Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey
|A U.S. Marine Corps MV-22 lands aboard USNS Robert E. Peary as part of exercise Bold Alligator 2012|
|National origin||United States|
Boeing Rotorcraft Systems
|First flight||19 March 1989|
|Introduction||13 June 2007|
|Primary users||United States Marine Corps
United States Air Force
|Number built||200+ as of 2014|
|Program cost||US$35.6 billion after planned procurement of 408 aircraft|
|Developed from||Bell XV-15|
The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, military, tiltrotor aircraft with both a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft.
The V-22 originated from the United States Department of Defense Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. The team of Bell Helicopter and Boeing Helicopters was awarded a development contract in 1983 for the tiltrotor aircraft. The Bell Boeing team jointly produce the aircraft. The V-22 first flew in 1989, and began flight testing and design alterations; the complexity and difficulties of being the first tiltrotor intended for military service in the world led to many years of development.
The United States Marine Corps began crew training for the Osprey in 2000, and fielded it in 2007; it is supplementing and will eventually replace their Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knights. The Osprey's other operator, the U.S. Air Force, fielded their version of the tiltrotor in 2009. Since entering service with the U.S. Marine Corps and Air Force, the Osprey has been deployed in both combat and rescue operations over Iraq, Afghanistan, Sudan and Libya.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Notable accidents
- 7 Aircraft on display
- 8 Specifications (MV-22B)
- 9 Notable appearances in media
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The failure of the Iran hostage rescue mission in 1980 demonstrated to the United States military a need for "a new type of aircraft, that could not only take off and land vertically but also could carry combat troops, and do so at speed." The U.S. Department of Defense began the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program in 1981, under U.S. Army leadership.
The defining mission of the Marine Corps has been to perform an amphibious landing, and they were particularly interested in the JVX program. They realized that a concentrated strike force was vulnerable to a single nuclear weapon, airborne solutions with good speed and range allowed for significant dispersal; and their CH-46s were wearing out; without replacement, the threat of a merger between the Marine Corps and the Army lingered, similar to President Truman's proposal following World War II. The OSD and Navy administration were against the tiltrotor project, but congressional pressure eventually persuaded them to be favorable.
The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps were given the lead in 1983. The JVX combined requirements from the U.S. Marine Corps, Air Force, Army and Navy. A request for proposals (RFP) was issued in December 1982 for JVX preliminary design work. Interest in the program was expressed by Aérospatiale, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, Grumman, Lockheed, and Westland. The DoD pushed for contractors to form teams. Bell partnered with Boeing Vertol. The Bell Boeing team submitted a proposal for an enlarged version of the Bell XV-15 prototype on 17 February 1983. This was the only proposal received and a preliminary design contract was awarded on 26 April 1983.
The JVX aircraft was designated V-22 Osprey on 15 January 1985; by that March, the first six prototypes were being produced, and Boeing Vertol was expanded to deal with the project workload. Work has been split evenly between Bell and Boeing. Bell Helicopter manufactures and integrates the wing, nacelles, rotors, drive system, tail surfaces, and aft ramp, as well as integrates the Rolls-Royce engines and performs final assembly. Boeing Helicopters manufactures and integrates the fuselage, cockpit, avionics, and flight controls. The USMC variant of the Osprey received the MV-22 designation and the U.S. Air Force variant received CV-22; this was reversed from normal procedure to prevent Marine Corps Ospreys from having a conflicting designation with aircraft carriers (CV). Full-scale development of the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft began in 1986. On 3 May 1986, the Bell Boeing partnership was awarded a $1.714 billion contract for V-22 aircraft by the U.S. Navy. At this point, all four U.S. military services had acquisition plans for V-22 versions.
The first V-22 was rolled out with significant media attention in May 1988. The project suffered several blows. That year, the U.S. Army left the program, citing a need to focus its budget on more immediate aviation programs. The project faced opposition in the Senate in 1989, surviving two votes that both could have resulted in cancellation. Despite the Senate's decision, the Department of Defense instructed the U.S. Navy not to spend more money on the Osprey. When the V-22's projected development budget greatly increased in 1988, Defense Secretary Dick Cheney tried to remove funding from 1989 to 1992 in an effort to cancel it. He was eventually overruled by Congress, which provided unrequested funding for the program. Multiple studies of alternative aircraft found the V-22 provided more capability and combat effectiveness with similar operating costs as the alternatives. The Clinton Administration was supportive of the V-22 and helped the program attain funding.
Flight testing and design changes
The first of six MV-22 prototypes first flew on 19 March 1989 in the helicopter mode, and on 14 September 1989 in fixed-wing mode. The third and fourth prototypes successfully completed the Osprey's first sea trials on USS Wasp in December 1990. The fourth and fifth prototypes crashed in 1991–92. From October 1992 – April 1993, Bell and Boeing redesigned the V-22 to reduce empty weight, simplify manufacture, and reduce production costs. This redesigned version became the V-22B model. V-22 flights resumed in June 1993 after safety improvements were incorporated in the prototypes. Bell Boeing was awarded a contract for the engineering manufacturing development (EMD) phase in June 1994. The prototypes also received changes to better match the B-model configuration. Flight testing at the stage focused on expanding the flight envelope, measuring flight loads, and supporting the EMD redesign. This and further flight testing with the early V-22s continued into 1997.
|V-22 with M777 howitzer|
|Osprey carries M777 howitzer for first time|
Flight testing of four full-scale development V-22s began in early 1997 when the first pre-production V-22 was delivered to the Naval Air Warfare Test Center, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland. The first EMD flight took place on 5 February 1997. Testing fell behind schedule. The first of four low rate initial production aircraft, ordered on 28 April 1997, was delivered on 27 May 1999. Osprey number 10 completed the program's second sea trials, this time from USS Saipan in January 1999. During external load testing in April 1999, Boeing used a V-22 to lift and transport the light-weight M777 howitzer.
In 2000, Boeing announced that the V-22 would be fitted with a nose-mounted GAU-19 Gatling gun. The gun was to provide defensive firepower in high threat environments. The nose gun project was canceled, leading to criticism by retired USMC Commandant James L. Jones, who was not satisfied with the V-22 armament. A remote-controlled, belly-mounted, Minigun turret was later installed on some of the first V-22s sent to the War in Afghanistan in 2009.
In 2000, there were two further fatal crashes, killing a total of 19 marines, and the aircraft was again grounded while the cause of these crashes was investigated and various parts were redesigned. The V-22 completed its final operational evaluation in June 2005. The evaluation was deemed successful; events included long range deployments, high altitude, desert and shipboard operations. The problems identified in various accidents had been addressed.
The V-22's development process has been long and controversial, partly due to its large cost increases. The V-22's development budget was first planned for $2.5 billion in 1986, then increased to a projected $30 billion in 1988. As of 2008, $27 billion had been spent on the Osprey program and another $27.2 billion will be required to complete planned production numbers by the end of the program.
Its [The V-22's] production costs are considerably greater than for helicopters with equivalent capability—specifically, about twice as great as for the CH-53E, which has a greater payload and an ability to carry heavy equipment the V-22 cannot... an Osprey unit would cost around $60 million to produce, and $35 million for the helicopter equivalent.—Michael E. O'Hanlon, 2002.
The V-22 squadron's former commander at Marine Corps Air Station New River, Lieutenant Colonel Odin Lieberman, was relieved of duty in 2001 after allegations that he instructed his unit that they needed to falsify maintenance records to make the aircraft appear more reliable. Three officers were later implicated in the falsification scandal.
