Uthman ibn Affan

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Uthman ibn Affan
3rd Caliph of Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliph in Medina
Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan - عثمان بن عفان ثالث الخلفاء الراشدين.svg
Islamic Empire during Uthman's reign
Mohammad adil-Rashidun-empire-at-its-peak-close.PNG
The Generous
(Al-Ghani)
Full Name ʻUthmān ibn ʻAffān
(عثمان بن عفان)
Reign 11 November 644 – 20 June 656
Born 577 CE (47 BH)
Birthplace Taif, Arabia
Died 17 June 656 CE (18th Zulhijjah 35 AH)[1][2](aged 79)
Deathplace Medina, Arabia, Rashidun Empire
Place of Burial Jannat al-Baqi, Madinah
Predecessor Umar ibn al-Khattab
Successor Ali ibn Abi-Talib
Father Affan ibn Abu al-As
Mother Urwa bint Kariz
Sister(s) Amna
Spouse(s)

Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad
Naila bint al-Farafsa
Ramla bint Shuibat
Fatima bint al-Walid
Fakhtah bint Ghazwan
Umm Al-Banin bint Unaib

Umm Amr bint Jundub
Son(s) • Amro (عمرو)
• Umar (عمر)
• Khalid (خالد)
Aban (أبان)
• Abdullah Al-Asghar
(عبد الله الأصغر)
• Al-Walid (الوليد)
• Saeed (سعيد)
• Abdulmalik (عبدالملك)
Daughter(s) • Maryam (مريم)
• Umm Uthman (أم عثمان)
• Ayesha (عائشة)
• Umm Amr (أم عمرو)
• Umm Aban Al-Kabri
(أم أبان الکبرى)
• Aurvi (أروى)
• Umm Khalid (أم خالد)
• Umm Aban Al-Sagri
(أم أبان الصغرى)
Other Titles

[citation needed]ذو النورين ("Thu Ul-Nourain", Possessor of Two Lights)[citation needed]
الكريم ("Al Kareem", The Generous)[citation needed]

الفاروق ("Al-Faruq", Distinguisher between truth and false)[citation needed]

Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان‎, strict transliteration: ʻUthmān ibn ʻAffān) (577 – 17 June 656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and the third of the Sunni Rashidun or "Rightly Guided Caliphs". Born into a prominent Meccan clan of the Quraysh tribe, he played a major role in early Islamic history, succeeding Umar ibn al-Khattab as caliph at age 65. He was also the prophet's son-in-law twice, being married to two of the prophet’s daughters Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum.

Under the leadership of Uthman, the empire expanded into Fars in 650 (present-day Iran), some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) in 651 and the conquest of Armenia was begun in the 640s.[3]

Early life[edit]

Uthman was born in Ta’if. He was born into the wealthy Umayyad (Banu Umayya) clan of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca, seven years after Muhammad. Uthman's father, Affan, died young while travelling abroad but left a large inheritance to Uthman. Uthman followed the same profession as his father, and his business flourished, making him one of the richest men among the Qurayshi tribe.[4] His mother was Awra who was daughter of Umme Hakim bint Abdul Mutallib. The later was twin sister of Abdullah, father of Muhammad and therefore his first cousin. She also passed away before 610AD.[5]

Conversion to Islam[edit]

On returning from a business trip to Syria in 611, Uthman found out that Muhammad had declared his mission. After a discussion with his friend Abu Bakr, Uthman decided to convert to Islam, and Abu Bakr took him to Muhammad to whom he declared his faith. Uthman thus became the one of the earliest converts to Islam, following Ali, Zayd, Abu Bakr and few others. His conversion to Islam angered his clan, the Banu Ummayyah, who strongly opposed Muhammad's teachings.[6]

Migration to Abyssinia[edit]

Uthman and his wife Ruqayya migrated to Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia) in 614–615, along with 11 men and 11 women, all Muslims. As Uthman already had some business contacts in Abyssinia, he continued to practise his profession as a trader. He worked hard and his business soon flourished. After two years the news had spread among the Muslims in Abyssinia that the Quraysh of Mecca had accepted Islam, and that persuaded Uthman, Ruqayya and some other Muslims to return. However when they reached Mecca it transpired that the news about the Quraysh's acceptance of Islam was false. Some of the Muslims who had come from Abyssinia returned but Uthman and Ruqayya decided to stay. In Mecca Uthman had to start his business afresh, but the contacts that he had already established in Abyssinia worked in his favour and his business prospered once again.[7]

