Uttarandhra

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Uttarandhra
Sub-Region
Uttarandhra region in Andhra Pradesh is Highlighted in the map
Uttarandhra region in Andhra Pradesh is Highlighted in the map
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Largest city Visakhapatnam
Megalithic Dolmen of Iron Age period at Dannanapeta near Amudalavalasa
Evening scenic view in peddipalem village of Visakhapatnam District

The Uttarandhra(Telugu: ఉత్తరాంధ్ర) sub-region consists of three north coastal districts in the Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh state in India. This region is also called Kalingandhra. The people speak Telugu language and most people depend on agriculture for farming.

city view of vizag
West Entrance of the Vizianagaram fort in Andhra Pradesh

Districts[edit]

The Uttarandhra region comprises:

The region is in the extreme Northeast of Andhra Pradesh. The region is skirted to a distance by Kandivalasagedda, Vamsadhara and Bahuda at certain stretches of their courses white a line of heights of the great Eastern Ghats run from North East. East Godavari District flanks in the south and west while Orissa bounds it on the north and Bay of Bengal on the East .

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture is backbone of this region's economy.

Rainfall[edit]

South West Monsoon : 1000–1100 mm.

Temperature[edit]

Max. 33-36 °C & Min. 26-27 °C

Soil Type[edit]

Red soils with clay base,Pockets of acidic Soils, laterite soils, Soils with PH 4-5.[1]

Suitable Crops[edit]

Rice, Black gram, Green gram, Groundnut, Sugarcane, Sesame, Pearl millet, Mesta, finger millets, Horse gram.[2]

Agro Industry's[edit]

This region is home to many co-operative sugar factories,jute mills,cashew processing industries. Visakha Dairy is second biggest co-operative dairy in India.

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

Andhra University,Visakhapatnam.

Medical colleges[edit]

Industry's[edit]

HPCL

Visakhapatnam is the biggest city of the region and is placed 10th among the top 15 cities contributing to India's overall Gross domestic product.[5] The industrial city, Visakhapatnam has contributed a GDP of $26 billion. The city is home for various state owned heavy industries and a steel plant, a leading Central PSU under the Ministry of Steel is the first shore based Integrated Steel Plant in the country. Apart from accommodating various international information technologies and banking firms, the city is a hub for iron ore and other minerals which are exported to China and other countries. The fishing and real estate industry has seen a tremendous growth.

Hindustan Shipyard Limited(HSL) is a shipyard located in Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India.[6]

Visakhapatnam Refinery is one of the two oil refineries of HPCL in India[7]

Palasa-Kasibugga is the center of cashew industries in the Srikakulam district. There are around 200 cashew processing industries around Palasa town. These twin towns are the largest cashew producing towns of Andhra Pradesh and are among the largest processing centres in India. The cashew industry provides direct and indirect employment to about 15,000 people in the surrounding areas.[8]

Weaving at Ponduru

Ponduru hand-loom where the finest khadi is woven. Khadi from Ponduru is famous among Khadi lovers of the entire country. Mahatma Gandhi is also said to have been surprised at the finesse of the Khadi produced here and he always preferred khadi from this village. Khadi from this region is exported to various countries like America, Denmark, Japan and Sweden.[9]

Jute Mills[edit]

  • Chitavalsah Jute Mills Chitavalsah,Visakapatnam
  • East Coast Commercial Co. Ltd. Cantonment,Vizianagaram - 535003
  • Bobbili Jute Mill Bobbili - 535558.
  • Nellimarla Jute Mills Co. Ltd. Nellimarla, Vizianagram[10]
  • Neelam Jute Pvt. Ltd. Srikakulam.
  • Swarnandhra Jute Mills PVT LTD, Srikakulam Dist.

Visakha Dairy[edit]

Sri Vijaya Visakha Milk Producers Company Limited., [Visakha Dairy], Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, have their procurement operations in Costal Andhra districts, viz, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam & in East Godavari and Sales operations across India. [11] Produces Milk(Full cream milk,toned milk,double toned milk,good milk and smart milk)and Milk products(Butter milk,lassi,curd,milk cakes,butter,ghee,paneer,milk power,Badam burfi and doodh peda)[12]

Rivers[edit]

Nagavali River rises in the eastern slopes of the Eastern Ghats near Lakhbahal in the Kalahandi district of Odisha at an elevation of about 1,300 metres.The total length of the river is about 256 km, of which 161 km are in Odisha and the rest in Andhra Pradesh. The catchment area of the basin is 9,510 square km. Nagavali is an interstate river with 4462 km2 and 5048 km2 river basin area located in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh respectively. The river basin receives 1000 mm average rain fall annually. The uplands of the river basin are hilly areas with predominantly tribal populated. It drains parts of the Kalahandi, Rayagada and Koraput districts of Odisha and Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh.[13]