Although technically capable of autorotation if both engines fail in helicopter mode, performance is very poor and it is very difficult to make a safe landing. A director of the Pentagon's testing office in 2005 said that if the Osprey loses power while flying like a helicopter below 1,600 feet (490 m), emergency landings "...are not likely to be survivable." But Captain Justin "Moon" McKinney, a V-22 pilot, says there is an alternative, "We can turn it into a plane and glide it down, just like a C-130." A complete loss of power would require the failure of both engines, as one engine can power both proprotors via interconnected drive shafts. While vortex ring state (VRS) contributed to a deadly V-22 accident, the aircraft is less susceptible to the condition than conventional helicopters based on flight testing. But a GAO report stated that the V-22 is "less forgiving than conventional helicopters" during this phenomenon. In addition, several test flights to explore the V-22's VRS characteristics in greater detail were canceled. The Marines train new pilots in the recognition of and recovery from VRS and have instituted operational envelope limits and instrumentation to help pilots avoid VRS conditions.
With the first combat deployment of the MV-22 in October 2007, Time Magazine ran an article condemning the aircraft as unsafe, overpriced, and completely inadequate. The Marine Corps responded by arguing that much of the article's data were dated, obsolete, inaccurate, and reflected expectations that ran too high for any new field of aircraft.
As of 2012 changes have been made to the Osprey hardware, software, and procedures in response to hydraulic fires in the nacelles, vortex ring state control issues, and opposed landings.
On 28 September 2005, the Pentagon formally approved full-rate production for the V-22, from 11 a year to between 24 and 48 a year by 2012. Of the 458 total planned, 360 are for the U.S. Marine Corps, 48 for the Navy, and 50 for the Air Force at an average cost of $110 million per aircraft, including development costs. The V-22 had an incremental flyaway cost of $67 million per aircraft in 2008, The U.S. Navy had hoped to shave about $10 million off that cost after a five-year production contract in 2013. The cost for each CV-22 was $73 million in the FY 2014 budget.
On 15 April 2010, the Naval Air Systems Command awarded Bell Boeing a $42.1 million contract to design an integrated processor in response to avionics obsolescence and add new network capabilities. By 2014, Raytheon will provide an avionics upgrade that includes Situational awareness and Blue Force Tracking. In late 2009, a contract for Block C upgrades upon the V-22 was awarded to Bell Boeing. In February 2012, the Marine Corps received the first Block C Ospreys; these aircraft feature a new radar, along with additional mission management and electronic warfare equipment.
U.S. Naval Air Systems Command is working on software upgrades to increase the maximum speed from 250 knots (460 km/h; 290 mph) to 270 knots (500 km/h; 310 mph), increase helicopter mode altitude limit from 10,000 feet (3,000 m) to 12,000 feet (3,700 m) or 14,000 feet (4,300 m), and increase lift performance. Implementation of these upgrades began in September 2011 and proved largely effective.
Between 2008 and 2011, the estimated lifetime cost for maintaining the V-22 fleet grew by 61 percent, mostly from increased maintenance and support costs. By 2010, air readiness rates rose 28 percent, while maintenance costs per flight hour decreased 19 percent. In early 2013, the U.S. was reportedly hoping to sell up to 100 Ospreys internationally; perspective foreign operators then included Israel, the United Arab Emirates, and Japan. It was suggested that training exercises could be performed from French Navy Mistral-class amphibious assault ships to demonstrate its capabilities and operational compatibility with similar vessels.
By 2012, the USMC reported fleet wide readiness rate had risen to 68 percent. However, the DOD's Inspector General later found 167 of 200 reports had "improperly recorded" information. Captain Richard Ulsh blamed these errors on incompetence and said that they were "not malicious" or deliberate. From 2009 to 2014, MV-22 Osprey readiness rates had risen 25 percent to the "high 80s," while cost per flight hour had dropped 20 percent to $9,520 through a rigorous maintenance improvement program that focused on diagnosing problems before they occur.
In 2013, the USMC leveraged the unique abilities of the V-22 Osprey to form an intercontinental response force, the Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force for Crisis Response, and is equipped with special communications gear.
The Osprey is the world's first production tiltrotor aircraft, with one three-bladed proprotor, turboprop engine, and transmission nacelle mounted on each wingtip. It is classified as a powered lift aircraft by the Federal Aviation Administration. For takeoff and landing, it typically operates as a helicopter with the nacelles vertical and rotors horizontal. Once airborne, the nacelles rotate forward 90° in as little as 12 seconds for horizontal flight, converting the V-22 to a more fuel efficient, higher speed turboprop aircraft. STOL rolling-takeoff and landing capability is achieved by having the nacelles tilted forward up to 45°. Other orientations are possible, such as the "80 Jump" takeoff which uses nacelles at 80° to quickly achieve high altitude and speed.
Composite materials make up 43% of the V-22's airframe. The proprotors blades also use composites. For compact storage and transport, partly on Marine launch ships, the V-22's rotors fold in 90 seconds and its wing rotates to align, front-to-back, with the fuselage. Due to the requirement of folding the rotors, their 38 feet diameter is 5 feet less than optimal for vertical takeoff, resulting in high disk loading. Most Osprey missions use fixed wing flight 75% or more of the time, reducing wear and tear on the aircraft and reducing operational costs. This fixed wing flight is higher than typical helicopter missions allowing longer range line-of-sight communications for improved command and control.
The V-22's two Rolls-Royce AE 1107C engines are connected by drive shafts to a common central gearbox so that one engine can power both proprotors if an engine failure occurs. However, if a proprotor gearbox fails that proprotor cannot be feathered, and both engines must be stopped before an emergency landing. The aircraft's autorotation characteristics are poor partly because the rotors have low inertia.
The V-22 has a maximum rotor downwash speed above 80 knots, more than the 64 knots lower limit of a hurricane. The rotorwash usually prevents usage of the starboard door in hover, instead the rear ramp is used for rappelling and hoisting. Boeing has stated the V-22 design loses 10 percent of its vertical lift over a tiltwing design when operating in helicopter mode because of airflow resistance due to the wings, but that the tiltrotor design has better short takeoff and landing performance.
In September 2013, Rolls-Royce announced it had increased the AE-1107C engine's power by 17 percent via the adoption of a new Block 3 turbine, an increase in fuel valve flow capacity, and accompanying software updates. The upgrade should increase the reliability in high-altitude, high-heat conditions and boost maximum payload limitations from 6,000 ft to 8,000 ft. A Block 4 upgrade is reportedly being examined, which may increase power by up to 26 percent, producing close to 10,000 hp, and improve fuel consumption.
In August 2014, the U.S. military issued a request for information (RFI) for a potential drop-in replacement for the Osprey's AE-1107C engines. Submissions must have a power rating of no less than 6,100 shp (4,548.78 kw) at 15,000 rpm, operate at up to 25,000 ft (7,600 m) at up to 130 degrees Fahrenheit (54.4 degrees Celsius), and fit into the existing nacelles on the wings with minimal structural or external modifications. In September 2014, the US Navy was considering contracting for an alternative engine supplier in order to reduce costs. In the Osprey program, the Navy purchases engines separately from the aircraft themselves.
The V-22 is equipped with a glass cockpit, which incorporates four Multi-function displays (MFDs, compatible with night-vision goggles) and one shared Central Display Unit (CDU), allowing the pilots to display a variety of images including: digimaps centered or decentered on current position, FLIR imagery (from the Turreted Forward Looking Infra-Red System) primary flight instruments, navigation (TACAN, VOR, ILS, GPS, INS), and system status. The flight director panel of the Cockpit Management System (CMS) allows for fully coupled (autopilot) functions that take the aircraft from forward flight into a 50 ft (15 m) hover with no pilot interaction other than programming the system. The glass cockpit of the canceled CH-46X was derived from the V-22. The fuselage is not pressurized, and personnel must wear on-board oxygen masks above 10,000 feet.
The V-22 has triple-redundant fly-by-wire flight control systems. With the nacelles pointing straight up in conversion mode at 90° the flight computers command the aircraft to fly like a helicopter, with cyclic forces being applied to a conventional swashplate at the rotor hub. With the nacelles in airplane mode (0°) the flaperons, rudder, and elevator fly the aircraft like an airplane. This is a gradual transition and occurs over the rotation range of the nacelles. The lower the nacelles, the greater effect of the airplane-mode control surfaces. The nacelles can rotate past vertical to 97.5° for rearward flight. The aircraft also has computerized damage control that automatically isolates damaged elements. The controls so automate and simplify aspects of the V-22's flight that without wind it can hover with no hands on the controls; according to some who have flown the aircraft, former fixed-wing pilots may be preferable because they, unlike those with helicopter experience, are not trained to constantly adjust the controls while hovering.