Migration to Medina[edit]

In 622, Uthman and his wife, Ruqayya, migrated to Medina. They were amongst the third batch of Muslims who migrated to Medina. On arrival in Medina, Uthman stayed with Abu Talha ibn Thabit of the Banu Najjar. After a short while, Uthman purchased a house of his own and moved there. Being one of the richest merchants of Mecca, and having amassed a considerable fortune, Uthman did not need any financial help from his Ansari brothers, as he brought all his wealth with him to Medina. In Medina, the Muslims were generally farmers and were not very interested in trade, and thus most of the trading that took place in the town was handled by the Jews. Thus, there was considerable space for the Muslims in promoting trade and Uthman took advantage of this position, soon establishing himself as a trader in Medina. He worked hard and honestly, and his business flourished, soon becoming one of the richest men in Medina.[8]

Life in Medina[edit]

When Ali married Fatimah, Uthman bought Ali's armor for five hundred dirhams. Four hundred was set aside as a dowry for Fatimah, leaving a hundred for all other expenses. Later Uthman presented the armor back to Ali as a wedding present.[9][10]

Muhammad's last years[edit]

In 632 the year Muhammad died, Uthman participated in The Farewell Pilgrimage along with him.[4] In 632 .

Caliph Abu Bakr's era (632–634)[edit]

Uthman had a very close relationship with Abu Bakr, as it was due to him that Uthman had converted to Islam. When Abu Bakr was selected as the Caliph, Uthman was the first person after Umar to offer his allegiance. During the Ridda wars (Wars of Apostasy), Uthman remained at Medina, acting as Abu Bakr's adviser. On his deathbed, Abu Bakr dictated his will to Uthman, saying that his successor was to be Umar.[11]

Election of Uthman[edit]

Umar, on his deathbed formed a committee of six people to choose the next Caliph from amongst themselves. This committee was:

Umar asked that, after his death, the committee reach a final decision within three days, and the next Caliph should take the oath of office on the fourth day. If Talhah joined the committee within this period, he was to take part in the deliberations, but if he did not return to Medina within this period, the other members of the committee could proceed with the decision. Abdur Rahman bin Awf withdrew his eligibility to be appointed as Caliph in order to act as a moderator and began his task by interviewing every member of the committee separately. He asked them for whom they would cast their vote. When Ali was asked, he didn't reply. When Uthman was asked, he voted for Ali, Zubayr said for Ali or Uthman. and Saad said for Uthman.[11]

Reign as a Caliph (644–656)[edit]

Uthman and Muawiyah[edit]

Uthman and Muawiyah were both from the Umayyad clan. In 639 Muawiyah I was appointed the Governor of Syria by Umar after his elder brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan (Governor of Syria) died in a plague, along with Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah the governor before him and 25,000 other people. To stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea during the Arab-Byzantine Wars, in 649 Muawiyah set up a navy; manned by Monophysitise Christians, Copts and Jacobite Syrian Christians sailors and Muslim troops. This resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655, opening up the Mediterranean.[12][13][14][15][16]

Reforms of Uthman's era[edit]

Economic reforms[edit]

The coins were of Persian origin, and had an image of the last Persian emperor, Muslim added the sentence Bismillah to it.

Uthman was a shrewd businessman and a successful trader from his youth, which contributed greatly to the Rashidun Empire. Umar had fixed the allowance of the people and on assuming office, Uthman increased it by about 25%. Umar had placed a ban on the sale of lands and the purchase of agricultural lands in conquered territories.[17] Uthman withdrew these restrictions, in view of the fact that the trade could not flourish. Uthman also permitted people to draw loans from the public treasury. Under Umar it had been laid down as a policy that the lands in conquered territories were not to be distributed among the combatants, but were to remain the property of the previous owners. The army felt dissatisfied at this decision, but Umar suppressed the opposition with a strong hand. Uthman followed the policy devised by Umar and there were more conquests, and the revenues from land increased considerably.[11]

