The Völkischer Beobachter (pronounced [ˈfœlkɪʃɐ bəˈʔoːbaχtɐ]; "Völkisch Observer") was the newspaper of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party) from 1920. It first appeared weekly, then daily from 8 February 1923. For twenty-five years it formed part of the official public face of the Nazi party.
The "fighting paper of the National Socialist movement of Greater Germany" (Kampfblatt der nationalsozialistischen Bewegung Großdeutschlands) had its origin in the Münchener Beobachter ("Munich Observer"), which in 1918 was acquired by the Thule Society and in August 1919 was renamed Völkischer Beobachter.
Major Ernst Röhm and Dietrich Eckart persuaded Röhm’s commanding officer, Major General Franz Ritter von Epp to purchase the Völkischer Beobachter in December 1920 for the NSDAP from the Thule Society for 60,000 marks. The money came from wealthy friends and secret army funds.
After acquiring the paper, Dietrich Eckart along with Chase Bauduin, became the first editors.
The circulation of the paper was initially about 8,000 but increased to 25,000 in autumn 1923 due to strong demand during the Occupation of the Ruhr. In that year Alfred Rosenberg became editor. With the prohibition of the NSDAP after the Beer Hall Putsch of 9 November 1923, the paper also had to cease publication, which resumed however on the party's refoundation on 26 February 1925. The circulation rose along with the success of the Nazi movement, reaching more than 120,000 in 1931 and 1.7 million by 1944.
During the rise to power, it reported general news but also party activities, presenting them as almost constant success. Guidelines for propagandists urged that all posters, insofar as the police allowed, contain propaganda for it, and all meetings should be announced in it, although reports should be sent to the Propaganda Department, which would then forward corrected versions to the paper. Posters did indeed urge reading it. When Hitler was banned from public speaking, it was the main vehicle to propagate his views.
The final issues from April and May 1945 were not distributed.
- Schwarzwaller, Wulf (1988). The Unknown Hitler : His Private Life and Fortune. National Press Books. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-915765-63-8.
- Robert Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology p34 ISBN 0-396-06577-5
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- "Nazis Battle for Harburg"
- "Early Nazi Posters"
- Robert Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology p. 51 ISBN 0-396-06577-5
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- "The Veil Falls"