The Osprey can be armed with one 7.62x51mm NATO (.308 in caliber) M240 machine gun or .50 in caliber (12.7 mm) M2 machine gun on the loading ramp, that can be fired rearward when the ramp is lowered. A .50 in GAU-19 three-barrel Gatling gun mounted below the V-22's nose was studied for future upgrade. BAE Systems developed a belly-mounted, remotely operated gun turret system for the V-22, named the Interim Defense Weapon System (IDWS). This system is remotely operated by a gunner inside the aircraft, who acquires targets with a separate pod using color television and forward looking infrared imagery. The belly gun system was installed on half of the first V-22s deployed to Afghanistan in 2009, but found limited use due to its 800 lb (360 kg) weight and restrictive rules of engagement.
As of June 2012, 32 Interim Defense Weapon Systems were available to the Marine Corps. The system has not been fired in combat as V-22s have been routinely escorted by helicopter gunships and close air support aircraft, allowing them to focus on their transport role; squadrons also often flew without the belly gun, as the added weight reduced its cargo-carrying capacity. The Osprey's speed means it can outrun supporting conventional helicopters, requiring a self-defense capability on long-range missions and operate independently. The infrared gun camera has proven valuable for reconnaissance and surveillance. Other weapons are being studied to provide an all-quadrant defensive weapon system, including nose guns, door guns, and nonlethal countermeasures to work with the current ramp-mounted machine gun and the IDWS.
Boeing is developing a roll-on/roll-off aerial refueling kit, which would give the V-22 the ability to refuel other aircraft. Having an aerial refueling capability that can be based off Wasp-class amphibious assault ships would increase the striking power of Marine F-35Bs, as they would not rely on refueling assets that could only be based on full-sized Nimitz-class aircraft carriers or from land bases. The roll-on/roll-off kit can also be applicable to intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance functions. Boeing has funded a non-functional demonstration on a VMX-22 aircraft. On 29 August 2013, proximity tests were conducted between a MV-22 and an F/A-18 Hornet.
The high-speed version of the hose/drogue refueling system is designed to be deployed at 185 kn (213 mph; 343 km/h) and function at up to 250 kn (460 km/h; 290 mph). Onboard tanks and a roll-on/roll-off bladder can contain up to 12,000 lb (5,400 kg) of fuel. The operator must open the ramp to extend the refueling hose, then raise the ramp back up once it is extended, with the top ramp door left open. The Osprey could refuel rotary-wing aircraft, but it would require a separate drogue used specifically by helicopters and a partially converted nacelle. Bell and Boeing are hoping for funding for additional testing to include contact between the refueler and receiver and eventually the passage of fuel between the two aircraft.
U.S. Marine Corps
Since March 2000, Marine Corps crew training on the Osprey has been conducted by VMMT-204. On 3 June 2005, Marine Corps helicopter squadron Marine Medium Helicopter 263 (HMM-263) stood down to begin transitioning to the MV-22. On 8 December 2005, Lieutenant General James Amos, commander of II Marine Expeditionary Force, accepted the delivery of the first fleet of MV-22s, delivered to HMM-263. The unit reactivated on 3 March 2006 as the first MV-22 squadron and was redesignated VMM-263. On 23 March 2007, HMM-266 became Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 266 (VMM-266) at Marine Corps Air Station New River, North Carolina.
The MV-22 reached initial operational capability (IOC) with the U.S. Marine Corps on 13 June 2007. The Osprey has been replacing the CH-46 Sea Knight since 2007, the Sea Knight will be retired by 2019. On 10 July 2007, an MV-22 landed aboard the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious, the first time a V-22 had landed on a non-U.S. vessel.
On 13 April 2007, the Marine Corps announced the first combat deployment of the V-22 at Al Asad Airbase, Iraq. On 17 September 2007, 10 MV-22Bs of VMM-263 left for Iraq aboard USS Wasp. The decision to use a ship rather than use the Osprey's self-deployment capability was made because of concerns over icing during the North Atlantic portion of the trip, lack of available KC-130s for mid-air refueling, and the Wasp's availability.
On arrival, they were used in Iraq's western Anbar province for cargo and troop movements, as well as riskier "aero-scout" missions. General David Petraeus, the top U.S. military commander in Iraq, used one to visit troops around Iraq on Christmas Day 2007. Then-presidential candidate Barack Obama also flew in Ospreys during his 2008 tour of Iraq. The only major problem was obtaining spare parts for the aircraft. The V-22 had flown 3,000 sorties totaling 5,200 hours in Iraq as of July 2008. General George J. Trautman, III praised the V-22's increased speed and range over legacy helicopters, stating that "it turned his battle space from the size of Texas into the size of Rhode Island." By 2009, Ospreys had been fired upon several times by Man-portable air-defense systems and small arms, none had been lost to enemy fire.
Heat from the V-22's engines can potentially damage the flight deck on some amphibious ships of the U.S. Navy. Naval Air Systems Command devised a temporary fix of portable heat shields placed under the engines, and determined that a long-term solution would require redesigning the decks with heat resistant coating, passive thermal barriers, and changes in ship structure, similar changes are required for F-35B operations. In 2009, DARPA requested solutions for installing robust flight deck cooling.
A Government Accountability Office study reported that by January 2009, 12 MV-22s were operating in Iraq and they completed all assigned missions; mission capable rates averaged 57% to 68%, and an overall full mission capable rate of 6%. The report also stated that the aircraft had shown weakness in situational awareness, maintenance, shipboard operations and transport capability. The study concluded that "...deployments confirmed that the V-22’s enhanced speed and range enable personnel and internal cargo to be transported faster and farther than is possible with the legacy helicopters it is replacing." Naval Air Systems Command hopes to reach an 85% reliability rate by 2018.
The MV-22 deployed to Afghanistan in November 2009 with VMM-261, and saw its first offensive combat mission, Operation Cobra's Anger, on 4 December 2009. Ospreys assisted in inserting 1,000 Marines and 150 Afghan troops into the Now Zad Valley of Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan to disrupt Taliban communication and supply lines. On 18 February 2011, Marine Commandant General James Amos indicated MV-22s deployed to Afghanistan had surpassed 100,000 flight hours and were noted as "the safest airplane, or close to the safest airplane” in the Marine Corps inventory. The average V-22 mishap rate per flight hour over the past 10 years was approximately half of the accident rate for the USMC aircraft fleet; the V-22's accident rate was the lowest of any Marine rotorcraft. Wired Magazine reported that the safety record was achieved by excluding V-22 ground incidents; the Marines responded that MV-22 reporting is done by the same standards as all other aircraft in the Department of the Navy.
In January 2010, the MV-22 was sent to Haiti as part of Operation Unified Response relief efforts after the earthquake there, the type's first humanitarian mission. In March 2011, two MV-22s from Kearsarge participated in a mission to rescue a downed USAF F-15E crew member during Operation Odyssey Dawn. On 2 May 2011, following Operation Neptune's Spear, the body of Osama bin Laden, founder of the al-Qaeda terrorist group, was flown by a MV-22 to the aircraft carrier Carl Vinson in the Northern Arabian Sea, prior to his burial at sea.
The USMC stated that the cost per flight hour had fallen from $12,000 to $8,300 in January 2012, averaging $10,000. The required mission capable rate was 82%, but the average was 53% from June 2007 to May 2010. As of 2013, the V-22 has reached almost 140,000 hours of operational flying; the US Marines having flown approximately 100,000 hours.
