Thành phố Vũng Tàu
|Admin. division||Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province|
|• Land||50 sq mi (140 km2)|
|• Ethnicities||Kinh, Hoa|
Vũng Tàu ( listen) is a city in southern Vietnam. Its population in 2009 was 296,237. The city area is 140 km2 (54 sq mi) including 13 urban wards and one commune (xã) of Long Son Islet. It was the capital of Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province from the founding of the province and was replaced by Ba Ria from May 2, 2012, and is the crude oil extraction center of Vietnam.
During 14th and 15th centuries, the cape that would become Vũng Tàu was a swamp which European trading ships visited regularly. The ships' activities inspired the name Vũng Tàu, which means "anchorage". French colonizers called it "Cap Saint Jacques" ("Cap Xanh Giắc", in Vietnamese). The cliff of Vũng Tàu is now called Mũi Nghinh Phong (literally meaning "Cape of breeze welcome").
Vũng Tàu was originally referred to as Tam Thắng ("Three Boats") in memory of the first three villages in this area: Thắng Nhất, Thắng Nhị, Thắng Tam, within the province of Biên Hòa under the Nguyễn Dynasty. Under the reign of king Gia Long (1761–1820), when Malay pirates built a base here and subsequently became a danger to traders in Gia Định city, the king his army to crack down on the pirates. The pirates were ousted and the troops were given the land as a reward. 10 February 1859 marked the first use of cannons by Nguyễn's army, when they fired at French battleships from the fortress of Phước Thắng, located 100m from Vũng Tàu's Front Beach. This marked an important period in Vietnam's war against French invaders in South Vietnam (then called Cochinchina). In 1876, according to a decree by the French colonialists, Vũng Tàu was merged in Bà Rịa county per Saigon's administration. During the 1880s there talks about moving Saigon's port facilities to Vũng Tàu, but this came to nothing due to Saigon's better infrastructure.
On 1 May 1895, the governor of Cochinchina established by decree that Cap Saint Jacques would thereafter be an autonomous town. In 1898, Cap Saint Jacques was merged with Bà Rịa county once again, but re-divided in 1899. In 1901, the population of Vũng Tàu was 5,690, of which 2,000 persons were immigrants from North Vietnam. Most of the town's population made their living in the fishing industry. On 4 April 1905, Cap Saint Jacques was made an administrative district of Bà Rịa province. In 1929, Cap Saint Jacques became a province, and in 1934 became a city (commune). The French governor of Indochina, Paul Doumer (who later became President of France), built a mansion in Vũng Tàu that is still a prominent landmark.
During the Vietnam War, the 1st Australian Logistics Support Group was headquartered in Vũng Tàu – as were various United States military units at different times. Vũng Tàu also became popular for R&R, amongst in-country US personnel.
After the war, Vũng Tàu was a common launching place for the Vietnamese "boat people" fleeing the communists. On 30 May 1979, Vũng Tàu town was made the capital of Vũng Tàu-Côn Đảo Special Administrative Zone. On 12 August 1991, the province of Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu was officially founded and Vũng Tàu town officially became Vũng Tàu City.
Economy and tourism
Shipping and oil exploration
The city is located in the south of Vietnam, situated at the tip of a small peninsula. It has traditionally been a significant port, particularly during Vietnam's period of French rule. Today, the city's importance as a shipping port has diminished, but it still plays a significant role in Vietnam's offshore oil industry. Vũng Tàu is the only petroleum base of Vietnam where crude oil and natural gas exploitation activities dominate the city's economy and contribute principal income to Vietnam's budget and export volume. Vũng Tàu shipyard's reconstruction is scheduled to be completed in 2008, supplied with up-to-date anchor handling supply vessels of Aker.
Vũng Tàu has extensive beaches, including Back Beach (Bãi Sau) and Front Beach (Bãi Trước).
Resorts and theme parks
A big resort project has just been licensed by the Vietnamese government, the Saigon Atlantis. Upon completion, this entertainment project worth US$300 million in capital investment will include resorts, shopping, sailing. The investor of this project is proposing to raise the investment capital to USD $4 billion. Two other noteworthy entertainment projects awaiting licensing are Vũng Tàu Aquarium, which will cost USD 250 million, and Bàu Trũng, a Disneyland-like entertainment park which will cost US$250 million. The project includes Landmark Tower, a 88-story skyscraper proposed to be built and completed by 2010 in Vũng Tàu by a USA-based company, Good Choice Import – Export Investment Inc, once built will likely be the highest building in Vietnam. The project is under consideration for approval by the local provincial government.
Holidays and festivals
In Vũng Tàu, one of the most widely celebrated holidays is Lễ hội Cá Ông (Whale Holiday). Festivals in the region include the Kite Festival and World Food Festival Culture Australian tourists come to Vũng Tàu in August to mark the anniversary of the Battle of Long Tân.
As in most provinces and cities in Vietnam, Buddhism is the predominant religion. Mahayana Buddhism, the dominant form of the religion in Vietnam, was brought to Ba Ria-Vũng Tàu by the Vietnamese settlers from the north at the beginning of the 17th century during the expansion of the Nguyễn Lords. When they came bringing their original religion they built many Buddhist pagodas, temples and statues in the city. The Thích Ca Phật Đài and Niết Bàn Tịnh Xá temple, both Buddhist sites, draw pilgrims from around the country.
Before the area was settled by ethnic Vietnamese, the Khmer people practiced Theravada Buddhism. The area has some 14 Catholic wards with active services. A notable monument in the city is the Christ of Vũng Tàu, a large statue built by Vietnam's Catholic minority. It was completed in 1974, with the height of 32 metres and two outstretched arms spanning 18.4 metres. It is among the tallest statues of Christ in Asia.
There has been a Russian village in Vũng Tàu ever since the Soviet era; these Russians generally worked for the Russian-Vietnamese joint venture VietSovpetro. It is believed that these "Russians", or "citizens of the former Soviet Union", were once the most dominant group of foreigners in Vũng Tàu. Some have remained in Vũng Tàu after the fall of the Soviet Union. They formed a parish of the Russian Orthodox Church.
In popular culture
Vũng Tàu is mentioned in I Was Only Nineteen, the #1 single by Australian folk-rock band Redgum about the Vietnam war from the 1983 album Caught in the Act. The 1979 Australian film The Odd Angry Shot contains a sequence in which the protagonists go on leave in Vung Tau. The Vung Tau sequence also shows US troops, taking R & R, being swindled.
- Saigon: A History, p. 82, by Nghia M. Vo (2011): "There were talks about moving the port facilities to Vũng Tàu at the mouth of the river where ..."
- Keith W. Nolan. Search and Destroy: The Story of an Armored Cavalry Squadron 2010, p. 35: "Harrington anticipated rendezvousing with his vehicles, supplies, and troops at the port city of Vũng Tàu in III Corps, then launching operations northwest of Sài Gòn with the 25th Division."
- "Shipping, shipbuilding, offshore news". Marinelog. 3 May 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2007.
- PEB Steel (3 April 2006). "Second Factory Commissioned by PEB Steel" (Press release).
- "Steel firm opens fabrication plant". Viet Nam News (Intellasia). 11 September 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- About the project on investor's website
- Official website of Ba Ria-Vũng Tàu Province's government
- Vietnamnet online on 30 October 2007 (English) 
- World Food Festival Culture, online news.
- "Beliefs in Vung Tau". Ba Ria-Vũng Tàu Tourism.
- "Catholic Churches in Vietnam". Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia. Retrieved 1 June 2007.
- One of Asia's tallest Jesus statues graces Indonesian city, Reuters, December 2007
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