Voiced uvular trill [ edit ]
uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ ʀ ⟩, a small capital letter R. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R.
Features [ edit ]
Features of the uvular trill:
Occurrence [ edit ]
[ʁ ʀ χ]
) in Continental Europe at the end of the 20th century.
only in some educated speech
usual in educated speech
There are two main theories regarding the origination of the uvular trill in European languages. According to one theory, the uvular trill originated in Standard
French around the seventeenth century, spreading to standard varieties of German, Danish, Portuguese, as well as in parts of Dutch, Norwegian, and Swedish; it is also present in other areas of Europe, but it is not clear if such pronunciations are due to French influence. In most cases, varieties have shifted this to a [2 ] voiced uvular fricative [ or a ʁ] voiced uvular approximant [. ʁ̞]
The other main theory posits that the uvular R originated within Germanic languages through a process where the alveolar R was weakened and then replaced by an imitation of the alveolar R (vocalisation). As counterevidence against the "French origin" theory, it is stipulated that there are many signs that the uvular R existed in certain German dialects long before the 17th century.
Afrikaans Some dialects
Catalan Some northern dialects
[koˈʀe] 'to run'
Dutch [8 ]
Belgian Limburg [8 ]
[ʀɑt] ( · help ) info 'wheel'
More commonly a
tap. Uvular pronunciations appear to be gaining ground in the Randstad. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Flemish Brabant More commonly a
tap. It's one of the least common realizations of /r/ in these areas. See [14 ] Dutch phonology
English Northumbrian dialect
More often a
fricative. Dialectal " Northumbrian Burr", mostly found in eastern Northumberland, declining. See English phonology
Sierra Leonean More often a
[ʀɑ̃devu] ( · help ) info 'appointment'
Dialectal. More commonly an approximant or a fricative
[. See ʁ] French phonology
In free variation with a
voiced uvular fricative and approximant. See German phonology
May also be a
fricative or approximant. See Modern Hebrew phonology
[muˈʒɛʀ] 'woman', 'wife'
Italian Northern dialects
Some speakers, especially in
Parma. May also be a fricative [ or a ʁ] labiodental approximant [. ʋ]
Occitan Eastern dialects
Contrasts with alveolar trill (
European [20 ]
[ʀəɾiˈaɾ] 'to get scarcer'
Alternates with other uvular forms and the older alveolar trill. See
Fluminense [21 ]
[me̞ʀˈkaðu] 'market', 'fair'
Tendency to be replaced by fricative pronunciations with time. If as
coda, generally in free variation with [, x] [, χ] [, ʁ] [ and ħ] [ before non-voicing environments h]
Sulista [21 ]
Romani Some dialects
Allophone of a descendant of the Indic retroflex set, so often transcribed
/ɽ/. A coronal flap, approximant or trill in other dialects; in some it merges with /r/
Lakota [23 ]
[ʀí] 'it's brown'
/ʁ/ before /i/
Selkup Northern dialects
/q/ before liquids
Sotho Most speakers
mo ri ri
Voiced uvular raised non-sonorant trill [ edit ]
Features [ edit ]
Features of the voiced uvular raised non-sonorant trill:
Occurrence [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Map based on Trudgill (1974:220) and (for Italy) Canepari (1999:486)
^ Trudgill (1974:221), citing Moulton (1952), Ewert (1963), and Martinet (1969)
^ a b Verhoeven (2005), pp. 243 and 245.
^ Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001), pp. 52 and 54.
^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000), p. 11.
^ a b Acoustic analysis of vibrants in Brazilian Portuguese (Portuguese)
^ Lakota Language Consortium (2004). Lakota letters and sounds.
^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:225–226)
^ Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138 and 140-141.
Bibliography [ edit ]
Bisiada, Mario (2009), "[R] in Germanic Dialects — Tradition or Innovation?", Vernacular 1: 84–99
Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press
Canepari, Luciano (1999) , Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [ Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian) (2 ed.), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), , The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition ISBN 9004103406
Ewert, A. (1963), The French Language, London: Faber
Goeman, Ton; Van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on /r/ and /ɣ/ in Dutch dialects", in Van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, , Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91–112, 'r-atics ISSN 0777-3692
Grevisse, Maurice; Goosse, André (2008), Le Bon Usage (14th ed.), De Boeck et Larcier
Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht", Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166, doi: 10.1017/S0025100300006526
Hall, Tracy Alan (1993), "The phonology of German /ʀ/", Phonology 10 (1): 83–105, doi: 10.1017/S0952675700001743, JSTOR 4615428
Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112, doi: 10.1017/S0025100300006307
Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
Martinet, A. (1969), Le Français sans fard, Paris: Presses Universitaires
Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
Moulton, W.G. (1952), "Jacob Böhme's uvular r", Journal of English and Germanic philology 51: 83–89
Rood, David S.; Taylor, Allan R. (1996), "Sketch of Lakhota, a Siouan Language, Part I", Handbook of North American Indians 17, Smithsonian Institution, pp. 440–482
Tops, Evie (2009), , Brussels: VUBPress, Variatie en verandering van de /r/ in Vlaanderen ISBN 9789054874713
Trudgill, Peter (1974), "Linguistic change and diffusion: Description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect", Language in Society 3 (2): 215–246, doi: 10.1017/S0047404500004358
Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247, doi: 10.1017/S0025100305002173
Verstraten, Bart; Van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Socio-geographical variation of /r/ in standard Dutch", in Van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, , Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 45–61, 'r-atics ISSN 0777-3692
Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7