MV-22s began supporting the Marine One presidential transport squadron in 2013 due to the urgent need for CH-53Es in Afghanistan. These MV-22s received additional upgrades for communications and passenger comfort. On 11 August 2013, two MV-22 Ospreys from Marine Helicopter Squadron One made their presidential debut ferrying Secret Service agents, White House staff, and members of the media from CGAS Cape Cod to Martha's Vineyard during the President's vacation. Marine One Ospreys carries leather seats. In May 2010, Boeing announced that it would submit the V-22 for the VXX presidential transport replacement.
Several Japanese politicians and Okinawa residents had opposed a planned V-22 deployment in Japan following the 2012 accidents; the deployment proceeded in July 2012. On 14 June 2013, an MV-22 landed on the JDS Hyūga during an amphibious training mission off the coast of California, the first time a V-22 had landed on a Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force vessel.
On 12 June 2013, the U.S. DoD awarded a $4.9 billion contract to Bell and Boeing for 99 V-22s in production Lots 17 and 18, including 92 MV-22s for the Marine Corps. Work is expected to be completed in September 2019. A provision gives NAVAIR the option to order 23 more Ospreys. The contract awarded in June 2013, a contract awarded in December 2012, and other ancillary contracts total $6.5 billion for the 99-Osprey order.
From 2–5 August 2013, two MV-22 Ospreys completed the longest distance Osprey tanking mission to date. The aircraft flew from Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa to Townsville, Australia. Two KC-130J refueling aircraft supported the Ospreys. After leaving Okinawa, the Ospreys flew to Clark Air Base in the Philippines on 2 August, then to Darwin, Australia on 3 August, and reached Townsville on 4 August. The two aircraft rendezvoused with Bonhomme Richard on 5 August and remained there while the two KC-130s returned to base.
In 2013, following Typhoon Haiyan, 12 MV-22s of the 3rd Marine Expeditionary Brigade were deployed to the Philippines for disaster relief operations. The tiltrotor's capabilities were described as "uniquely relevant", being able to fly faster and with greater payload, crucial for disaster relief, they were able to move essential supplies into remote sites throughout the island archipelago.
In January 2014, a MV-22 successfully landed aboard the French Mistral-class amphibious assault ship Dixmude, supporting the use of Ospreys from the Mistral class as part of American Expeditionary Strike Groups.
Deployment of the V-22 in Afghanistan were once set to conclude in fall 2013 with the drawdown of combat operations; however VMM-261 was directed to extend operations in the country specifically for casualty evacuation. CASEVAC is a new role for the type, being better suited than a helicopter as its speed better enables it to transport casualties to a hospital within the 'golden hour'. In addition to standard fittings, medical equipment such as a heart-monitor and basic triage supplies were added. The squadron can respond to calls beyond 46 miles[specify] from the field hospital at Camp Bastion.
U.S. Air Force
The Air Force's first operational CV-22 Osprey was delivered to the 58th Special Operations Wing (58th SOW) at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico on 20 March 2006. This and subsequent aircraft will become part of the 58th SOW's fleet of aircraft used for training pilots and crew members for special operations use. On 16 November 2006, the Air Force officially accepted the CV-22 in a ceremony conducted at Hurlburt Field, Florida.
The U.S. Air Force's first operational deployment of the Osprey sent four CV-22s to Mali in November 2008 in support of Exercise Flintlock. The CV-22s flew nonstop from Hurlburt Field, Florida with in-flight refueling. AFSOC declared that the 8th Special Operations Squadron reached Initial Operational Capability on 16 March 2009, with six CV-22s in service.
In June 2009, CV-22s of the 8th Special Operations Squadron delivered 43,000 pounds (20,000 kg) of humanitarian supplies to remote villages in Honduras that were not accessible by conventional vehicles. In November 2009, the 8th SO Squadron and its six CV-22s returned from a three-month deployment in Iraq.
In August 2012, the USAF found that "CV-22 wake modeling is inadequate for a trailing aircraft to make accurate estimations of safe separation from the preceding aircraft."
As part of a contract awarded on 12 June 2013 to Bell and Boeing for 99 V-22s, including 7 CV-22s for the Air Force Special Operations Command. Work is expected to be completed in September 2019.
On 21 December 2013, three CV-22s came under small arms fire while on a mission to evacuate American civilians in Bor, South Sudan during the 2013 South Sudanese political crisis. The three aircraft were damaged and four Americans were wounded, so the mission was aborted and the aircraft flew 500 mi (800 km) to Entebbe, Uganda. The U.S. referred to the attackers as "unknown forces", while South Sudanese officials stated that the gunmen were rebels. The CV-22s were from the 8th Special Operations Squadron and had flown to Bor through three countries over 790 nmi (910 mi; 1,460 km). The formation was hit 119 times, causing flight control failures and hydraulic and fuel leaks on all three aircraft. Because of the fuel leaks, multiple air-to-air refuelings were coordinated as they re-routed to Entebbe. On 3 July 2014, V-22 aircraft carried Delta Force commandos to a campsite in eastern Syria where Islamic State militants had held American and other hostages. The commandos quickly eliminated the militants at the site, but found that the hostages had been moved elsewhere and returned home empty handed.
The Marine Corps has identified at least 15 possible candidates for sale of the V-22. Most are countries in the Middle Eastern and Pacific region. Although foreign nations are expected to only buy a handful of aircraft, they could account for up to 100 sales over 10 years.
The United States Navy could potentially employ the V-22 in search and rescue, transport and anti-submarine warfare roles. The V-22 program has included 48 HV-22s for the navy, but none have been ordered. One proposal is to replace the C-2 Greyhound with the V-22 for Carrier Onboard Delivery duties. One specific advantage of the V-22 in this role would be able to support non-carriers, delivering supplies and people between ships beyond helicopter range.
V-22 proponents have said that it is capable of similar speed, payload capacity and lift performance as the C-2, the V-22 can also carry greater payloads over short ranges; up to 20,000 lb, and can also carry suspended external loads. The C-2 can only land on carriers, requiring further distribution to smaller vessels via helicopters; the Osprey is already certified for operating upon amphibious ships, aircraft carriers, and logistics ships; certification on hospital and small combatant ships has not yet been achieved. The V-22 could also take the roles of some helicopters, with a 600 lb hoist fitted to the ramp and a cabin configuration for 12 non-ambulatory patients and five seats for medical attendants. The V-22 can carry the F135 engine for the F-35 in a special frame to ships.
Bell and Boeing are pitching the Osprey to the Navy as more than a transport, but a platform for various missions, including hosting communications hardware or electronic-attack systems. Successful trials as an aerial refueling aircraft are hoped to persuade the Navy by filling a capability gap in tactical aerial refueling; this role is currently handled by Marine Lockheed Martin KC-130s, Air Force McDonnell Douglas KC-10 Extenders, and select Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers with a hose-and-drogue delivery system.
Israel showed an early interest in the V-22. Reports in late 2009 stated that Israel favored the Sikorsky CH-53K. In 2011, Israel expressed a new interest in the V-22 to support special operations and in search & rescue operations. In 2013, Israel was reportedly interested in a possible lease of six to eight aircraft for special operations missions; the type is not to act as a replacement for existing rotorcraft.
On 22 April 2013, Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel finalized an arms agreement to sell the V-22 to the Israel Air Force, along with tanker aircraft, radars, and anti-radiation missiles. The Israeli aircraft are to be moved to the front of the production queue, jumping ahead of some USMC deliveries. They are possibly expected to arrive as early as 2015. These aircraft are to be optimized for special operations and rescue missions. Israel is interested in doubling the purchase from six MV-22B Ospreys to 12 aircraft. The initial order of six aircraft could cost up to $1.13 billion including additional equipment and support.
The Japanese Defense Ministry studied the possibility of buying V-22s for the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Osprey exceeds current Japanese helicopters in terms of range, speed, and payload. In 2012, former Defense Minister Satoshi Morimoto ordered ministry officials to seek expenses on research and studies of the Osprey. The ministry expects deployments to the Nansei Islands and the Senkaku Islands; the type is also likely be used in cooperation with U.S. forces. Japan is considering plans to have V-22s in service in a maritime role by as early as 2015. Pending approval from the Cabinet, Japan plans to buy 17 V-22 Ospreys. A five-year defense program outline calls for deliveries from FY 2014 to FY 2019. The budget plan to buy the Ospreys was approved on 24 December 2013.