Umar, the predecessor of Uthman was very strict in the use of money from the public treasury. Apart from the meagre allowance that had been sanctioned in his favour, Umar took no money from the treasury. He did not receive any gifts, nor did he allow any of his family members to accept any gift from any quarter. During the time of Uthman there was some relaxation in such strictness. Uthman did not draw any allowance from the treasury for his personal use, nor did he receive a salary, he was a wealthy man with sufficient resources of his own, but unlike Umar, Uthman accepted gifts and allowed his family members to accept gifts from certain quarters.[4] Uthman honestly felt that he had the right to utilize the public funds according to his best judgment, and no one criticized him for that. The economic reforms introduced by Uthman had far reaching effects; Muslims as well as non-Muslims of the Rashidun Empire enjoyed an economically prosperous life during his reign.[18]

Kinsmen as governors[edit]

Uthman appointed his kinsmen as governors of four provinces: Egypt, Syria, Basra and Kufa.[19]

This copy of the Qur'an is believed to be one of the oldest, compiled during Caliph Uthman's reign.

Military expansion[edit]

Rashidun Empire at its peak under third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman- 654
  Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate

Anti-Uthman sentiment[edit]

According to Muslim sources, unlike his predecessor, Umar, who maintained discipline with a stern hand, Uthman was less rigorous upon his people; he focused more on economic prosperity. Under Uthman, the people became economically more prosperous and on the political plane they came to enjoy a larger degree of freedom. No institutions were devised to channel political activity, and, in the absence of such institutions, the pre-Islamic tribal jealousies and rivalries, which had been suppressed under earlier caliphs, erupted once again. In view of the lenient policies adopted by Uthman, the people took advantage of such liberties, which became a headache for the state, and it culminated in the assassination of Uthman.[20]

The actual reason for the anti-Uthman movement is disputed among the Shia and Sunni Muslims.[21] Many anonymous letters were written to the leading companions of Muhammad, complaining about the alleged tyranny of Uthman's appointed governors. Moreover, letters were sent to the leaders of public opinion in different provinces concerning the reported mishandling of power by Uthman's family. This contributed to unrest in the empire and finally Uthman had to investigate the matter in an attempt to ascertain the authenticity of the rumours.[22] Wilferd Madelung discredits the alleged role of Abdullah ibn Saba in the rebellion against Uthman, Madelung observes that few if any modern historians would accept Sayf's legend of Ibn Saba[23]

Uthman's emissaries to the provinces[edit]

The situation was becoming tense and so the Uthman administration had to investigate the origins and extent of anti-government propaganda and its aims. Some time around 654, Uthman called all the governors of his 12 provinces to Medina to discuss the problem. In this Council of Governors, Uthman directed the governors that they should adopt all the expedients they had suggested, according to local circumstances. Later, in the Majlis al Shurah (council of ministry), it was suggested to Uthman that reliable agents should be sent to various provinces to investigate the matter and report about the sources of such rumours. Uthman accordingly sent his agents to the main provinces, Muhammad ibn Maslamah was sent to Kufa; Usama ibn Zayd was sent to Basra; Ammar ibn Yasir was sent to Egypt, while `Abd Allah ibn Umar was sent to Syria. The emissaries who had been sent to Kufa, Basra, and Syria submitted their reports to Uthman, that all was well in Kufa, Basra and Syria. The people were satisfied with the administration, and they had no legitimate grievance against it. Some individuals in various locations had some personal grievances of minor character, with which the people at large were not concerned. Ammar ibn Yasir, the emissary to Egypt, however, did not return to Medina. The rebels had carried on with their propaganda in favour of the Caliphate of Ali. Ammar ibn Yasir had been affiliated with Ali; he left Uthman, and instead joined the opposition in Egypt. Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, reported about the activities of the opposition in Egypt. He wanted to take action against Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (foster son of Ali), Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifa (adopted son of Uthman) and Ammar ibn Yasir.[19]

Further measures[edit]

In 655, Uthman directed the people who had any grievance against the administration to assemble at Mecca for the Hajj. He promised them that all their legitimate grievances would be redressed. He directed the governors and the "Amils" throughout the empire to come to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj. In response to the call of Uthman, the opposition came in large delegations from various cities to present their grievances before the gathering.[20]

