Uyunid Emirate

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Uyunid kingdom
الدولة العيونية
Dynasty
1076–1253
The historical region of Bahrain on a 1745 Bellin map.
Capital Al-Hasa, Qatif and Awal
Languages Classical Arabic
Religion Official religion:
Islam P islam.svg
Government Absolute monarchy
List of first and last Sheikh
 -  1074 (first) Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni
 -  1239 (last) Emad Al Deen Mohamad bin Masod[1]
History
 -  Established 1076
 -  (651 AH), the Bedouin Usfurids brought down the Uyunid dynasty, thereby gaining control over eastern Arabia, including the islands of Bahrain. 1253
Today part of
Warning: Value not specified for "continent"

The Uyunid Emirate, Uyunid Kingdom or Uyunid State (Arabic: الدولة العيونية‎), was founded by Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni in year 1076-1077. After the tribe seized the country from the Qarmatians with the military assistance of Great Seljuq Empire in the year 1077-1078 AD.[2] The country was mainly Bahrain (historical region) in the east of the Arabian Peninsula.

History[edit]

Expansion

Under Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Abu'l-Hussin b. Abu Sinan, the Uyunid's territory stretched from Najd to the Syrian desert. Due to the influence of the Uyunid kingdom, Caliph al-Nasir li-Din Allah gave Muhammad b. Ahmad authority to protect the pilgrimage route to Mecca. Muhammad was later murdered by a family member, instigated by his cousin, Gharir b. Shukr b. Ali.[3] In the years 587 – 605 H. Mohammed bin Abi Al-hussain unites Qatif and Al-Hasa.

Geography[edit]

The country was mainly Bahrain (historical region) in the east of the Arabian Peninsula. It stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, Qatar, and the Awal Islands, now known as Bahrain, UAE and the to the edges of Oman. the Uyunid's territory stretched from Najd to the Syrian desert. Due to the influence of the Uyunid kingdom, Caliph al-Nasir li-Din Allah gave Muhammad b. Ahmad authority to protect the pilgrimage route to Mecca.

Ruling Dynasty[edit]

Uyunid Dynasty
Country Uyunid Emirate
Parent house Abdul Qays
Titles Emir, Sheikh
Founded 1076
Founder Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni
Final ruler Fadl III ibn Muhammad
Dissolution 1253
Ethnicity Adnanite Arab
Cadet branches Al Ghardaqa

The Uyunid dynasty were an Arab dynasty that ruled Uyunid Emirate for almost 200 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.[3] They were the remnants of Bani Abdul Qays tribe and seized the country from the Qarmatians with the military assistance of Great Seljuq Empire in the year 1077-1078 AD.[2]

Law

The Uyunid dynasty ruled with the Maliki school of jurisprudence. Sheikh Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni, commanded that the spread of the Maliki school, throwout the kingdom. To this day country's follow the Maliki jurisprudence, shuch as, UAE, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, kuwait.

Military

The Uyunid dynasty had a great Military system alongside the Great Seljuq Empire.

Economy[edit]

The Uyunids Economy consisted of pearl diving. The pearl industry had been the main economic activity of Uyunid Emarite alongside the Trade routes.

Demographics[edit]

Language

It was thought that the Uyunid dynasty were the last country in which the population spoke Classical Arabic.

Religion

The Uyunids sect is disputed; some sources mention they were Shia, others Sunni.[4] According to Nakash, the populations of Bahrain, Hasa, and Qatif, may have accepted Twelver Shi'ism during this period.[5] On the other hand, Iraqi historian Safa Khulusi said they were Sunni.[3] Over all the population living within the kingdom were mostly Muslim, however there are two different sect within the kingdom, Sunni and Shi'a.

Culture[edit]

The Khamis Mosque, one of earliest Islamic architecture in Bahrain
Literature

Ali bin al Mugrab Al Uyuni, a poet from Al-Hasa, died in 630 AH (1232 AD), one of the late known poets specialists hair systems eloquent among the people of the Arabian Peninsula before the modern era. Percentage due to Al Uyuni built from Abdul Qays, who ruled Ahsa in that period after extracted from Qarmatians. Al Uyuni poet, and is considered his office and explanations which are attached by one of the most important sources on the history of that state.

Architecture

The Khamis Mosque is believed to be the first mosque in Bahrain, built during the era of the Umayyad caliph Umar II. According to Al Wasat journalist Kassim Hussain, other sources mention that it was built in a later era during the rule of Uyunids with one minaret. The second was built two centuries later during the rule of Usfurids.[6] The identical twin minarets of this ancient Islamic monument make it easily noticeable as one drives along the Shaikh Salman Road in Khamis.

It is considered to be one of the oldest mosques in the region, as its foundation is believed to have been laid as early as 692 AD. An inscription found on the site, however, suggests a foundation date of sometime during the 11th century. It has since been rebuilt twice in both the 14th and 15th centuries, when the minarets were constructed. The Khamis mosque has been partially restored recently.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Gulf and east of the Arabian Peninsula named: the territory of the country of Bahrain under the rule of the Arab states. D. Mohamed Mahmoud Khalil. Madbouli library . I: 2006. ISBN 977-208-592-5
  • Abdelkader Statistical: masterpiece beneficiary on Ahsa in the old and the new, the achievement Hamad Al-Jasser Riyadh 1960.

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.hukam.net/family.php?fam=900
  2. ^ a b C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 94-95.
  3. ^ a b c Khulusi, Safa (1975). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. London: Archaeopress. p. 92. Retrieved 2 March 2013.  (registration required)
  4. ^ Hussain Mohammed Hussain (5 February 2009). مسجد الخميس "الثالث": وصفه والهدف من بنائه. Al-Wasat (Bahraini newspaper) (in Arabic). Retrieved 21 January 2013. 
  5. ^ Yitzhak Nakash, Reaching for Power:The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World, (Princeton University Press, 2006), 22.
  6. ^ "روافد من بلادي" لقاسم حسين. Al-Wasat (Bahraini newspaper) (in Arabic). 6 May 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2013. 
  7. ^ [1] The Middle East, p.6