Vīramitrodaya

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The Vīramitrodaya is a Hindu law digest written by Mitamiśra which covers nearly every aspect of Dharmaśāstra. The text also includes Vyavahāra as well, as the name would suggest. The work was done at the behest of Vīrasimha, the king of Orchha, from 1605-1627. The Privvy Council in the Benares School of Hindu Law considered the text to be a work of high authority.[1] Mitamiśra's text includes hundreds of citations in which he analyzes and critiques numerous arguments, particularly those made by members of the Bengal school.

Text[edit]

The text is divided into sections, called prakāśas which include:

Vyavahāra[edit]

  • The Vyavahāra-Prakāśa is considered to be the largest nibandha, or digest written on the Vyavahāra
  • The text is divided into four parts:[2]

1.) Composition of the Court[edit]

  • Constitution of the sabhā
  • The Appointment of judges
  • Conflict with the Dharmaśāstra
  • Various grades of the courts
  • Burden and means of proof

2.) Modes of Proof[edit]

  • Witnesses
  • Documents

3.) 18 Titles of Law[edit]

  1. the first is the non-payment of debts
  2. deposits
  3. sale without ownership
  4. partnerships
  5. delivery and non-delivery of gifts
  6. non-payment of wages
  7. breach of contract
  8. cancellation of a sale or purchase
  9. disputes between owners and herdsman
  10. the Law on boundary disputes
  11. verbal assault
  12. physical assault
  13. theft
  14. violence
  15. sexual crimes against women
  16. Law concerning husband and wife
  17. partition of inheritance
  18. gambling and betting[3]

4.) Matters for the king[edit]

Paribhāśā[edit]

Samskāra[edit]

  • Astrological matters relating to marriage

Rājanti[edit]

  • The qualifications of ministers
  • Preparing for battle
  • Routine for kings
  • Time and procedure for coronation

Āhnika[edit]

  • The daily duties to be done when rising and before going to bed.

Pūjā[edit]

  • Those entitled to perform worship of the gods
  • Proper flowers and clothing for worship

Tirtha[edit]

  • Discuss those able to undertake a pilgrimage
  • Times for a pilgrimage
  • Ceremonial acts to be done for men, such as bathing, fasting and shaving.

Laksana[edit]

  • The human body
  • Qualities needed for the queen, ministers, astrologers, and physicians.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kane, P. V., History of Dharmaśāstra, (Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1975), Volume I, Part II, 944.
  2. ^ Kane, P. V., History of Dharmaśāstra, (Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1975), Volume I, Part II, 942.
  3. ^ Olivelle, Patrick, The Law Code of Manu, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 123

References[edit]

  • Kane, P.V. (1973). History of DharmaŚãstra. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental research Institute.