The rebels realized that the people in Mecca supported the defence offered by Uthman and were not in the mood to listen to them.[6] That was a great psychological victory for Uthman. It is said, according to Sunni Muslim accounts, that before returning to Syria, the governor Muawiyah, Uthman’s cousin, suggested Uthman should come with him to Syria as the atmosphere there was peaceful. Uthman rejected his offer, saying that he didn't want to leave the city of Muhammad (referring to Medina). Muawiyah then suggested that he be allowed to send a strong force from Syria to Medina to guard Uthman against any possible attempt by rebels to harm him. Uthman rejected it too, saying that the Syrian forces in Medina would be an incitement to civil war, and he could not be party to such a move.[19]

Armed revolt against Uthman[edit]

The politics of Egypt played the major role in the propaganda war against the caliphate, so Uthman summoned Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, to Medina to consult with him as to the course of action that should be adopted. Abdullah ibn Saad came to Medina, leaving the affairs of Egypt to his deputy, and in his absence, Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifa staged a coup d'état and took power. On hearing of the revolt in Egypt, Abdullah hastened back but Uthman was not in a position to offer him any military assistance and, accordingly, Abdullah ibn Saad failed to recapture his power.[24]

Rebels in Medina[edit]

From Egypt a contingent of about 1,000 people were sent to Medina, with instructions to assassinate Uthman and overthrow the government. Similar contingents marched from Kufa and Basra to Medina.[25] They sent their representatives to Medina to contact the leaders of public opinion. The representatives of the contingent from Egypt waited on Ali, and offered him the Caliphate in succession to Uthman, which Ali turned down. The representatives of the contingent from Kufa waited on Al-Zubayr, while the representatives of the contingent from Basra waited on Talhah, and offered them their allegiance as the next Caliph, which were both turned down. In proposing alternatives to Uthman as Caliph, the rebels neutralized the bulk of public opinion in Medina and Uthman's faction could no longer offer a united front. Uthman had the active support of the Umayyads, and a few other people in Medina.[21]

Siege of Uthman[edit]

Main article: Siege of Uthman

The early stage of the siege of Uthman’s house was not severe, but as the days passed, the rebels intensified their pressure against Uthman.<[26] With the departure of the pilgrims from Medina to Mecca, the hands of the rebels were further strengthened, and as a consequence the crisis deepened further. The rebels understood that after the Hajj, the Muslims gathered at Mecca from all parts of the Muslim world might march to Medina to relieve Uthman. They therefore decided to take action against Uthman before the pilgrimage was over. During the siege, Uthman was asked by his supporters, who outnumbered the rebels, to let them fight against the rebels and rout them. Uthman prevented them in an effort to avoid the bloodshed of Muslim by Muslim. Unfortunately for Uthman, violence occurred anyhow. The gates of the house of Uthman were shut and guarded by the renowned warrior, Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr.[26] The sons of Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, were also among the guards;[27] while amongst those inciting the people to fight included Aisha,[28] one of the wives of Muhammad.

Assassination[edit]

Finding the gate of Uthman's house strongly guarded by his supporters, the rebels climbed the back wall and sneaked inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. The rebels entered his room and struck blows at his head.[29] Naila, the wife of Uthman, threw herself on his body to protect him, raising her hand to protect him she had her fingers chopped off and was pushed aside, and further blows were struck until he was dead. The supporters of Uthman then counterattacked the assassins and, in turn, killed them. There was further fighting between the rebels and the supporters of Uthman, with casualties on both sides, after which the rebels looted the house.[30]

The rioters wanted to mutilate his body and were keen that he be denied burial. When some of the rioters came forward to mutilate the body of Uthman, his two widows, Nailah and Ramlah bint Sheibah, covered him, and raised loud cries which deterred the rioters. The rebels left the house and the supporters of Uthman at gate hearing it, entered, but it was too late.[31]

Funeral[edit]

After the body of Uthman had been in the house for three days, Naila, Uthman's wife, approached some of his supporters to help in his burial, but only about a dozen people responded. These included Marwan, Zayd ibn Thabit, 'Huwatib bin Alfarah, Jabir bin Muta'am, Abu Jahm bin Hudaifa, Hakim bin Hazam and Niyar bin Mukarram.[32] The body was lifted at dusk, and because of the blockade, no coffin could be procured. The body was not washed, as Islamic teaching states that martyrs' bodies are not supposed to be washed before burial. Thus Uthman was carried to the graveyard in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his assassination.[33]

His body was buried by Hassan, Hussein, Ali and others however some people reject that Ali attended the funeral[34] Naila followed the funeral with a lamp, but in order to maintain secrecy the lamp had to be extinguished. Naila was accompanied by some women including Ayesha, Uthman's daughter.[citation needed]