United Arab Emirates
In May 2012, it was reported that the United Arab Emirates was in the final negotiation stages to purchase several V-22s. The UAE intends to use the Osprey to support special forces, possible use includes in territorial island disputes with Iran in the Strait of Hormuz. Both UAE and the Pentagon seek a $58 million unit cost.
- Pre-production full-scale development aircraft used for flight testing. These are unofficially considered A-variants after the 1993 redesign.
- U.S. Air Force variant for the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). It conducts long-range special operations missions, and is equipped with extra wing fuel tanks, an AN/APQ-186 terrain-following radar, and other equipment such as the AN/ALQ-211, and AN/AAQ-24 Nemesis Directional Infrared Counter Measures. The fuel capacity is increased by 588 gallons (2,230 L) with two inboard wing tanks; three auxiliary tanks (200 or 430 gal) can also be added in the cabin. The CV-22 replaced the MH-53 Pave Low.
- U.S. Marine Corps variant. The Marine Corps is the lead service in the V-22's development. The Marine Corps variant is an assault transport for troops, equipment and supplies, capable of operating from ships or expeditionary airfields ashore; replacing the Marine Corps' CH-46E and CH-53D fleets. The aircraft has received the latest modifications in the Block C upgrade.
- Proposed airborne early warning and control variant. The Royal Navy studied this AEW variant as a replacement for its current fleet of carrier-based Sea King ASaC.7 helicopters.
- The U.S. Navy considered an HV-22 to provide combat search and rescue, delivery and retrieval of special warfare teams along with fleet logistic support transport. It chose the MH-60S for this role in 2001. Naval Air Systems Command's 2011/2012 V-22 Osprey Guidebook lists the HV-22 for the U.S. Navy with the USAF and USMC variants.
- The proposed anti-submarine warfare variant. The U.S. Navy studied the SV-22 in the 1980s to replace S-3 and SH-2 aircraft.
- United States Air Force
- United States Marine Corps
The V-22 Osprey has had seven hull-loss accidents with a total of 36 fatalities. During testing from 1991 to 2000, there were four crashes resulting in 30 fatalities. Since becoming operational in 2007, the V-22 has had three crashes resulting in six fatalities, and several minor incidents. The aircraft's accident history has generated some controversy over its perceived safety.
Aircraft on display
- The third of six V-22A prototypes is on display at the American Helicopter Museum & Education Center in West Chester, Pennsylvania.
- Crew: Four (pilot, copilot and two flight engineers/crew chiefs)
- Length: 57 ft 4 in (17.5 m)
- Rotor diameter: 38 ft 0 in (11.6 m)
- Wingspan: 45 ft 10 in (14 m)
- Width with rotors: 84 ft 7 in (25.8 m)
- Height: 22 ft 1 in/6.73 m; overall with nacelles vertical (17 ft 11 in/5.5 m; at top of tailfins)
- Disc area: 2,268 ft² (212 m²)
- Wing area: 301.4 ft² (28 m²)
- Empty weight: 33,140 lb (15,032 kg)
- Loaded weight: 47,500 lb (21,500 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 60,500 lb (27,400 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Allison T406/AE 1107C-Liberty turboshafts, 6,150 hp (4,590 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 275 knots (509 km/h, 316 mph) at sea level / 305 kn (565 km/h; 351 mph) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
- Cruise speed: 241 kn (277 mph, 446 km/h) at sea level
- Stall speed: 110 kn (126 mph, 204 km/h) in airplane mode
- Range: 879 nmi (1,011 mi, 1,627 km)
- Combat radius: 390 nmi (426 mi, 722 km)
- Ferry range: 1,940 nmi (2,230 mi, 3,590 km) with auxiliary internal fuel tanks
- Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (7,620 m)
- Rate of climb: 2,320 – 4,000 ft/min (11.8 m/s)
- Glide ratio: 4.5:1
- Disc loading: 20.9 lb/ft² at 47,500 lb GW (102.23 kg/m²)
- Power/mass: 0.259 hp/lb (427 W/kg)
- 1× 7.62 mm (0.308 in) M240 machine gun or 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine gun on ramp, removable
- 1× 7.62 mm (.308 in) GAU-17 minigun, belly-mounted, retractable, video remote control in the Remote Guardian System [optional]
Notable appearances in media
(For V-22 appearances in fiction, and for fictional V-22-based aircraft, respectively.)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "Osprey Deemed Ready for Deployment." U.S. Marine Corps, 14 June 2007.
- Berard, Yamil. "Bell to lay off 325 workers as V-22 orders decline" Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 5 May 2014. Accessed: 8 May 2014.
- "V-22 Osprey Backgrounder." Boeing Defense, Space & Security, February 2010. Retrieved: 26 March 2010.
- Kreisher, Otto. "Finally, the Osprey." Air Force magazine, February 2009.
- Whittle 2010, p. 62.
- Mackenzie, Richard (writer). "Flight of the V-22 Osprey" (Television production). Mackenzie Productions for Military Channel, 7 April 2008. Retrieved: 29 March 2009.
- Norton 2004, p. 35.
- Whittle 2010, p. 55.
- Whittle 2010, p. 91.
- Whittle 2010, p. 87: "As Kelly saw it, the future of the Marine Corps was riding on it."
- Whittle 2010, p. 155.
- Whittle 2010, pp. 53, 55–56.
- Scroggs, Stephen K. "Army Relations with Congress : Thick Armor, Dull Sword, Slow Horse" page 232. Greenwood Press, 2000. eISBN 9780313019265.
- Moyers, Al (Director of History and Research). "The Long Road: AFOTEC's Two-Plus Decades of V-22 Involvement." Headquarters Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, United States Air Force, 1 August 2007. Retrieved: 30 December 2010.
- "Chapter 9: Research, Development, and Acquisition." Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1982. Center of Military History (CMH), United States Army, 1988. ISSN 0092-7880.
- Norton 2004, pp. 22–30.
- "AIAA-83-2726, Bell-Boeing JVX Tilt Rotor Program." American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), 16–18 November 1983.
- Norton 2004, pp. 31–33.
- Kishiyama, David. "Hybrid Craft Being Developed for Military and Civilian Use." Los Angeles Times, 31 August 1984.
- Adams, Lorraine. "Sales Talk Whirs about Bell Helicopter." Dallas Morning News,10 March 1985.
- "Boeing Vertol launches Three-Year, $50 Million Expansion Program." Philadelphia Inquirer, 4 March 1985.
- "Military Aircraft: The Bell-Boeing V-22." Bell Helicopter, 2007. Retrieved: 30 December 2010.
- Norton 2004, p. 30.
- RL31384, "V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress." Congressional Research Service, 22 December 2009.
- Goodrich, Joseph L. "Bell-Boeing team lands contract to develop new tilt-rotor aircraft, 600 jobs expected from $1.714-billion project for Navy." Providence Journal, 3 May 1986.
- Belden, Tom. "Vertical-takeoff plane may be the 21st century's intercity bus." Toronto Star, 23 May 1988.
- "Tilt-rotor craft flies like copter, plane." Milwaukee Sentinel, 24 May 1988.
- "2 Senators key to fate of Boeing's V-22 Osprey." Philadelphia Inquirer, 6 July 1989.
- Mitchell, Jim. "Gramm defends Osprey's budget cost: Senator makes pitch for V-22 as president stumps for B-2 bomber." Dallas Morning News, 22 July 1989.
- "Pentagon halts spending on V-22 Osprey." Chicago Tribune, 3 December 1989.
- Berler, Ron. "Saving the Pentagon's Killer Chopper-Plane." Wired (CondéNet, Inc), Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2005. Retrieved: 8 February 2008.