Vamsadhara River river originates in the border of Thuamul Rampur in the Kalahandi district and Kalyansinghpur in Rayagada district of Odisha and runs for a distance of about 254 kilometers, where it joins the Bay of Bengal at Kalingapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. The total catchement area of the river basin is about 10,830 square kilometers.[14]

Cuisine[edit]

Cuisine of this area still has its own distinctive flavours and unique taste, while it shares many similarities with the Andhra region cuisine. The people of this region like to eat many of their foods really sweet unlike other regions of Andhra Pradesh. They often cook lentils in Jaggery (referred to as Bellam Pappu) enjoyed with Butter and steamed Rice.

They cook vegetables in gravies of Menthipettina Kura (Fenugreek seed paste), Avapettina Kura (Mustard seed paste), Nuvvugunda Kura (Sesame paste), etc. Ullikaram is another popular dish where Vegetables or corn seeds are flavored in Shallots or Onion paste.

Poori and Patoli is a favorite breakfast time or festive time dish. Patoli is soaked up split black Chickpeas (senagapappu or chana dal) ground to a coarse paste and seasoned in coriander seeds, onions and at times with cluster beans (goruchikkudu kayi). Uppupindi is coarsely broken rice upma steamed with vegetables and tempering seeds. This dish is had during festive days when people would fast during the day and have it at night.

Inguva Charu is a stew popular among adults and kids,is a sour and sweet stew made with Tamarind and Hing It can be had with rice or Uppupindi. Bellam Pulusu is another highly flavored thick sweet stew made out of Rice floue, Jaggery (Cane Sugar), Corn cobs and whole Shallots.

The pickles in this region varies from other regions of Andhra Pradesh. They sun dry mango pieces with mustard powder, red pepper powder and salt soaked in sesame oil to give the pickle extended shelf life and the result is a darker hue and sweeter taste. This method is followed to prevent high moisture from the Bay of Bengal coast.[15]

Tourism[edit]

Statue of Radha-Krishna on Beach Road

Visakhapatnam has a range of tourist attractions including beaches, cliffs, hilltop parks facing the sea, a beach road, a zoological park and wildlife sanctuary, a submarine museum, hill stations, limestone caves, mountain ranges and valleys within a 100-kilometre (62 mi) radius of the city. Vizag is also popularly known as the City Of Destiny and The Goa Of East Coast.[29] The City is also Home of some world famous five-star hotels (The Gateway Hotel (Taj), the Park, ITC Welcome, Four Seasons, Novotel, Encore Inn, the world famous[citation needed] Novotel) with a range of other accommodations.

Kailasagiri[edit]

Kailasagiri is a hilltop park adjacent to the sea which offers views of the Bay of Bengal, Visakhapatnam and the Eastern Ghats. An aerial tramway accesses the park from the bottom of the hill.

Beach Road[edit]

View of Beach Road from Kailasagiri

Beach Road, from the East Point colony to the coastal battery, is dotted with parks and statues and is an evening gathering point. It is a marine drive of Visakhapatnam.

Submarine museum[edit]

Beach road at INS Kurusura On the road is India's only submarine museum (the INS Kursura), the Viśakha Museum and Matsyadarsini (an aquarium).

VUDA park[edit]

VUDA park, at the beginning of Beach Road, has a musical fountain, entertainment for children and a roller rink which has hosted national and international skating competitions.

Rushikonda[edit]

Rushikonda Beach, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the city, is a popular evening spot. The 30-kilometre (19 mi) Bhimili-Visakhapatnam Beach Road offers views of sea, sand, hills and greenery. Many parks are located on this road. Tenneti Beach Park is on the cliff of Kailasagiri; there are several points from which the rocky beach beneath can be seen, and a number of Telugu, Tamil and Hindi movies were filmed here. Rama Naidu Film Studios is located in Visakhapatnam.

Zoological Park and Kambalakonda[edit]

View of a lake in the eastern ghats at Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary in Visakhapatnam of Andhra Pradesh

Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, between National Highway 5 (NH5) and Beach Road, covers an area of 250 hectares (620 acres); it has about 700 animals from about 90 species. kambalakonda is a trekking place .A gorgeous nature preserve that many people in Vizag itself seem to be unaware of. The solitude and the peace that one can experience at Kambalakonda located within 20–25 minutes drive from the city center is priceless. A nominal entrance fee of 10 Rupees is charged per adult. The greenery, the hiking trail and the fantastic view of the ocean from the rather flimsy viewing tower give a welcome break from the hustle and bustle of the city.