Burial[edit]

The body was carried to Jannat al-Baqi, the Muslim graveyard.[citation needed]

It appears that some people gathered there, and they resisted the burial of Uthman in the graveyard of the Muslims. The supporters of Uthman insisted that the body should be buried in Jannat al-Baqi. They later buried him in the Jewish graveyard behind Jannat al-Baqi. Some decades later, the Umayyad rulers demolished the wall separating the two cemeteries and merged the Jewish cemetery into the Muslim one to ensure that his tomb was now inside a Muslim cemetery.[35]

The funeral prayers were led by Jabir bin Muta'am, and the dead body was lowered into the grave without much of a ceremony. After burial, Naila the widow of Uthman and Aisha the daughter of Abu Bakir wanted to speak, but they were advised to remain quiet due to possible danger from the rioters.[36]

Legacy[edit]

Uthman apparently led a simple life even after becoming the Caliph of the Rashidun Empire, though it would have been easy for a successful businessman such as him to lead a luxurious life. The caliphs were paid for their services from bait al-mal, the public treasury, but Uthman never took any salary for his service as a Caliph, as he was independently wealthy.[6] Uthman also developed a custom to free slaves every Friday, look after the widows and orphans, and give unlimited charity. His patience and endurance were among the characteristics that made him a successful leader. He was a devoted Muslim, As a way of taking care of Muhammad’s wives, he doubled their allowances. Uthman wasn't completely plain and simple, however: Uthman built a Palace for himself in Medina, known as Al-Zawar, with a notable feature being doors of precious wood. Although Uthman paid for the palace with his own money, Shia Muslims consider it his first step towards ruling like a King.[4]

Non-Muslims[edit]

Bernard Lewis, a 20th-century scholar, says of Uthman:

Uthman, like Mu'awiya, was a member of the leading Meccan family of Ummaya and was indeed the sole representative of the Meccan patricians among the early companions of the Prophet with sufficient prestige to rank as a candidate. His election was at once their victory and their opportunity. That opportunity was not neglected. Uthman soon fell under the influence of the dominant Meccan families and one after another of the high posts of the Empire went to members of those families.

The weakness and nepotism of Uthman brought to a head the resentment which had for some time been stirring obscurely among the Arab warriors. The Muslim tradition attribute the breakdown which occurred during his reign to the personal defects of Uthman. But the causes lie far deeper and the guilt of Uthman lay in his failure to recognize, control or remedy them
.[37]

