VMFA-323

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Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 323
VMFA-323 insignia.png

VMFA-323 insignia
Active
  • August 1, 1943 – present
Country United States
Branch USMC
Type Fighter/Attack
Role Close air support
Air interdiction
Aerial reconnaissance
Part of Marine Aircraft Group 11
3rd Marine Aircraft Wing
Garrison/HQ Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Nickname Death Rattlers
Motto "Come to Fight - Come to Win" or unofficially "Come to Drink - Come to Fight"
Tail Code WS / NK/ NE/ NH
Engagements World War II
* Battle of Okinawa
Korean War
* Battle of Inchon
* Battle of Chosin Reservoir
* Attack on the Sui-ho Dam
Vietnam War
Operation El Dorado Canyon
Operation Desert Storm
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom
* 2003 invasion of Iraq
Commanders
Current
commander
LtCol Jason G. Woodworth
Aircraft flown
Fighter F4U Corsair (1943-53)
F9F Panther (1953-54)
F9F Cougar (1954-56)
FJ-4 Fury (1956-59)
F-8 Crusader (1959-64)
F-4 Phantom II (1964-82)
F/A-18 Hornet (1982-

Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 323 (VMFA-323) is a United States Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornet squadron. The squadron is based at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, California and falls under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 11 (MAG-11) and the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (3rd MAW) but deploys with Carrier Air Wing 11.

History[edit]

World War II[edit]

VMF-323 was commissioned August 1, 1943 at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina. According to oral history, the squadron got its name from three fighter pilots who killed a 6-foot rattlesnake and hung its skin in the squadron's ready room. VMF-323 began training in F4U Corsairs almost immediately for combat in the Pacific theater of World War II. Much of the new squadron's training was done at Marine Corps Air Station El Centro and Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton, California. In July 1944, the Death Rattlers departed for the Pacific aboard the USS Long Island. For the next nine months, VMF-323 flew training missions from secure island bases in the South Pacific.

VMF-323 FG-1Ds over Okinawa, 1945.

On April 9, 1945, the Death Rattlers flew into Kadena airfield in support of Operation Iceberg during the Battle of Okinawa. Combat operations commenced the following day. Between then and the Japanese surrender in August, the Death Rattlers racked up 124 Japanese planes shot down without a single loss. Twelve Death Rattlers became aces.

After the war, the Death Rattlers were based at Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, where they conducted training exercises. It was around this time that the squadron appeared in the 1949 movie Sands of Iwo Jima.

Korean War and post-war[edit]

When the Korean War began in 1950, VMF-323 began combat operations from the USS Badoeng Strait as part of Marine Aircraft Group 33 (MAG-33), supporting ground forces in the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, Battle of Inchon, Battle of Chosin Reservoir and almost every other major campaign of the conflict. During action near Kosong, on August 11, 1950, a VMF-323 Corsair pilot, Captain Vivian M. Moses, became the first Marine aviator killed in Korea.[1] The unit also took part in the attack on the Sui-ho Dam in June 1952.

VMF-323 F4U-4s on the USS Sicily in 1951.
FJ-4Bs of VMF-323, ca. 1957.

The squadron was re-designated Marine Attack Squadron 323 (VMA-323) in June, 1952. The Death Rattlers left Korea in July 1953. Once back home, the squadron began flying the F9F Panther and then the F9F Cougar, a swept-wing version of the Panther. In 1956 the squadron adopted the FJ-4 Fury, with which it deployed to the western Pacific in 1957.[2] That year, the Death Rattlers flew armed patrols over the Quemoy and Matsu islands to support Chinese nationalist forces.

Returning to MCAS El Toro in 1959, the squadron switched to the F8U Crusader and were assigned to the USS Oriskany.

In 1964 the squadron returned to MCAS Cherry Point, where they received their present designation of Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 323 (VMFA-323). This same year, the Death Rattlers began flying the F-4 Phantom II. During the Dominican Crisis in 1965, the Death Rattlers provided air cover while American citizens were evacuated.