The park has five cottages and five boats for tourists at present.

Located close to the city limits, the reserve forest supports dry deciduous forest, varying from dense to scrub and scattered grasslands with water bodies harbouring rich flora and fauna. The area is home to five panthers, hundreds of deer, sambhars, wild boars, and also supports several species of resident and migratory bird species.

Bheemili[edit]

About 25 km. from the city, Bhimili used to be a small village which was also called Bheemunipatnam. Apart from the beach, the village has the remnants of a Portuguese church, Dutch and East India Company settlements and Buddhist sites. The beaches are lovely, though you wouldn't find many beach cafes/restaurants/huts like the ones you have in Goa. Recently a water sports centre was started in Rishikonda. Vizag's beaches are idyllic and unspoilt without the frills and fancies of an international beach resort like Goa for instance. There has been some change in the recent times and will continue to be, with the influx of employees of HSBC, HPCL, etc., and Naval Officers, who frequently go out with their families to enjoy the golden sand and pollution-free waters of Vizag's beaches.

Yarada Beach[edit]

It is wrongly thought to be a private beach. Tourists can visit the beach directly or through the Yarada village. Agrigold collects a fee of Rupees 30 to enter their property and access the shops and a restaurant there. If you bring your own food and refreshments then you can visit the beach without entering the Agrigold Property. Yarada is the village behind the Dolphin's Nose. To get to this beach, one could use the bus facility available or alternatively one could also hire a cab to get here. The view of the beach and Vizag city from the top of the Dolphin's Nose is memorable. Also, the Gangavaram beach is nearer from Yarada beach. The drive from Scindia to the top of Dolphin's Nose, Dolphin's Nose to Yarada and from there to Gangavaram is really enjoyable.

Beaches[edit]

There are popular beaches in Visakhapatnam coastline which includes:

R.K.Beach

Rishikonda Beach

Bheemili Beach

Yarada beach

Tenneti Beach

Sagar Nagar Beach

Gangavaram Beach

Lawsons Bay Beach

Araku Valley[edit]

Aruku Valley

The Araku Valley, 112 km (70 mi) from Visakhapatnam, is a tourist destination. The Araku hill station is at an elevation of over 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and known for its gardens, valleys, waterfalls and streams. On the way to the Araku hill station are the Borra Caves, which were discovered by British geologist William King in 1807. The Marriage Bureau For Rich People series of novels, written by Farahad Zama and published internationally in 13 languages, are set in Visakhapatnam and feature landmarks of the city and its surroundings.

Religious tourism[edit]

Simhachalam[edit]

Simhachalam Temple

Simhachalam is another popular pilgrimage site of national importance located on a hill 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the Visakhapatnam city centre. Simhachalam is said to be the abode of the savior-god Narasimha, who rescued Prahlada from his abusive father Hiranyakashipu. One of the most exquisitely sculpted shrines of Andhra Pradesh, it has a beautifully carved 16-pillared Natya mantapa and a 96-pillared Kalyana mantapa. The temple was built in the 11th century by Kullotunga chola. Engaged couples go to this temple as a ritual just before marriage. It is one of the most crowded temples of Andhra Pradesh.[16] The temple is believed to have been built in the 7th Century AD by the Kalinga rulers Devendra Varma of Orissa.

Arasavalli[edit]

Arasavalli is home to an ancient temple to the Sun (Suryanarayana) - said to have been built originally by the Kalinga rulers of Orissa around the 7th century CE. Arasavalli is located at Srikakulam,Andhra pradesh.

Mukhalingam[edit]

The Srimukhalingeswara Temple, one of the popular Shiva temples, Sri Mukhalingam was also capital of Eastern Ganga kings of Kalinga (ancient Orissa). The temple of Srimukhalingam was built by Kamarnava II in the 8th century AD of the Eastern Ganga dynasty.[17]

ISKCON temple[edit]

An ISKCON Temple for Universal Peace is planned in Visakhapatnam, with a budget of INR570 million (US$10 million). The temple will feature Kalyan mandapams, a multimedia theatre and museum, a Vedic planetarium and an underwater meditation hall, a school and a naturopathic hospital.[18]

Buddhist hub[edit]

Uttarandhra is one of the major Buddhist hub's in India after the Gangetic plain Buddhist Hub of Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh. Many Remnants from Large Monasteries to small Stupas are found in this region from Srikakulam District in the North to Nellore District in the South. The major Buddhist Remnant sites in Uttarandhra are as follows:[19]

Salihundam,Srikakulam

Salihundam in Srikakulam District.

