VL Viima

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Viima
OH-VII VL Viima II (Helsinki Museum 2001-09-15).JPG
VL Viima II at the Helsinki Aviation Museum
Role Basic trainer
National origin Finland
Manufacturer Valtion Lentokonetehdas
Designer A. Ylinen
First flight 1935
Primary user Finnish Air Force
Number built ca. 23

VL Viima, constructed by the State Aircraft Factory (Valtion lentokonetehdas or VL) is a Finnish two-seat, biplane trainer used by the Finnish Air Force from the late 1930s to the end of the 1940s. After military service, several were released into civil use.[1]

Design[edit]

The Viima II was a single engined, tandem seater biplane. Viima means Wind in English. Post war, VL was eventually absorbed into Valmet, so the aircraft is often referred to as the Valmet Viima. It had unequal span, staggered single bay wings built around two box spars with plywood ribs. The interplane struts were N shaped. The wings were fabric covered and carried four ailerons in all; the upper and lower ailerons were externally linked.[2]

The fuselage and tail unit were constructed of chrome-molybdenum steel and fabric covered. The tailplane, mounted on the top of the fuselage, was wire braced to the small triangular fin. Both fin and tailplane were adjustable on the ground. The wide chord, deep rudder reached to the bottom of the fuselage between divided elevators. The rudder carried a trim tab and the elevators a Flettner flap.[2]

The cockpits were close together, the forward one at mid-chord with a cut-out in the upper wing to enhance visibility. Dual control was fitted. The undercarriage was of the split axle type, with the faired main legs attached to the fuselage forward of the wings and braced by rearward struts. It used low pressure tyres and rubber in compression springing.[2] A tailwheel was fitted.[1] The Viima was powered by an uncowled Siemens-Halske Sh 14 radial engine.[2]

Operational history[edit]

20 Viimas served with the Finnish Air Force until the late 1940s. They were then released for civil use, 14 appearing on the Finnish civil register, several of them fitted with a framed enclosed cockpit.[1]

Versions[edit]

VL Viima II

Viima I was a prototype aircraft, of which two aircraft were made. The third Viima I was the first aircraft of the series production version.

Viima II was the series production version of the trainer aircraft. 20 aircraft were built for the FAF.[1] Another two were delivered to the Finnish Air Defence Guild.

Viima IIB was powered by a de Havilland Gipsy Major.[1]

Operators[edit]

 Finland

Survivors[edit]

The last airworthy Viima was sold to Belgium in the autumn of 2006.[3]

Specifications (VL Viima II)[edit]

Data from Grey 1972, p. 101c

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 7.35 m (24 ft 1 in)
  • Wingspan: 9.20 m (30 ft 2 in)
  • Height: 2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)
  • Wing area: 20 m2 (220 sq ft)
  • Gross weight: 875 kg (1,929 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Siemens-Halske Sh 14A 7-cylinder single row radial, air cooled, 110 kW (150 hp)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 195 km/h (121 mph; 105 kn)
  • Cruising speed: 150 km/h (93 mph; 81 kn)
  • Range: 500 km (311 mi; 270 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 4,500 m (14,764 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 2.63 m/s (518 ft/min) to 3000 m
  • Wing loading: 44 kg/m2 (9.0 lb/sq ft)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Simpson 2000, p. 563
  2. ^ a b c d Grey 1972, p. 101c
  3. ^ "Last Viima". 

References[edit]

  • Grey, C.G. (1972). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1938. London: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-5734-4. 
  • Simpson, Rod (2001). Airlife's World Aircraft. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84037-115-3.