Vietnam War[edit]

As the United States grew closer to war in South Vietnam, the Death Rattlers deployed to Da Nang Air Base beginning on October 25, 1965. Combat operations started the day after they arrived. The squadron lost its first aircraft a week after they arrived when the squadron's executive officer was shot down by a Surface-to-air missile over North Vietnam. It was the only Marine F-4 felled by a SAM during the war.[3] 323 remained in Vietnam until 1969, flying combat sorties from Da Nang and Chu Lai.

1980s to 2001[edit]

F-4Ns of VMFA-323 on the USS Coral Sea, 1979/80
An F/A-18A of VMFA-323 intercepting a Soviet Tu-16, 1986.
An F/A-18 Hornet from VMFA-323
VMFA-323 group photo with 2 squadron aircraft shown with CVW-9 tail code of NG instead of the usual WS

On September 14, 1982, VMFA-323 transitioned to its current aircraft, the F/A-18 Hornet. In October 1985, the squadron deployed again aboard the USS Coral Sea (CV-43), this time to the Mediterranean Sea. In spring of 1986 during Freedom of Navigation exercises held in international waters and airspace off the coast of Libya. Later on April 15, 1986 provided SAM suppression and fighter Combat Air Patrol (CAP) sorties during Operation El Dorado Canyon.

In 1994, 1995, 1997, 1999, and 2001 the Death Rattlers flew missions in support of Operation Southern Watch.

Global War on Terror[edit]

On 2 November 2002, VMFA-323 deployed aboard the USS Constellation as part of CVW-2 to conduct Operation Southern Watch. While on this deployment, the Death Rattlers transitioned from Operation Southern Watch to Operation Iraqi Freedom conducting sorties into Baghdad on the first night of the war.

On May 2, 2005, two F/A-18C Hornet fighter jets from VMFA-323, BuNo 164721 and BuNo 164732, collided over south-central Iraq, during a sortie from the USS Carl Vinson, killing the executive officer and a junior officer.[4]

Squadron aces[edit]

  • Jeremiah J. O'Keefe - 7.0
  • John W. Ruhsam - 7.0
  • Robert Wade - 7.0
  • Joseph V. Dillard - 6.3
  • Dewey F. Durnford - 6.3
  • Francis A. Terrill - 6.1
  • George C. Axtell - 6.0
  • Jefferson D. Dorroh - 6.0
  • William L. Hood - 5.5
  • Stuart C. Alley Jr. - 5.0
  • Charles W. Drake - 5.0
  • Albert P. Wells - 5.0 [5]

Miscellaneous Information[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.
  1. ^ "Marine Air Over the Pusan Perimeter". The Marine Corps Gazette. Retrieved 2008-12-10. 
  2. ^ "The Mojave Virtual Museum - The "Mojave Marines": Life at MCAAS Mojave". Mojave Transportation Museum. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  3. ^ Davies, p. 88
  4. ^ "Second Pilot Identified in F/A-18 Crash". United States Navy. 2007-05-05. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  5. ^ "WW2 Marine Fighting Squadron 323", www.acepilots.com, 17 February 2007
  6. ^ Exhibit: 150628 - McDonnell-Douglas F-4N Phantom II AeroWeb: The Aviation Enthusiast Corner
  7. ^ Condon Corsair to Panthers, p. 41.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Chapin, John C. Fire Brigade: U.S. Marines in the Pusan Perimeter. Washington, D.C.: Marine Corps Historical Center, 2000.
  • Condon, John P. and Peter Mersky. Corsair to Panthers - U.S. Marine Aviation in Korea. Washington, D.C.: Marine Corps Historical Center, 2002.
  • Davies, Peter E. (2000). Gray Ghosts - U.S. Navy and Marine Corps F-4 Phantoms. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 0-7643-1021-6. 
  • Pitzl, Gerald R. A History of Marine fighter Attack Squadron 323. Washington, D.C.: Marine Corps Historical Center, 1987.
  • Rottman, Gordon L. U.S. Marine Corps World War II Order of Battle - Ground and Air Units in the Pacific War, 1939 - 1945. Greenwood Press, 2002. ISBN 0-313-31906-5.
  • Sherrod, Robert. History of Marine Corps Aviation in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Combat Forces Press, 1952.
  • Wolf, William. Death Rattlers: Marine Squadron VMF-323 over Okinawa. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-7643-0953-6.

External links[edit]