- Norton 2004, p. 49.
- Norton 2004, p. 52.
- "Revolutionary plane passes first test." Toledo Blade, 20 March 1989.
- Mitchell, Jim. "V-22 makes first flight in full airplane mode." Dallas Morning News, 15 September 1989.
- Jones, Kathryn. "V-22 tilt-rotor passes tests at sea." Dallas Morning News, 14 December 1990.
- "Navy halts test flights of V-22 as crash investigated." Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 13 June 1991.
- Norton 2004, pp. 52–54.
- Norton 2004, p. 55.
- Norton 2004, pp. 55–57.
- Schinasi 2008, p. 23.
- "V-22 Lifts 155 mm Howitzer." Boeing, 3 May 1999.
- "M777: He Ain’t Heavy, He’s my Howitzer." Defense Industry Daily, 18 July 2012. Retrieved: 22 July 2012.
- "Lots Riding on V-22 Osprey" Defense Industry Daily, 12 March 2007. Retrieved: 22 July 2012.
- "BB selects turreted gun system for V-22" PDF." Boeing via Osprey Facts, Volume 11, Issue 7, 14 September 2000, p. 2.
- Thompson, Mark. "V-22 Osprey: A Flying Shame." Time, 26 September 2007. Retrieved: 8 August 2011.
- McCullough, Amy. "Ospreys, with boost in firepower, enter Afghanistan." Marine Corps Times, 7 December 2009, p. 24. Retrieved: 10 December 2009.
- Bryce, Robert. "Review of political forces that helped shape V-22 program." Texas Observer, 17 June 2004.
- O'Hanlon 2002, p. 119.
- Ricks, Thomas E. "Marines Fire Commander Of Ospreys; Alleged Falsification Of Data Investigated." Washington Post, 19 January 2001. Retrieved: 8 August 2011.
- McKinney, Mike. "Flying the V-22" Vertical (Magazine), 28 March 2012. Retrieved: 29 April 2014.
- Norton 2004, pp. 98–99.
- Schinasi 2008, p. 16.
- Schinasi 2008, p. 11.
- Gross, Kevin, Lt. Col. U.S. Marine Corps and Tom Macdonald, MV-22 test pilot and Ray Dagenhart, MV-22 lead government engineer. "Dispelling the Myth of the MV-22." Proceedings: The Naval Institute, September 2004. Retrieved: 9 April 2009.
- Hoellwarth, John. "Leaders, experts slam Time article on Osprey." Marine Corps Times (Army Times Publishing Company), 16 October 2007. Retrieved: 8 August 2011.
- Pappalardo, Joe. "The Osprey's Real Problem Isn't Safety—It's Money." Popular Mechanics, 14 June 2012.
- "Osprey OK'd." Defense Tech, 28 September 2005.
- "FY 2009 Budget Estimates" (PDF), p. 133. United States Air Force, February 2008.
- Christie, Rebecca. "DJ US Navy Expects Foreign Interest In V-22 To Ramp Up Next Year." Naval Air Systems Command, United States Navy via Dow Jones Newswires, 31 May 2007.
- John T. Bennett (14 January 2014). "War Funding Climbs in Omnibus Bill for First Time Since 2010". defensenews.com. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- Keller, John. "Bell-Boeing to design new integrated avionics processor for V-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft." Militaryaerospace.com, 18 April 2010.
- "Raytheon wins $250 million contract for V-22 aircraft avionics from US." defenseworld.net. Retrieved: 30 December 2010.
- "DOD Contracts." Defense.gov, 24 November 2009. Retrieved: 23 June 2010.
- McHale, John. "Block C V-22 Osprey with new radar, cockpit displays, and electronic warfare features delivered to Marines". Military Embedded Systems, 15 February 2012. Retrieved: 24 February 2012.
- Chavanne, Bettina H. "V-22 To Get Performance Upgrades." Aviation Week, 25 June 2009.
- "Software Change Gives V-22 Pilots More Lift Options." thebaynet.com. Retrieved: 24 April 2012.
- Capaccio, Tony. "V-22 Osprey Aircraft’s Reliability Improves in Pentagon Testing." Bloomberg News, 13 January 2012.
- Capaccio, Tony. "Lifetime cost of V-22s rose 61% in three years." Bloomberg News, 29 November 2011.
- V-22 Sees Up To 100 Foreign Sales; Drives Flight Costs Down, Boosts Readiness – Breakingdefense.com, 17 June 2013
- "Pentagon watchdog to release classified audit on V-22 Osprey."
- Capaccio, Tony (25 October 2013). "Pentagon’s Inspector General Finds V-22 Readiness Rates Flawed". www.businessweek.com. Bloomberg News. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Lamothe, Dan (2 November 2013). "Are the Marines faking the reliability record of their $79 million superplane?". stripes.com. Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Hoffman, Michael. "Osprey Readiness Rates Improved 25% over 5 years" DODbuzz , April 9, 2014. Accessed: April 9, 2014.
- "Marines, Army form quick-strike forces for Africa". www.app.com. USA Today. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Marines want new technology for post-Benghazi crisis-response missions" Accessed: April 9, 2014.
- Berard, Yamil (5 May 2014). "Bell to lay off 325 workers as V-22 orders decline". www.star-telegram.com (The McClatchy Company). Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Croft, John. "Tilters." Air & Space/Smithsonian, 1 September 2007.
- "V-22 Osprey Guidebook, 2013/2014." Bell-Boeing, 2013. Retrieved: 6 February 2014.
- Chavanne, Bettina H. "USMC V-22 Osprey Finds Groove In Afghanistan." Aviation Week, 12 January 2010. Retrieved: 23 June 2010.
- Whittle, Richard. "Flying The Osprey Is Not Dangerous, Just Different: Veteran Pilots" defense.aol.com, 5 September 2012. Retrieved: 16 September 2012.
- Currie, Major Tom P., Jr., USAF. "A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty, In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements: The CV-22 'Osprey' and the Impact on Air Force Combat Search and Rescue" (PDF). Air Command and Staff College, April 1999.
- John Gordon IV et al. Assessment of Navy Heavy-Lift Aircraft Options p39. RAND Corporation, 2005. Retrieved: 18 March 2012. ISBN 0-8330-3791-9.
- "Hurricanes... Unleashing Nature's Fury: A Preparedness Guide." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|, National Weather Service, September 2006. Retrieved: 26 February 2008.
- Waters, USMC Cpl. Lana D. V-22 Osprey Fast rope 1 USMC, 6 November 2004. Retrieved: 18 March 2012.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing looks ahead to a 'V-23' Osprey." Flight Global, 22 June 2009.
- Rolls-Royce Boosts Power for V-22 Engines Defensenews.com, 16 September 2013.
- US military seeking replacement V-22 engines - Flightglobal.com, 29 August 2014
- Wall, Robert, US mulls engine options for its Osprey aircraft, Wall Street Journal, 2 September 2014, p.B3
- "V-22 Osprey – Boeing"
- Ringenbach, Daniel P. and Scott Brick. "Hardware-in-the-loop testing for development and integration of the V-22 autopilot system, pp. 28–36" (PDF). Technical Papers (A95-39235 10–01): AIAA Flight Simulation Technologies Conference Technical Papers, Baltimore, MD, 3 August 2008.
- Beaver, Donald B. "Marine Corps Aviation Assault Support for the 21st Century: Is There a Case for the MV-22." Defense Technical Information Center, 8 April 1992.
- Landis, Kenneth H., et al. "Advanced flight control technology achievements at Boeing Helicopters." International Journal of Control, Volume 59, Issue 1, 1994, pp. 263–290.
- Norton 2004, pp. 6–9, 95–96.
- Markman and Holder 2000, p. 58.
- Norton 2004, p. 97.
- "An Afghan Report: The Osprey Returns from Afghanistan, 2012." SLD, 13 September 2012.