Danthavarapukota (Dantapuri) in Srikakulam District.

Ramatheertham in Vizianagaram District.

Pavurallakonda in Visakhapatnam District.

Thotlakonda in Visakhapatnam District.

Bavikonda in Visakhapatnam District.

Bojjannakonda (Sankaram) in Visakhapatnam District.

Kotturu Dhanadibbalu in Visakhapatnam District.

Gopalapatnam in Visakhapatnam District.

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

National Highway 5 (NH 5)[edit]

It passes through most of the Uttarandhra towns Visakhapatnam (via NAD Kotha Road), Srikakulam, Tekkali and Palasa-Kasibugga.[20]

National Highway 43[edit]

It passes through Vizianagaram, Gajapathinagaram, Bobbili, Ramabhadrapuram and Salur.[21]

Railways[edit]

The East Coast Railway serves Srikakulam, Vizianagaram District, and part of Visakhapatnam district including Visakhapatnam City and remaining part is under South Central Railway zone.Vizag is well connected by trains to different parts of the country. It has the most number of originating and terminating trains for any station in Andhra Pradesh. It has direct trains to New Delhi, Amritsar, Kolkata, Chennai, Kollam, Kochi, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Tirupathi,Jodhpur,Gandhidham,Korba,Tatanagar, Guntur, Vijayawada, Bhubaneshwar, Shiridi, Manmad etc.

Airways[edit]

Visakhapatnam Airport is the only International Airport not only for Uttarandhra but also for Andhra Pradesh state. It is the busiest airport in Andhra Pradesh with more than 11 million passengers per annum. Vizag is internationally connected to Dubai by Air India and to Singapore by Silk Airways. It is the only airport in the state with night landing facilities. It is also well connected to domestic destinations like Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Kochi,Jaipur,Jammu,Kolkata, Chennai,Bhubaneshwar etc. by daily flights. Air Costa, Spicejet,Indigo, Air India, Silk Airways are the airlines offering flight services to Visakhapatnam. It is also the base for INS Dega the Indian Navys base associated with the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy. It is currently operated by the Indian Navy. Thus government of Andhra Pradesh plans to establish a greenfield airport close to Visakhapatnam for full fledged 24X7 international operations.

Seaports[edit]

Major seaport is at at Visakhapatnam. It is also one of the major seaports serving the nation. Some minor ports at Bhavanapadu,Kalingapatnam,Bheemunipatnam also exist. Gangavaram Port under Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode.[22]

Notables[edit]

Anglo Indians Born in Uttarandhra

Political leaders[edit]

Some of notable political leaders elected from this region are

Konathala Ramakrishna had been elected twice as the ninth and tenth Member of Parliament (MP), of Anakapalli Lok Sabha Parliamentary Constituency of Andhra Pradesh and as MLA for Anakapalli in the recently conducted general elections 2004 and he has been honored with ministerial portfolios - Department of Commercial Taxes, State Excise and Prohibition and Department of Law & Court.

Boddepalli Rajagopala Rao had represented Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency) for six terms between 1952 to 1967 (1st, 2nd and 3rd Lok Sabha) and 1971 to 1984 (5th, 6th and 7th Lok Sabha).[30]

N.T. Rama Rao was elected from Tekkali assembly constituency in 1994 and served as Chief minister of Andhra pradesh.[31]

Kinjarapu Yerran Naidu was elected to the Lok Sabha from the Srikakulam constituency,he became a minister at the centre, holding the portfolio of rural development and employment.[32]

Kishore Chandra Deo was elected to 6th, 7th, 8th, 14th and 15th Lok Sabha Constituency from Araku.Since July 2011,he is Union Cabinet Minister for Tribal Affairs & Panchayati Raj .[33]

T. Subbarami Reddy was elected to 11th and 12th Lok Sabha from Visakhapatnam constituency. He was elected as Rajya Sabha member in 2002 and continued in the position for the third term.He was also Minister of State in the Ministry of Mines between 2006 and 2008.

Dr. Killi Krupa Rani had elected to the Lok Sabha from the Srikakulam constituency.She was inducted into Manmohan Singh's cabinet as Minister of State, Communications and Information Technology.[34]

Daggubati Purandeswari represents the Visakhapatnam constituency in the 15th Lok Sabha of India and serving as Union Minister of State for Commerce and Industries.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]