According to Ronald Bodley, during Muhammad's lifetime Uthman was not an outstanding figure and was not assigned to any authority, and was not ever distinguished in any of Muhammad's campaigns.[38][39] Bodley also believed that after Umar's assassination, Ali rejected the caliphate as he disagreed with governing according to regulations established by Abu Bakr and Umar, and that Uthman, being less honest than Ali, accepted those terms[40] which he failed to administrate during his ten years Caliphate.[38] He subjected most of the Islamic nation to his relatives, Bani Umayya, who were partially accursed during Muhamad's lifetime.[39][41][42] Uthman compiled the Qur'an, and burnt its other copies. Uthman's governing policies and nepotism led to openly rise of dissatisfaction and resistance throughout most of the empire, especially among noble Companions of Muhammad [38][41][43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. Lisan Al-Mizan: *Uthman bin al-Affan. 
  2. ^ University of Zurich Institute of Oriental Studies converter - http://www.oriold.uzh.ch/static/hegira.html
  3. ^ Ochsenweld, William; Fisher, Sydney Nettleton (2004). The Middle East: a history (sixth ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-244233-6. 
  4. ^ a b c d Al-Mubarakphuri, Safi-ur-Rahman. Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar). Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1996
  5. ^ Bewley/Saad vol. 8 p. 32; Laundau-Tasseron/Tabari, p. 198>
  6. ^ a b c Uthman bin Affan, the Third Caliph of Islam by Ahmad, Abdul Basit. (Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2000).
  7. ^ Hazrat Usman – by Rafi Ahmad Fidai, Publisher: Islamic Book Service Pages: 32
  8. ^ Talhah bin 'Ubaydullah R
  9. ^ The Heirs Of The Prophet Muhammad: And The Roots Of The Sunni-Shia Schism By Barnaby Rogerson [1]
  10. ^ A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 48 and Page 52-53
  11. ^ a b c The Early Islamic Conquests, Fred Donner, Princeton 1981
  12. ^ European Naval and Maritime History, 300-1500 By Archibald Ross Lewis, Timothy J. Runyan Page 24 [2]
  13. ^ History of the Jihad By Leonard Michael Kroll Page 123
  14. ^ A History of Byzantium By Timothy E. Gregory page 183
  15. ^ Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present By Mark Weston Page 61 [3]
  16. ^ The Medieval Siege By Jim Bradbury Page 11
  17. ^ A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims on Al-Islam.org referencing Al-Fitna Al-Kubra (The Great Upheaval), published by Dar-ul-Ma'arif, Cairo, 1959, p. 47
  18. ^ The Gold Coins of Muslim Rulers
  19. ^ a b c The Cambridge History of Islam, ed. P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, Cambridge, 1970
  20. ^ a b Sirat-i-Hazrat Usman-i-Ghani, by Mohammad Alias Aadil. Publishers: Mushtaq Ahmed Lahore
  21. ^ a b Muhammad and the Conquests of Islam, Francesco Gabrieli, London 1968
  22. ^ A Chronology of Islamic History, 570–1000 CE By Habibur U. Rahman. ISBN 978-0-8161-9067-6
  23. ^ The Succession to Muhammad p. 2
  24. ^ Abu Nu`aym, Hilya al-Awliya’ 1:92–100 #3; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 1/2: 566–614 #4.
  25. ^ Uthman ibn `Affan
  26. ^ a b The Murder of the Caliph Uthman, M. Hinds, in International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 1972
  27. ^ Prophets and princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the present, pg 63, By Mark Weston
  28. ^ Al Nahaya, Volume 5 page 80 ; Qamus, page 500 "lughut Nathal" by Firozabadi ; Lisan al Arab, Volume 11 Chapter "Lughuth Nathal" page 670 ; Sharh Nahjul Balagha Ibn al Hadeed Volume 2 page 122 ; Sheikh al-Mudhira, by Mahmoud Abu Raya, p170 (foot note) ; Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa, Volume 1 page 52 ; Tarikh Mukhtasar al-Duwal, by Ibn Al-Ebrei, v1 p55 ; Al-Mahsol, by al-Razi, v4 p343 ; Ansab al-Ashraf, Volume 6 pages 192–193 ; History of Tabari [English translation] Volume 15 pages 289–239.
  29. ^ Richard R. Losch, The Many Faces of Faith: A Guide to World Religions and Christian Traditions
  30. ^ Shaykh Zahir, The Martyrdom of Uthman ibn Affan
  31. ^ Uthman ibn Affan
  32. ^ Hazrat Usman
  33. ^ `Uthman ibn `Affan: The Man With Two Lights (Part Two)
  34. ^ Philip Khuri Hitti, Makers of Arab History. St. Martin's Press 1968. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized 21 November 2006
  35. ^ Textual Sources for the Study of Islam By Knappert, Jan, Andrew Rippin
  36. ^ The Encyclopaedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged By Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer
  37. ^ The Arabs in History, p 59, Oxford University Press, 2002
  38. ^ a b c R.V.C. Bodley, The Messenger – the Life of Mohammed, pgs. 348–9.
  39. ^ a b Uthman-ibn-Affan, Britannica
  40. ^ R. V. C. Bodley, The Messenger – the Life of Mohammed:The six counselors appointed by Omar met as soon as the funeral was over. The caliphate was first offered to Ali with the condition that he govern according to the Koran, the traditions of Mohammed, and the regulations established by Abu Bakr and Umar. Ali accepted the first two conditions, and refused the third. The offer was, accordingly, withdrawn and Othman was approached with the same terms. Being less honest than Ali, he accepted them without demur.
  41. ^ a b Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Page 90.
  42. ^ Sir John Glubb, The Great Arab Conquests, p.300
  43. ^ Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate, p. 92-107

Also:

External links[edit]

Views of various Islamic historians on Uthman:

Views of the Arab Media on Uthman:

Sunni view of Uthman:

Uthman ibn Affan
Cadet branch of the Quraysh
Died: June 20 656
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Umar
Rashidun Caliph
644–656
Succeeded by
Ali
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Yazdgerd III
Ruler of Persia
651–656
Merged into
Caliphate