- "Defensive Armament for the V-22 Selection, Integration, and Development." Bell Helicopter and General Dynamics. Retrieved: 30 December 2010.
- "BAE Systems Launches New V-22 Defensive Weapon System, Begins On-The-Move Testing." BAE Systems, 2 October 2007.
- Whittle, Richard. "BAE Remote Guardians Join Osprey Fleet." Rotor & Wing Magazine, 1 January 2010.
- Lamothe, Dan. "Ospreys leave new belly gun in the dust." Marine Corps Times, 28 June 2010. Retrieved: 28 June 2010.
- "Corps seeks better weaponry on Ospreys". Marinecorpstimes.com, 13 February 2012.
- Boeing developing Osprey aerial refueling kit Flightglobal.com, 10 April 2013
- "Boeing and USMC test MV-22 aerial refueling kit". Flightglobal.com, 29 August 2013.
- "New Pics: MV-22, Hornet in Refueling Tests". Aviationweek.com, 3 September 2013.
- Kreisher, Otto. "After decades of tragedy, Osprey may be ready for combat." San Diego Tribune, 15 July 2000.
- "Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 266 History." U.S. Marine Corps. Retrieved: 16 October 2011.
- Carter, Chelsea J. "Miramar Base to Get Osprey Squadrons." USA Today (Associated Press), 18 March 2008.
- Anthony, Marian. "U.S. Marines Nostalgic “Phrog” Helicopters To Be Phased Out By MV22." Business Insider, 12 April 2011.
- Mount, Mike. "Marines to deploy tilt-rotor aircraft to Iraq." CNN.com, 14 April 2007. Retrieved: 19 April 2007.
- "Controversial Osprey aircraft heading to Iraq; Marines bullish on hybrid helicopter-plane despite past accidents." MSNBC, 13 April 2007. Retrieved: 3 August 2008.
- Whittle, Richard. "Military/Utility: Osprey Heads to Iraq." Rotor & Wing, 1 October 2007.
- Mount, Mike. "Maligned aircraft finds redemption in Iraq, military says." CNN.com, 8 February 2008.
- Hambling, David. "Osprey's 'Excellent Photo Op'." Wired (CondéNet, Inc.), 31 July 2008. Retrieved: 6 August 2008.
- Warwick, Graham. "US Marine Corps says V-22 Osprey performing well in Iraq." Flightglobal, 7 February 2008. Retrieved: 10 February 2008.
- Hoyle, Craig. "USMC eyes Afghan challenge for V-22 Osprey." Flight International, 22 July 2008. Retrieved: 25 November 2008.
- "Department of Defense Bloggers Roundtable with Lieutenant General George Trautman, Deputy Commandant of the Marines for Aviation via teleconference from Iraq." U.S. Department of Defense, 6 May 2009. Retrieved: 4 September 2011.
- Gertler, Jeremiah. (quoting USMC Karsten Heckl) "V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress", p. 30. Congressional Research Service reports, 22 December 2009. Accessed: 15 March 2012.
- "Tenacious Efforts to Accomplish Another V-22 Milestone." U.S. Navy, 17 June 2009.
- Lazarus, Aaron. DARPA-BAA 10-10, Thermal Management System (TMS) DARPA, 16 November 2009. Accessed: 18 March 2012. Quote: "MV-22 Osprey has resulted in ship flight deck buckling that has been attributed to the excessive heat impact from engine exhaust plumes. Navy studies have indicated that repeated deck buckling will likely cause deck failure before planned ship life."
- "GAO-09-482: Defense Acquisitions, Assessments Needed to Address V-22 Aircraft Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments" (summary). gao.gov. Retrieved: 30 December 2010.
- "GAO-09-482: Defense Acquisitions, Assessments Needed to Address V-22 Aircraft Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments" (full report)." U.S. Government Accountability Office, 11 May 2009.
- Reed, John. "Boeing to make new multiyear Osprey offer." Navy Times, 5 May 2010.
- McLeary, Paul. "Trial By Fire." Aviation Week, March 15, 2010. Retrieved: 28 June 2010.
- Schanz, Marc V. "V-22s Got Dirty in Anbar." Air Force magazine, Daily Report, 25 February 2009.
- "MV-22 Logs 100,000 Flight Hours." defensetech.org, February 2011. Retrieved: 18 February 2011.
- "V-22 Is The Safest, Most Survivable Rotorcraft The Marines Have." LexingtonInstitute.org, February 2011. Retrieved: 16 February 2011.
- Axe, David. "Marines: Actually, Our Tiltrotor Is ‘Effective And Reliable’ (Never Mind Those Accidents)." Wired, 13 October 2011.
- "USMC Statement in Response to Article on the Safety Record of the Marine V-22 Osprey." USMC, 13 October 2011.
- Talton, Trista. "24th MEU joining Haiti relief effort." Marine Corps Times, 20 January 2010. Retrieved: 21 January 2010.
- Mulrine, Anna. "How an MV-22 Osprey rescued a downed US pilot in Libya." Christian Science Monitor, 22 March 2011.
- Lamothe, Dan. "Reports: Marines rescue downed pilot in Libya." U.S. Navy Times, 22 March 2011.
- Ki Mae Heussner) (2 May 2011). "USS Carl Vinson: Osama Bin Laden's Burial at Sea". Technology. ABC News. Retrieved 2012-05-02.; Jim Garamone (2 May 2011). "Bin Laden Buried at Sea". NNS110502-22. American Forces Press Service. Retrieved 2011-05-02.; and Richard Whittle (April 6, 2012). "Marines Push Quietly, But Hard, For Navy to Replace C-2s With V-22s". Defense. AOL. Retrieved 2012-10-09..
- Shalal-Esa, Andrea. "U.S. eyes V-22 aircraft sales to Israel, Canada, UAE." Reuters, 26 February 2012. Retrieved: 27 February 2012.
- Revelos, Andrew. "HMX-1’s ‘Super Stallions’ reassigned to operating forces." USMC, 15 April 2011.
- Munoz, Carlo. "Osprey to take on White House transport mission in 2013." The Hill, 24 May 2012.
- "Osprey aircraft deployed for first time in support of Marine One". CNN.com. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- Shinkman, Paul D. "Inside the White House's New Combat-Era Transport" US News, April 8, 2014. Accessed: April 9, 2014.
- Reed, John. "Boeing to make new multiyear Osprey offer." Marine Corps Times, 5 May 2010. Retrieved: 6 May 2010.
- Spitzer, Kirk. "No Love For The Marines’ V-22 In Japan". TIME Battleland, 14 June 2012. Retrieved: 17 June 2012.
- "US military Osprey aircraft arrive in Japan amid protests". BBC, 23 July 2012.
- "US Marines land Osprey aircraft on Japanese ship". Newsdaily.com, 15 June 2013.
- Bell-Boeing award V-22 multi-year contract – Flightglobal.com, 12 June 2013
- US military orders additional V-22 Ospreys – Shephardmedia.com, 13 June 2013
- Pentagon Signs Multiyear V-22 Deal – Aviationweek.com, 13 June 2013
- Two MV-22B Osprey tiltrotor aircraft completed longest distance flight in the Pacific region – Airrecognition.com, 8 August 2013
- Hoyle, Craig.  Flight International, November 20, 2013. Accessed: November 24, 2013.
- Assistant commandant: MV-22 key to Marines' Philippines mission – Militarytimes.com, 13 November 2013
- USMC V22 Osprey conducted deck trials onboard French Navy's Mistral Class LHD Dixmude – Navyrecognition.com, 11 February 2014.
- Casevac, the new Osprey mission in Afghanistan - MarineCorpstimes.com, 17 May 2014
- "CV-22 delivered to Air Force." Air Force Special Operations Command News Service via Air Force Link (United States Air Force), 21 March 2006. Retrieved: 3 August 2008.
- "CV-22 arrival." Hulbert Field, United States Air Force, 20 April 2006. Retrieved: 20 November 2006.
- "Osprey sees first action in search and rescue." Airforce Times, 26 October 2007.
