Uyunid dynasty

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Uyunid Dynasty
Country Uyunid Emirate
Parent house Abdul Qays
Titles Emir, Sheikh
Founded 1076
Founder Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni
Final ruler Fadl III ibn Muhammad
Dissolution 1253
Ethnicity Adnanite Arab
Cadet branches Al Ghardaqa

The Al Uyuni, Uyunids (Arabic: العيوني و العيونيون), were an Arab dynasty that ruled Bahrain for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.[1] Their sect is disputed; some sources mention they were Shia, others Sunni. They were the remnants of Bani Abdul Qays tribe and seized the country from the Qarmatians with the military assistance of Great Seljuq Empire in the year 1077-1078 AD.[2] It then fell to the Usfurids of Banu Uqayl in 651 AH (1253 AD). The famous poet Ali bin al Mugrab Al Uyuni is a descendant of the Uyunids.

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History[edit]

In 1077-1078, an Arab Sheikh named Abdullah bin Ali Al-'Uyuni defeated the Qarmatians in Bahrain and Al-Hasa with the help of Baghdad and founded the Uyunid dynasty.[3]

Rise

The Uyunid Emirate was established and ruled by Sheikh Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni in the state of Al-Hasa with the assisted of the Abbasids and the Turks. Then Al-Fadhl, son of Abdullah, transfers his capital to Qatif, then to Awal (today’s state of Bahrain). In his reign, the state extended to Kuwait. Then in 513 H. the Capital went back to Qatif. Then in 531 H. Mohammed son of Al Fadhl 1 is assassinated there for the state was divided into two, one in Al-Hasa and the other in Al-Qatif.

Expansion

Under Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Abu'l-Hussin b. Abu Sinan, the Uyunid's territory stretched from Najd to the Syrian desert. Due to the influence of the Uyunid kingdom, Caliph al-Nasir li-Din Allah gave Muhammad b. Ahmad authority to protect the pilgrimage route to Mecca. Muhammad was later murdered by a family member, instigated by his cousin, Gharir b. Shukr b. Ali.[1] In the years 587 – 605 H. Mohammed bin Abi Al-hussain unites Qatif and Al-Hasa. He restores the glory of the Uyunids, and extends the state to Najd central Arabia. The state was divided again after his assassination in 605 H. In 640 H.

The Overthrow

The country was ruled by the Uyunid dynasty for 163 years. In 1253 C. Conflicts inside the Uyunid family gave the chance to the Bedouin Usfurids to establish their state and destroy the state of Ayounids. Thereby gaining control over eastern Arabia, including the islands of Bahrain.

Religion[edit]

The Uyunids were Muslim, however their sect is disputed; some sources mention they were Shia, others Sunni.[4] According to Nakash, the populations of Bahrain, Hasa, and Qatif, may have accepted Twelver Shi'ism during this period.[5] A study by Nayef al-Shera'an stated they were Shia based on their coins, which he said were exhibited at the British Museum.[4][6] The study also mentions that no reliable sources support they were Sunni.[6] On the other hand, Iraqi historian Safa Khulusi said they were Sunni, shortly before stating he had a "strong feeling" that poet Ali bin al Mugrab Al Uyuni was a Zaydi Shia.[1]

Cadet Branch[edit]

The Al Ghardaqa family are the remnants of the Uyunid dynasty of Bani Abdul Qays of Weill bin Rabia bin Adnan and whom belonging to Bani Juhav.[7][8] They are mainly located in, Al-Mubarraz, Al-Hasa, (Saudi Arabia) and Ar Rams in Ras al-Khaimah, (United Arab Emirates).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Khulusi, Safa (1975). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. London: Archaeopress. p. 92. Retrieved 2 March 2013.  (registration required)
  2. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 94-95.
  3. ^ Commins, David (2012). The Gulf States: A Modern History. I.B. Tauris. p. 28. ISBN 978-1848852785. 
  4. ^ a b Hussain Mohammed Hussain (5 February 2009). مسجد الخميس "الثالث": وصفه والهدف من بنائه. Al-Wasat (Bahraini newspaper) (in Arabic). Retrieved 21 January 2013. 
  5. ^ Yitzhak Nakash, Reaching for Power:The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World, (Princeton University Press, 2006), 22.
  6. ^ a b Nayef al-Shera'an (15 March 2011). نقود الدولة العيونية في بلاد البحرين (in Arabic). Retrieved 21 January 2013. 
  7. ^ http://www.dnaarab.com/archive/index.php/t-440.html
  8. ^ http://ahsaweb.net/vb/showthread.php?t=91141&page=3