ± 1.3 4.3 ± 2.0
  • J-M318 Non-Ashkenazi (13) 1.3 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.8
  • R-M269 All (12) 11.5 ± 2.8 14.1 ± 4.1
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    • ^ Ofer Bar-Yosef, The Natufian culture and the Early Neolithic: Social and economic trends in Southwestern Asia, chapter 10 in Peter Bellwood and Colin Renfrew (eds.), Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis (2002), p.114.
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