- Sirak, Michael. "Osprey Ready for Combat." Air Force Magazine, Volume 92, Issue 5, May 2009, pp. 11–12. Retrieved: 10 May 2009.
- Lazane, 2nd Lt. Mark. "Osprey delivers for Honduran villagers." U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command, 11 June 2009. Retrieved: 13 March 2011.
- Moore, Mona. "CV-22s return from first deployment with 8th SOS Homecoming." nwfdailynews.com, 12 November 2009.
- "AFSOC Crash Report Faults Understanding Of Osprey Rotor Wake." AOL Defense, 30 August 2012.
- Gordon, Michael R. "Attack on U.S. Aircraft Foils Evacuation in South Sudan" New York Times, December 21, 2013. Accessed: December 22, 2013.
- "Four U.S. soldiers injured in South Sudan after their aircraft CV-22 Osprey came under fire". Armyrecognition.com, 22 December 2013.
- "CV-22 crews save lives". Globalavaiationreport.com, 4 August 2014.
- Entous, Adam, Julian Barnes and Siobhan Gorman, "Intelligence gaps crippled mission to rescue hostages", Wall Street Journal, September 6-7, 2014, p. A1.
- Osprey Team Eyes Aerial Refueling, Comms Options – Aviationweek.com, 9 September 2013
- Norton 2004, pp. 26–28, 48, 83–84.
- Norton 2004, pp. 28–30, 35, 48.
- "V-22 Supports Harry S. Truman Flight Deck Certification." TheBayNet, Inc., 16 August 2012.
- Tilghman, Andrew. "Tilt-rotor helicopter still looking for mission." Navy Times, 20 September 2009.
- Thompson, Loren B. "'V' For Versatility: Osprey Reaches For New Missions." Lexington Institute, 29 March 2010.
- The Future COD Aircraft Contenders: The Bell Boeing V-22 – Defensemedianetwork.com, 2 August 2013
- Israel could double V-22 order size, Bell says – Flightglobal.com, 25 February 2014
- Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Renee Candelario, USN (8 October 2012). "MV-22 Osprey Flight Operations Tested Aboard USS Nimitz". NNS121008-13. USS Nimitz Public Affairs. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- Butler, Amy (18 April 2013). "Osprey on the Truman, Fishing for COD". Aviation Week. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Alon, Ben-David. "Israel considers V-22 acquisition" (subscription article). Jane's Defence Weekly (Jane's Information Group ), 25 January 2006.
- "Israel confirms interest in Bell Boeing V-22 tiltrotor." Flight International, 25 October 2007.
- Egozi, Arie. "Israel drops interest in V-22, eyes CH-53K evaluation." Flight International, 12 November 2009.
- "IAF to review US Osprey for rescues and covert...". JPost
- Egozi, Arie. "IAF ups pressure for V-22 buy." Flight Global, 2 August 2011. Retrieved: 4 September 2011.
- "Israeli pilots give detailed assessment of V-22 tiltrotor." Flight,
- "Hagel, Yaalon Finalize New Israel Military Capabilities". U.S. DoD, 22 April 2013.
- WEISGERBER, MARCUS (31 October 2013). "Hagel: US To Fast-Track V-22 Sale to Israel". defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- Israel Could Receive V-22 Ospreys by 2015 Tamir Eshel, November 1, 2013, Defense Update
- Egozi, Arie (15 January 2014). "Israel requests six-aircraft V-22 purchase". www.flightglobal.com. Flight International. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- Eshel, Tamir (January 15, 2014). "Pentagon Details Israel’s MV-22 Osprey Package". defense-update.com. Defense Update. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Defense Ministry studies Osprey use by Self-Defense Forces."
- Japan Seeks V-22 Ospreys For Naval Ops – Armedforces-Int.com, 20 August 2013
- A lot of new equipment purchases in latest 5-year defense plan – Asahi.com, 14 December 2013
- Defense spending hike covers pay: ministry – Japantimes.co.jp, 24 December 2013
- "UAE V-22 Deal Nears Closure". Aviation Week, 3 May 2012.
- "United Arab Emirates Steps Up Arms Deals With US". Al-Monitor.com, 14 May 2012.
- Norton 2004, p. 54.
- "CV-22 Osprey Fact Sheet." United States Air Force, 7 July 2006. Retrieved: 21 August 2013.
- Norton 2004, pp. 71–72.
- Troiani, Gino. "Boeing Team Wins $181M for Navy Osprey Program." GovConWire, December 30, 2011.
- "Bell-Boeing V-22 Guidebook – Bell Helicopter"
- Norton 2004, pp. 100–01.
- Norton 2004, p. 77.
- "US Marine Corps retires CH-53D". Rotorhub, 24 February 2012.
- Richard Beedall (October 9, 2012). "Maritime Airborne Surveillance and Control (MASC)". NNS121008-13. Naval Matters. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- "V-22 Osprey Guidebook." Naval Air Systems Command, United States Navy, 2011/2012, p. 5.
- World Air Forces 2014, Flightglobal, January 2014.
- "Japan to buy Ospreys, Global Hawks". .stripes.com. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Japan; V-22 Osprey order". dmilt.com. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Fact Sheet: 8 Special Operations Squadron". U.S. Air Force, 8 August 2008.
- "CV-22 commencement of operations ceremony held". U.S. Air Force, 21 June 2010.
- "Fact Sheet: 71 Special Operations Squadron". U.S. Air Force, 3 January 2012.
- "352ND SPECIAL OPERATIONS GROUP". afsoc.af.mil. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "VMX-22 Argonauts". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-161". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-165". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-165". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-166". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMMT-204". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-261". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-263". usmc.mil. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-264". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-266". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-363". helis.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-365". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "VMM-561". tripod.com. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- Axe, David. "General: ‘My Career Was Done’ When I Criticized Flawed Warplane". Wired, 4 October 2012.
- "Aircraft on display." American Helicopter Museum & Education Center, 2008. Retrieved: 24 April 2012.
- Norton 2004, pp. 110–111.
- "V-22 Osprey: Technical Specifications." Boeing Defense, Space and Security. Retrieved: 3 July 2011.
- "V-22 Characteristics." Naval Air Systems Command. Retrieved: 25 November 2008.
- Pincus, Walter. "Marines' New Ride Rolls Out Years Late." Washington Post, 3 February 2009.
- White, Andrew. "USAF seeks special operations CSAR vehicle." Shephard Group, 24 June 2010.
- Wall, Robert. "U.S. Marines See MV-22 Improvements." Aviation Week, 24 June 2010.
- Norton 2004, p. 111.
- "Remote Guardian System (RGS) (United States), Guns – Integral and mounted." Jane's Information Group, 28 April 2010.
- Markman, Steve and Bill Holder. "Bell/Boeing V-22 Osprey Tilt-Engine VTOL Transport (U.S.A.)". Straight Up: A History of Vertical Flight. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7643-1204-9.
- Norton, Bill. Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, Tiltrotor Tactical Transport. Earl Shilton, Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-165-2.
- O'Hanlon, Michael E. Defense Policy Choices for the Bush Administration. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8157-6437-5.
- Schinasi, Katherine V. Defense Acquisitions: Readiness of the Marine Corps' V-22 Aircraft for Full-Rate Production. Darby, Pennsylvania: Diane Publishing, 2008. ISBN 1-4289-4682-9.
- Whittle, Richard. The Dream Machine: The Untold History of the Notorious V-22 Osprey. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010. ISBN 1-4165-6295-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to V-22 Osprey.|
- Official Boeing V-22 site
- Official Bell V-22 site
- V-22 Osprey web
- V-22 Osprey history on Navy.mil
- CV-22 fact sheet on USAF site
- V-22 page on GlobalSecurity.org
- "The V-22 Osprey", Documentary on the V-22 In Iraq
- "Flight of the Osprey", U.S. Navy video of V-22 operations
- Cutaway drawing of V-22 prototype
- Newer cutaway drawing of V-22